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saved by another vessel, which fortu- vier, who states, that among them is nately happened to heave in sight. a head well characterized, wnich must Mr Hooker, after whom the president have belonged to the genus lagomys, of the Linnean Society nained his of which there are at present but new genus of mosses, is already well three species known, all of them dis-, known to the lovers of Natural His- covered in Siberia, by Pallas. tory, as the discoverer of Buxbaumia The imperial conservatory of muaphylla, as well as by his scientific sic at Paris have made a very favourdrawings for the valuable work on able report on the new musical instru. Fuci, by his friend Dawson Turner, ment, denominated the Clavi-cylinof Yarmouth; and his descriptions of der, invented by M. Chladni, which several mosses, gathered by Dr Bu- we recently noticed. This report de- , chanan, during his journey to Nypal, scribes it as resembling the flute and published in the last volume of the clarionet in the high notes, and the Linnean Transactions,
bassoon in the lower keys; it admits, M. G. B. Sage has ascertained the however, that the instrument is not so existence of alumine in meteoric stones; well adapted for lively strains as to a circumstance not noticed by Kla. solemn music; but its effects in the proth, Fourcroy, or Vauquelin, who crescendo and diminuendo are highly have given analyses of these substan- praised. M. Chladni himself gives:
This he ascribes to their having the following account of his invenemployed fusion through the medium tion :—The clavi-cylinder contains a of alkalis, which is known to alter set of keys, and behind this a glass the nature of some earths. Having cylinder, seven centimetres in diamevitriolized some of the meteoric stones ter, which is turned by means of a. of Aigle and Salles, near Villefranche, pedal and a loaded wheel. This cyin the Lyonese, M. Sage obtained a- linder is not the sounding body, but lum from both, but in unequal pro. it produces the sound by friction on portions, the former yielding one- the interior mechanism. The sounds, fourth, but the latter not more than may be prolonged at pleasure, with one-eight. As the fracture of stones all the shades of crescendo and dimiof this description shows, very imper- nuendo, in proportion as the pressure. fectly, the arrangement and brilliancy on the keys is encreased or diminishof the native iron which they contain, ed. This instrument is never out of the same cheinist, in order to exa- It contains four octaves and a mine it on a large surface, has had a half from ut, the lowest on the harpvase turned from an aerolite of Salles.' sichord, up to fa. It exhibits parcels of iron of irregu- We have frequently had occasion lar configurations, which have a sil- to notice the progress made on the very lustre, intermingled with very Continent, in extracting sugar from small spots of greenish yellow, dis- the beet-root; and it now appears, seminated in a quartzose gangue of that the yellow beet, when sliced and
kiln-dried, furnishes an excellent subM. Rampasse has discovered, in an stitute for coffee, particularly if ground old quarry, upon a hill, near Bastia, with a small quantity of Turkey, or in Corsica, a calcareous earth, embed- West India coffee. It requires much ded in a stratum of calcareous stone, less sugar than the foreign coffee, and and containing, among other substan- is said to be much stronger. M. Vences, various kinds of bones. Several nen, of Coblentz, claims the merit of specimens of these he has transmitted having discovered this new applicas, to Paris for the inspection of M. Cur. tion of beet-root. He cautions those
by whom it is cultivated, against lours in glass so exquisitely, that his stripping the plant of its leaves for works are not to be distinguished from feeding cattle, as is generally practis- the best of the ancients. ed, as it not only injures the growth From several experiments, on the of the plant, but materially alters the influence which the shape of the still qualities of the juice.
has on the quality of the product of Great exertions are making in eve. distillation, M. Curaudau deduces the ry department of France to produce following conclusions:-1. That shalsubstitutes for sugar, and prizes are low alembics, though very fit for the daily offered by the various economi- distillation of certain fermented liquors, cal societies of the continent, for the may sometimes alter the quality of the discovery of the most proper material products.--2. That the inconveniences for that purpose.
The saccharine arising from the employment of shal. matter of the grape has been the chief low alembics in distilling wines, arise subject of the recent experiments of from the facility with which evapora. the French chemists.
tion takes place in them.-3. That a A German chemist has made known high temperature is always necessary the following process for making a to carry over the peculiar aroma of beautiful lake :- Take any quantity the wine, and, perhaps, that too arisof cochineal, on which pour twice its ing from the action of heat on the prinweight of alcohol, and as much distil- ciples of the wine. 4. That deep alled water. Infuse for some days near embics ought to be preferred to shala gentle fire, and then filter. To the low ones for the distillation of wine.filtred liquor add a few drops of the 5. That the best dimensions for an solution of tin, and a fine red precipi- alembic, with regard to its figure, must tate will be formed. Continue to add be such, that the surface of the liquor a little solution of tin every two hours, heated shall be constantly greater than till the whole of the colouring matter that from which the evaporation takes is precipitated. Lastly, edulcorate place, in the proportion of four to one. the precipitate by washing it in a large By letters recently received from quantity of distilled water, and then Mr Mawe, from Rio de Janeiro, we
are informed, that he has received perFrom the analysis of the fresh leaves mission from the Prince Regent, to of blue wolfs-bane, aconitum napellus, travel and make observations in the cultivated in a garden near Paris, M. mining district of the Brazils. He Steinacher has found, that this vege- has already passed some months in the table contains green fecula, an odor.' government of St Paul, where he disant gaseous substance, which he sus- covered a variety of fine clays, fit for pects to be virulent; muriate of am- making porcelain, and other purposes ; monia, carbonate of time, and phos- and is lately returned from the mines phate of lime.
