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That able philosopher, and excel- the boy traces the form of the letter, lent man, Dr Franklin, devoted much or figure ; the next day he tells the of his time in establishing and pro- name, when he sees the letter. These tecting seminaries of this sort, as cal- two methods assist each other. When culated permanently to secure the rights he is required to write H for examof the people, which can only be ple, the shape of the letter which he done by making their value properly saw yesterday assists his manual exeknown;" and this must depend on en- cution ;--when he is required to say. creasing and extending information to how that letter is named, the shape of every class of men."
the letter reminds him of his manual A few years ago, Joseph Lancaster, execution ; and the manual execution one of the society of friends, or qua- has associated itself with the name. kers, introduced a mode of instructing In the same manner he learns syllahis scholars, which has been followed bles and words ; writing them one by the most perfect success *. On his day, reading them the next. plan, one thousand boys may be educat- The same process for writing the ed in reading, writing, and arithmetic, common epistolary character, and for by one person, at an expense not exceed reading it. ing 300l. per annum. His system is
(A) This progress made, the class at present acted on in an establish- go up to the master to read, ---a class, ment in this city with the happiest ef- consisting perhaps of 30. While one fect; and as the managers of the boy is reading *, the word, ex, gr. Boy's charity school in Leith may, Ab-so-lu-ti-on, is given out with a perhaps, be inclined to adopt it, for loud voice by the monitor, and writthis reason,—that at the same expense ten down by all the other 29 boys, now incurred in the education of sixty, who are provided with slates for that eight, they may educate five hundred purpose; which writing is looked over boys and girls ! And as many of your by the monitors, and then another readers may not be fully acquainted word called, and so on. Whoever with it in detail, I desire to refer them writes a word, spells it of course at to the following account of its merits, the same time, and spells it with much as inserted in the Edinburgh Review, more attention than in the common Vol. XI. for October 1807.
way. So that there is always one boy “ The first or lowest class of chil- reading, and twenty-nine writing and dren are taught to write the printed al- spelling at the same time ; whereas, in phabet, and to name the letters when the ancient method, the other twentythey see them. The same with the nine did nothing. figures used in arithmetic. One day (B) The first and second classes
write in sand; the middle classes on In the last number of your Maga: slates ; only a few of the upper boys zine, I observe an account of Dr Bell's on paper with ink. This is a great system of education. Lancaster's is an saving in point of expense ;min books improvement on it ; but his additions are, the saving is still greater. Twenty or indeed, of such importance, as to entitle thirty boys stand round a card sushim to a high character for originality pended on a nail, making a semicircle. and invention,
Learning grew “ Beneath his care a tbriving vigorous plant ;
* This is the only instance of solita" The mind was well inform'd, the pas. ry reading, and is used rather as a more sions held
particular trial of a boy's progress : in * Subordinate, and diligence was choice, general, Mr Lancaster disapproves of
Cowper. it, as it creates no emulation,
On this card are printed the letters in of measured pace, and in known plaa very large characterg;—these letters ces, according to their number, of the boys are to name, at the request which every boy has one. Upon the of the monitor. When one spelling first institution of the school, there class have said their lessons in this was a great loss and confusion of hats. manner, they are dispatched off to After every boy has taken his place some other occupation, and another there, they all stand up, expecting the spelling class succeeds. In this man- word of command, Sling your hats! ner, one book or card may serve for upon which they immediately suspend 200 boys, who would, according to their hats round their necks by a string the common method, have had a book provided for that purpose. When the each. In the same manner, syllables young children write in sand, they all and reading lessons are printed on look attentively to their monitor, waitcards, and used with the same benefi- ing for the word, and instantly fall to cial economy,
work, with military precision, upon re(C) In arithmetic, the monitor dic- ceiving it. All these little inventions tates a sum, ex. gr. in addition, which keep children in a constant state of all the boys write down on their slates. activity, prevent the listlessness so obFor example,
servable in all other institutions for 7 2 4
education, and evince (trifling as they 3 7 8
appear to be) a very original and ob9 4 6
serving mind in him who invented He then tells them, aloud, how to add them. the sum. First column-6 and 8 are The boys assembled round their 14, and 4 are. 18; set down 8 and reading or arithmetical cards, take carry I to the next column ;-and so places as in common schools. The cn. In this manner, the class acquire boy who is at the head of the class facility of writing figures, and placing wears a ticket, with some suitable inthem; and, by practising what the scription, and has a prize of a little monitor dictates, insensibly acquire fa- picture. The ticket-bearer yields his cility in adding: Again they are pla- badge of honour to whoever can excel ced round arithmetical cards, in the him; and the desire of obtaining, and same manner as in paragraph (B,) the fear of losing, the mark of disand required to add up the columns. tinction, creates, as may easily be conThis method evinces what progress ceived, no common degree of enterthey have made from the preceding prize and exertion. Boys have a prize method of dictating; and the two me- when they are moved from one class thods are always used alternately, to another, as the monitor has also
It is obvious, that a school like this from whose class they are removed. of Mr Lancaster's, consisting of from Mr Lancaster has established a sort of 700 to 1000 boys, would soon fall in- paper currency of tickets. These to decay, without a very close atten- tickets are given for merit ;-two tion to order and method. In this part tickets are worth a paper kite ;of his system, Mr Lancaster has been three worth a ball ;-four worth a as eminently successful as in any other; wooden horse, &c. &c. &c. contriving to make the method and " It is no unusual thing with me to arrangement, so necessary to his insti- deliver one or two hundred prizes at tution, a source of amusement to the the same time. And at such times children. In coming into school, in the countenances of the whole school going out, and in moving in their exhibit a most pleasing scene of declasses from one part of the school to light : as the boys who obtain prizes another, the children move in a kind commonly walk round the school in
procession, holding the prizes in their ushers, must, in large seminaries, conhands, and an herald proclaiming be- stitute an immense saving. The infore them, “ These good boys have ob- troduction of monitors, an extremely tained prizes for going into another important part of the whole scheme, class.” The honour of this has an ef- is as great an improvement in schools, fect as powerful, if not more so, than as the introduction of noncommissionthe prizes themselves."
