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cover his erown and kingdom, by the even would be the first to cut his aid of some of the Doorauni clans throat, if left to their hands," as the who were favourable to him, Lord sole cause of the calamities and huWilliam Bentinck, then Governor- miliation which have befallen their General, expressly refused him all as. country: and this feeling, in a haughty sistance. To a second request, urged and martial nation, is not surprising ; when he was in possession of Sinde, but it can scarcely be credited that the and on the point of advancing on Can. monarch whom we have raised from dahar, a still more decided negative was indigence to a throne, and who is enreturned, though the scale was then so tirely dependent on us for support and nicely balanced, that (as stated by an security, should repay the benefits reable writer in the Asiatic Journal) ceived otherwise than by unbounded "even the indirect countenance of our gratitude and confidence. The vanity Government, by the presence of a Bri- and arrogance, however, which mainly tish agent in the camp of the Shah, contributed to the past misfortunes of might have placed Candahar, if not Ca. Shooja, do not appear to have been bul, in his possession."* There can be corrected either by time or adversity: no doubt that the designs entertained at Instead of labouring to unite and that period by the cabinet of Calcutta, conciliate the fierce tribes, of which tended rather to the opening of relations he is placed at the head, he has been with the de facto rulers of Affghanistan, principally occupied since his restothe Barukzye brothers, of whose charac. ration in instituting a tinsel Ordler ter and resources the information of Sir of the Doorauni Empire ! and in Alexander Burnes has left a favourable reinstating as far as possible the impression; and that this consideration pomp and ceremonies of the ancient influenced the denial of support to the court, which had fallen into disSbah's expedition, which, as is well use under Dost Mohammed. Even known, terminated in his overthrow by in the vital point of the political arthe Barukzyes near Candalar; and it rangements, he is said to have evinced was only when Dost Mohammed proved much wayward impatience at the conless subservient to our views than had trol to which he found himself subbeen anticipated, at the juncture when jeeted ; and the insolence of language the advance of a Persian force, guided and manner which not only the Shah by Russian generals and diplomatists, himself, but the Affghan Sirdars whom against Herat, made a speedy settle- he has attracted to his court, permit ment of Affghan politics indispensable, themselves to use towards the Eurothat our “old ally" was drawn from peans in command of the subsidiary -the apparently hopeless obscurity into force, is described * as so insufferable, which his late defeat had plunged him, that several of these officers have and sent, surrounded by the ensigns of thrown up their commissions in disroyalty, and accompanied by an over gust. Yet this subsidiary force, which whelming British force, to reascend the the Shah is bound by treaty to mainthrone of his ancestors.

tain and pay, will form his only proThe plain state of the case then is, tection against a revolt of the disconthat it was not till it became a mere tented Affghans. It will certainly be question of time from which side of the only security for the continued the Indus the first blow should be predominance of British interests after struck, and the Shah presented him the main army has been withdrawn, self as a convenient pretext on which if, indeed, the state of affairs north of to ground our aggression, that any the Hindoo-Koosh does not render it thought of espousing his cause was necessary that permanent British entertained ; and of this fact both the garrisons should be established in the Shah himself and his nominal subjects vicinity of the passes. are fully aware, as the demeanour of It is evident, therefore, that we can prince and people sufficiently proves. only succeed in retaining the necesAll the private correspondence from sary ascendency in Affghanistan by - India agrees in declaring that “ Shah keeping the Shah in subserviency, and Shooja is detested by all his subjects; overawing the chiefs and population; and that the people of his own tribe and similar measures, as passing events

* Asiatic Journal, Feb. 1840.

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seem to indicate, will at no distant No.Nihal will prove to have been i period be requisite in the neighbour- merely

a tool in the hands of his uncle ing Seik kingdom of the Punjab. In Shere Singh, who aspires to mount the the few months which have elapsed throne through his means. Thus the since the death of the founder of the fate of the Punjab is at present in susmonarchy, the Maharajah Rupjeet pense; but should it become either Singh, the country seems already to the seat of an unfriendly government, have arrived at the verge of a stormy or a prey to anarchy and civil war, revolution. Khurruck Singh, his im. the Anglo-Indian administration will becile son and successor, has been have no alternative but a prompt and virtually deposed after a reign of a decided armed intervention, either few months, not, as was expected, by taking the country into their own his brother-in-law Shere Singh, but hands, or restoring Khurruck Singh by his own son No-Nihal Singh, a to his throne under British protection, youth of twenty-one, characterised as before Russian intrigue has time to step