of Canto Gallo. The gold mine of Several German artists have of late Santo Rita is situated between two turned their attention to the art of rocks of sparry limestone, a circumpainting on glass. Professor Frick, stance not before known to exist in of Berlin, has made great improve that country. These districts, of a ments in the burning of pictures in country so rich in valuable productions, glass, and has recently finished a beau- until now unexplored by any mineratiful painted window for the catholic logist, cannot fail to prove highly inchurch in that city. M. Buhler, of teresting to the lovers of natural hisUrach, in Wirtemberg, also burns co- tory.
Plan for improving the FERRIES be- nature of the improvements to be
tween Mid - LOTHIAN and FIFE, made by the trustees, as well as the
with Reports by Mr RENNIE. order in which they shall be carried [We are truly happy, in being able to into execution. The statute directs day before our readers the following that the trustees shall begin by improvdocuments with regard to a plan which ing the harbour of Kinghorn or Pettypromises to contribute so much to the cur ; by opening the communication convenience and advantage of this from the eastward, through the town country. Mr Rennie's judicious and
of Kinghorn to that harbour, and by abie Reports must remove all doubt as to its practicability, and we trust, that building an inn at Pettycur. These at a period when useful improvements purposes being effected, the Trustees are so liberally patronized, no difficulty
are in the next place authorised to lay will be found in raising the necessary out a part of their funds in erecting funds.]
pier at Burntisland, and in improving THE "HE Passage between Leith and the communication between Kinghorn
Pettycur, or Kinghorn, has been and Burntisland. And in the last long resorted to as one of the great place they are empowered to erect a communications betwixt Midlothian pier and landing place at Newhaven. and Fife, and betwixt the whole of the Under the authority of this act of North and South of Scotland, and is Parliament several improvements of of great importance both to the County great importance have been made by of Fife and to the Public in general. the trustees, in the order prescribed The Heritors of Fifeshire, having a by the act. It is long since they have peculiar interest in this passage, have opened a broad and easy communicafrom time to time laid out considerable tion to the ferry of Pettycur from the sums of money in improving it, and east, through the town of Kinghorn, , in particular, in the year 1774, they and for upwards of a mile where forwere at the expence of erecting a Ba- merly the road was scarcely passable son for clearing the harbour of Petty- by carriages ; and a large and commocur of sand.
dious inn has been erected close to the In the year 1792 an act of Parlia- landing place, for the reception of pasment was passed, declaring that the sengers, who formerly had no accompassage between Kinghorn and New- modation of this kind nearer than the haven, as well as that between King- town of Kinghorn, at the distance of a horn and Leith, and the passage be- mile from the harbour of Pettycur. tween Burntisland and Leith and New- The next improvement which the haven, shall in all time to come be con- trustees have it in view to make, and sidered as Public Ferries, subject to which is very much wanted and inthe Laws for regulating Ferries in deed absolutely necessary, is to enlarge Scotland. With this view.the Justices the bason to the eastward of the harof Peace and Commissioners of Sup- bour of Pettycur, or between the harply of the counties of Edinburgh and bour and the Inn, for the purpose of Fife are appointed Trustees for carry- completely clearing the harbour of ing the act into execution. They are sand. In order that this important authorised to levy certain Tolls and object may be attained in the most efDuties on Passengers and Goods ; fectual and complete manner, the they are empowered to borrow money trustees employed Mr Rennie, civil on the credit of these duties, and to engineer, to survey the harbour and lay out certain parts of the money bason, and to report : and they beg thus borrowed or collected in making leave to refer to his report and plan. improvements on these public Ferries. The improvernents on the bason at The act of Parliament points out the Pettycur now alluded to, though the , December 1809.