ed officers would be in an army which A large collection of toys, bats, had before been governed only by balls, pictures, kites, is suspended a. captains, majors, and colonels: they bove the master's head, beaming glo- add that constant and minute attenry and pleasure upon the school be- tion to the operations of the mass, neath. Mr Lancaster has also, as ano- without which, the general and occather incentive, an order of merit. No sional superintendance of superiors is boys are admitted to this order but wholly useless. An usher hates his those who distinguish themselves by task, and is often ashamed of it; a attention to their studies, and by their monitor is honoured by it, and thereendeavours to check vice. The dis- fore loves it: he is placed over those tinguishing badge is a silver medal who, if their exertions had been supeand plated chain hanging from the rior, would have been placed over neck. The superior class has a fixed him ; his office is the proof of his explace in the school ; any class that cellence. Power is new to him; and can excel it may eject them from this trust makes him trustworthy,ếa very place, and occupy it themselves. Eve- common effect of confidence, and exry member, both of the attacking and emplified in the most striking manner defending classes, feels, of course, the in Mr Lancaster's school. Nor is the most lively interest in the issue of the monitor at all detained by teaching contest.
to others what he has already learnt ; Mr Lancaster punishes by shame at least not unprofitably detained ; rather than pain ; varying the means for, if a boy be at the head of the first of exciting shame, because, as he just- spelling class, it is clear that a delay ly observes, any mode of punishment of six or eight weeks in teaching to long continued loses its effect. others what he has already learnt, will
The boys in the school appointed perfect him in his new acquirements, to teach others are called monitors; and rivet them in his memory. After they are in the proportion of about this, he is made a private in some suone monitor to ten boys. So that, for perior regiment, and his post becomes the whole school of 1000 boys, there an object of honour and competition is only one master ; the rest of the to the lads whom he has taught. He teaching is all done by the boys them- is very wisely allowed to have a comselves. Besides the teaching moni- mon interest with the boys whom be tors, there are general monitors, such instructs; and to receive a prize equal as, inspectors of slates, inspectors of in value with any prize obtained by absenteas, &c. &c.
them. In some The improvements which Mr Lan- instances, the monitor teaches and caster has made in education, are, in learns at the same time : for, in dicthe cheapness of schools, their activi- tating the sum as in paragraph (C). ty, their order, and their emulation. the monitor is furnished with a key; The reading, cyphering, and spelling and therefore, in dictating, only reads cards, suspended for the successive use what others have written for him; but of 3 or 400 boys ; the employment of in so doing, it is plain his attention sand and slate instead of pen and ink, must be exercised, and his memory and particularly of monitors instead of impressed as much, if not more, than those of any boy in the class; and, “and, when they have behaved well, wha:ever good is produced in others gone through their studies, and are by that mode of instruction, must be “ to enter the world, they shall zeaproduced in him in an equal, or supe. “ lously unite, and make all the interrior degree. The extraordinary dis. “est that can be made to promote cipline, progress, and economy of this “ and establish them.” school, are, therefore, in a great mea- I understand, Sir, that a subscripsure, produced by an extraordinary tion library has lately been formed in number of noncommissioned oflicers, Leith : I shall be glad to see from aserving without pay, and learning ny of your correspondents an account while they teach.
of it; and, as the opinion long since There are now, perhaps, one mil. expressed by Green, of lion more of persons who can read and
“ Novels (receipts to make a whore, ") write, than there were before the revolution. Has this increase of know- is applicable to nine-tenths of these ledge produced any increase of disaf- productions of the present day, it fection? If ignorance is useful to a were to be desired, that such books state, to what degree is it useful? or, should not be found in the collection, where has the argument any limit? and banished when observed in any
The expense of education is not to house ; the mischief they are producbe mentioned. A boy learns reading, tive of is incalculable. writing and accounts, for fourteen
I am, SIR, shillings, who would, in hedge-break
Yours, ing, or picking pockets, cost the coun- Edinturgh,
ΤΙΜΟΝ. . ty double the money in the same time." Jan. 15th, 1809.