the Hotspur of the Seiks," who has, in and play the same part at Lahore by the aid of Runjeet's favourite miwhich has already been so successfully nister, Dhian Singh, reduced his father acted at the court of Teheran. Our to the condition of a state prisoner, alliance with Runjeet has cost us suffithough he allows him to retain the ciently dear, if (as it is reported) it was titles and insignia of royalty. This the principal obstacle to the concluchange of government is not looked sion of a treaty with Dost Mohammed, upon in India as favourable to the (which would have rendered the Affi stability of the British alliance, to ghan war needless,) because the Dostt which the old Maharajah, from policy could not be induced to enter a league perhaps rather than inclination, had to which his hereditary enemy was to always steadily adhered ; but these be a party. But our successes in prudential motives are less likely to Affghanistan will, after all, be worse influence his fiery grandson, surround- than useless, if we permit the commued as he is by Seik military chiefs and nication with this boasted s bulwark French officers,* and apparently ap of India "

to be cut off by the existprehensive, besides, that the British ence of a hostile and independent Government may consider itself bound, state, whose territories, lining nearly in virtue of treaties, to guarantee to the whole length of the eastern fronhis father the inviolate exercise of the tier of Cabul, intervene like a wedge rights of sovereignty. Though no between our new dependencies and interruption of amicable relations has the dominions of the Company, and yet taken place, it is clear that a furnish a road by which a northern rupture is viewed by all parties as the invader in possession of Turkestan probable result of the late occurrences might avoid the Affghan country altoat Lahore ; it is even rumoured that gether, and advance unopposed by permission to cross the Seik territories Badakshan and Attock to the Sutlej. has been refused to the troops return We have endeavoured to lay before ing from Cabul, and that a Bengal our readers the existing state of the force of 8000 men has been in con Asiatic question, in which England sequence assembled on the Sutlej, to and Russia are the actors; abstaining watch the course of events. In the as far as the nature of the subject mean time, the Seiks are at strife among would permit from speculations on themselves ; and it is suspected that the future, which every day might

*

The adhesion of General Ventura and the French officers to No.Nihal, is particu. larly remarked by Le Commerce, which adds." The English are doubtless far from pleased at seeing a resolute and independent prince on the throne of the Punjab. Though the change be not directly hostile to them, it will defeat their intention of availing themselves of the weakness of the dethroned Khurruck, and the disturbances it might create to interfere in a country which they are desirous to place under their own domination."

† The terms Dost, (Turkish,) and Yar, (Persian,) both implying "friend or companion,” are used in Central Asia as analogous to the well-known Arabic prarnomen Saheb, which has primarily the same signification,

prove to be futile or erroneous. The success of its immediate objects, but events of the last few years have in lowering the tone of the Burmese tended in a great measure to dispel and Ghorkhas ; while the prompt dethe ignorance of every thing relative thronement of one or two refractory to the Eastern world, by which, (to native princes in India has overawed use the words of the able author of the rising spirit of insubordination, the Progress of Russia in the East,) and left us at the close of the year, "from the earliest times in which what we could scarcely be called at Russia has had a share in the politics its commencement, the acknowledged of Europe, her views in the East have and uncontrolled masters of the counbeen promoted, and which made other try. Still the march to Cabul is but powers her dupes and the instruments a beginning ; the gauntlet has been of her aggrandizement." But this thrown down, and accepted by Russia tardily acquired knowledge has at the in her movement on Khiva ; but the same time shown, that throughout the combat which will decide the destinies whole extent of Asia, from the Bos. of India and Asia is yet to come ; and phorus to the Indus, (and probably to it remains to be seen whether, by perCanton,) British influence has been severance in the career we have at sapped and supplanted by the ever length resumed, we shall hurl our anactive machinations of Russia ; and tagonist from the height which our that nothing but vigorous and un supineness alone has allowed her to compromising resistance on our part, attain, or whether, through indecican now prevent these intrigues from sion or false security, we shall lay reaching their final accomplishment. ourselves open to a blow which will The Cabul expedition has been the change the future history and fate, first symptom of recovery from our not of India or Asia only, but of long-passive policy; and its good Europe and the world. effects have appeared not only in the

HYMNS OF A HERMIT.