expence of them is considerable, and ' from one or other of these places 3 although the trustees have other an- passage would be almost certain.nual charges of no small amount to . If, therefore, funds could be raised defray, might perhaps be accomplish to accomplish these objects, it would ed under the authority of the existing be of great consequence to those who act of Parliament. But even if this " had occasion to cross these ferries.' were effected, a great deal would re- It is scarcely necessary to point out main still to be done, in order to ien- the
very great advantages which would der the communication by the ferries be derived by the public in general in mentioned in the act, easy and conve- point of communication between the nient ; and the trustees find it abso- north and south of Scotland, if the oblutely impossible to attain the other jects now alluded to could be attained, important objects alluded to, without and if a safe passage might with certhe command of greater funds than tainty be depended upon, and in alcan be procured under the act passed most every state of the weather, bein 1792. Pettycur harbour lies near- tween Midlothian and Fife, either ly due north from the harbour of from Newhaven to Pettycur, or from Leith ; of consequence when the wind Leith to Burntisland, or vice versa. blows fresh from the south, or from No delay at the ferries on account of some points to the westward or east- the vide or weather would take place ; ward of south, it is difficult, and at a great saving of time and expence times impossible, to make a passage would thus accrue to passengers, and from Pettycur to Leith. When the they could nearly calculate with cerwind blows violently from the north tainty the period at which they might or from some points to the westward expect to arrive at their places of desor eastward of north, it is equally dif- tination. A great national object ficult to cross from Leith to Petty- in the commercial state of this cur.--And in either of these cases, country (when tiine to most men is passengers mast run the risk of being exceedingly valuable, and the certainlong detained at a considerable ex- ty of being able to perform a journey pence, and of being prevented from within a limited period is of the utkeeping those engagements which most importance) would thus be acthey may have formed on business or complished. The improvements aother important concerns.
bout to be made at Queensferry are rious incoveniences might be removed far from diminishing the importance by improving the landing-place at of this object. It is apprehended that Burntisland and at Newliaven, and by the passage by the ferries now alluded making a good road between Burnt to, might be more certain, and it is island and Pettycur on the one side well known that it has alwavs been of the Forth, and betwixt Newhaven safer. The distance too would to and - Leith on the other. Mr Rennie, many travellers be greatly diminished, in one of his reports on these ferries particularly if improvements were af. has observed, that, “if a proper pier terwards made on the Ferry at Dun« was to be erected at Newhaven, and dee :--and it must also be recollected • also one at Burntisland, there would that the proposed alteration of the very
few days in the year that a great road from Perth to Queensferry s boat could not make a passage.-- is intended to bring that road at one • Burntisland lies about 25 degrees place within less than five miles of & west of north, or due north by the Burntisland, to which a good commucompass fram Leith, and Newhaven nication might easily be made, and ljes about 7. west of south from Pet- thus the journey to all travellers betycur, by Downie's chart; so that tween the north and south greatly
shortened. It must likewise be re- to sucla an amount as to enable them membered that the act of parliament to obtain by these means the whole of passed in 1792 had these great objects the money required. in view, and that the Legislature was aware that the communication by Report by Mr RENNIE, Civil Engimeans of the ferries would not be
neer, respecting the proposed Immade complete and perfect, until con- provements at PETTYCUR, and in
venient landing places were erected at. tended Ferry-Boat Harbour at New... Newhaven and Burntisland as well as at Leith and Pettycur. The trustees, impressed with the
GENTLEMEN, importance of the objects now men- In consequence of directions trantioned, applied to Mr Rennie to sur- smitted to me by your Sheriff, David vey the harbours of Burntisland and Monypenny, Esq. I took a view of Newhaven ; and obtained from him the Harbour of Pettycur on the 27th reports and plans which will be found and 28th of October last, and careannexed. Mr Rennie has reported it fully examined its situation, the naas his opinion that the object in view ture of the ground, and the manner in inay be completely accomplished, and which the sand is drifted into it by that a passage may at all times be de- the tides and storms, the construction pended upon at one or other of the of its Pier, &c. -ferries now alluded to ; and the ex
It appears to me, that this Pier is pence of the improvements necessary constructed and laid down in a manfor these purposes is estimated by him ner which is little calculated either at about L.15,000 Sterling.
for shelter, or for keeping the Harbour The trustees are hopeful that, when clear of sand. From southerly and south the importance of this object to the easterly winds, (which are, no doubt, whole of the north of Scotland, is ta- the most dangerous) the shelter is token into view, and also the advantage lerably good : but the 'exposure to the to Government in the transportation south west is great; and from this of troops, and in the victualling and quarter and from westerly winds the watering of the ships of war in the sea ranges over such an extent of flat Frith of Forth, and shipping naval sandy shore, that it never fails to bring stores at all times of tide, at Newha- in great quantities of sand and mud, ven and Burntisland, which can only and thereby choaks up the harbour. be done at particular periods, at Leith, To remove this, two basons have been that both Government and the north: erected; one may be said to be within ern counties of Scotlaid, or the gen- the harbour itself, and the other at the tlemen who have property situate in east end of the pier, between the road these counties, will concur in promo. to Kinghorn and the Firth; neither of .ting the measures now in contempla- which have been made of sufficient cation, by assisting to procure the funds pacity to hold such a quantity of wanecessary for the purpose, and that ter as would effectually scour the harthus a sum of money will be levied, bour, had their construction been ever which though in itself considerable, so perfect : the former has been built cannot be reckoned disproportioned to entirely on the sand, and therefore has the advantage which the public will never held water ; but, even if it had, derive from the expenditure. It its capacity is by 'no means equal to * seems only necessary to add, that the the task, and its situation is the most trustees.could not venture to recom- injudicious that could well have been mend it as an expedient measure, to chosen : with the exposure of this.harzaise the toll on passengers and goods bour a considerable sea is brought in