The individuals who instituted, and support the Boys' charity school, certainly deserve well of the public; and Description of EDINBURGH; with an may justly claim, what is implored Account of the present state of its by the Mahometans in their most ar- MEDICAL SCHOOL. dent benedictions, “ the prayers of
From the German of Frank. I shall finish this paper, by inserting
(Continued from our last, p. 14.) one of the clauses of the fundamental rules, written out by Dr Franklin, on
"HE sum paid at the attainment his plan for instituting an academy at of a Doctor's degree amounts to Philadelphia, - breathing tenderness fifteen guineas. Each candidate and benevolence ; it being equally ap- must write a dissertation, or at least plicable to the managers of the Boys' get one written for him. In the last charity school. “ It is hoped, that case, the Professors take no concern the (subscribers) will make it their in the matter, as in other universities. “ pleasure, and, in some degree, their The candidates go to some physician, “ business, to visit the school often ; who often gains his livelihood by this " to encourage and countenance the employment. Among the number “ youth ; countenance and assist the of these was formerly Dr John Brown. “ master, and, by all means in their His son has trod in this respect on the
power, advance the usefulness and footsteps of his father. Many young
reputation of the design :---that they physicians write their dissertations “ will look on the scholars as, in some themselves, but in English, and get. “ measure, their own children, treat them then translated into Latin. * them with familiarity and affection; The candidates for the degree of
Doctor go through three trials. The every other object in view, rather first is carried on by each Professor a. than that of gaining substantial knowlone at his own house. The second ledge of their profession. Trifling trial is carried on at the University by occupations and society absorb most two of the Professors. The candi- of their time, in a manner which cerdate is then obliged to illustrate a tainly they will afterwards repent. I text of Hippocrates, and to determine remember to have heard this very reon a practical case.
mark from my friend Dr Kapp at The conferring of a Doctor's de- Leipsig, which, during his stay at Pa. gree takes place twice a-year. I was ris, he had occasion to make with an eye-witness of this ceremony : it much indignation. In Edinburgh takes place in the library. The can- there prevails a more solid and better didates, four and twenty in number, tone of Society, and a more genuine form a semi-circle round a table, on zeal for knowledge among the studithe other side of which the Professors ous youth. They have an opportu2re seated. The latter state to each nity of enjoying the conversation of of the candidates in Latin, some diffi- the Professors. What particularly culties which have occurred to them augments the ardour for knowledge on the subject of their respective dis- among the students, is the learned sertations. The Professors speak very conversations which take place aelegantly without preparation, and mang thein. To this belongs Dr Gregory with particular elegance.
THE MEDICAL SOCIETY. The Scotch pronunciation of the Latin is very different from the English, It was founded in 1737, and in which a foreigner unacquainted with 1778 richly endowed by his Majesty. it can scarcely understand; the one The constitution of this society is exapproaches near to the Italian, the o- emplary. It assembles only once ather to the German. After the can- week, in consequence of which I havo didates have replied the difficulties been able to attend none of its sittings. that have been stated to them, the de. The ordinary members are chosen gree is conferred with the accustomed from among the most distinguished ceremonies. Then the Professors go medical students. On being elected, round the circle of the new Doctors, they are obliged to pay a fine of five shake them by the hand, and wish guineas the first year, one the second, them success.
The Doctors then re- and seven shillings the third. With ceive their diplomas subscribed by this money the expences of the Sothe whole professors. Among the ciety are defrayed. The greater part physicians promoted on this occasion of these consist in the purchase of sewere Dr de Roches of Geneva. He lect books, or medical and chemical wrote an elegant dissertation on the apparatus. This Society possesses alMedical properties of Luppulus. I can- so a very considerable library, and a not here refrain from expressing my well-supplied cabinet of natural hiswonder, that so few of my countrymen tory. Their business consists chiefly should attend the University of Edin- in debates, which are introduced by burgh. With a hundred guineas, the reading of medical dissertations. each of them could easily go through I cannot conclude my account of a winter course. How many of our the University of Edinburgh, withyoung German physicians are there, out making mention of one of its who give more for their residence in professors, who, though he does not Paris, where certainly they cannot belong to the medical faculty, cannot improve so much in medical science. be indifferent to physicians. I speak Most of them indeed appear to have of Mr Dugald Stuart, Professor of