BY ARCHÆUS.

Hymn XVI.

The shapes of earth are passing still away,
The seas with sullen rage their bounds devour,
The rivers waste their banks from day to day,
Rocks cannot last, nor stars outlive their hour.

The gnarled trees, of deep undated root,
While ages o'er them pass, like herbage fall;
And peaks that bear to-day the wild-goat's foot,
To-morrow vanish 'mid the torrent's brawl.

Not long the building tells its founder s name,
And loud-sung trophies fade in silent rust;
The desert sand-heap whelms the city's fame,
The book is journeying tow’rd its writer's dust.
Each generation yields in turn to death
Its living forms and looks, beloved and bold;
And lost in pale destruction's frozen breath,
Our vital air is changed to pulseless cold.
Decay and desolation's thunderous cloud
O'er all things hangs, and dims the summer sky;
And all that seems imperishably proud,
Still, downward sinking slow, consents to die.

While all so totters, wheels, and floats from view,
Whate'er the eye can mark, the hand contrive ;
Thy word, O God! alone on earth is true,
And dares 'mid boundless ruin still survive.

The utterance keen of thine eternal will
Went forth at first through nothingness and gloom;
Through depths of ages working onward still,
It crowns with life each world's successive tomb.

From thee it flows creating time and space ;
With suns and planets fills the dark abysm;
And spreads the light that veils thy changeless face,
Refracted wide through Nature's varying prism.

That living Word sustains the sand, the flower,
The insect swarm, the brood of giant things ;
Combines the whole by one harmonious power,
And loud in conscious hearts thy glory sings.

Yet weighs on all the eclipse and curse of ill,
Of failing good, and hopes that lull no more ;
And every leaf that sails the autumnal rill
Its dying sister leaves with sighs deplore.

The mountains darken o'er the shatter'd plain,
When earthquake smites the town that sways a realm ;
The stars new-born lament the stars that wane,
And seas wail hoarse above the fleet they whelm.
And man, whose hopes his bound the most exceed,
The loftiest mourner 'mid the griefs of all,
Must shade his front with sad sepulchral weed,
And wear, for kingly robes, the funeral pall.
Amid such endless change and storms of night,
Still moves thy Word divine, educing day,
But thwarted, clogg'd, repell’d, by flashes bright,
And winning hardest conquests o’er decay.
But still in One whose soul, aloof from wrong,
Was fill'd with earnest unpolluted good,
Resounds thy voice an undiscordant song,
And tells thy will as at the first it stood.

Thy Word fulfill'd was He, for ever shown
To man the living Archetype of Life,
In whose embodied light our spirits own
A certain hope--a rest secure from strife.
And ne'er from mortal thought shall pass away
The form of truth and peace he gave to earth ;
In whom our hearts with love thy rule obey,
And gain from them a second, happier birth.
Without that light, though fair the frame of things,
How dark the shades of grief it all would wear!
From it through death immortal being springs,

And all thy presence dawns apon despair.
NO. CCXCIY, VOL, XLVII,

2 L

Hymn XVII.

WITHIN its hollow nook of rocks and trees

The lake in silence lies, Untouch'd by gusts of autumn's changeful breeze,

Which sweep the distant skies.

It upward looks, with still and glassy face,

And sees the windy rack,
Which o'er the surface idly seems to trace

White clouds and shadows black.

So dwells the wiser heart, at ease and safe,

And marks the passing storm,
Which cannot there the tranquil being chafe,

Nor that bright peace deform.
The tongues of busy rumour, vain and loud,

And cold malignant hate,
And dreams obscure, that cheat the greedy crowd,

And full-blown scorn sedate;

High-sated wealth, decorous pride of place,

Mankind's anarchal kings ;
And Science, blindly wrapping round its face

The veil it draws from things;

The spectres thin that haunt the lifeless breast,

And are not what they seemLust, follies, envies, avarice, unrest,

That act earth's tragic dream ;

All these around the soul resolved and sure,

A train of hunters throng,
With unbelieving threats and mocks impure,

And self-bewitching song.

A moment's rush is theirs to seize their prey,

Which shrinks perhaps aghast ;
But nerved again by faith, it stands at bay,

And, lo! the rout is past.

But shades they were, and melt around in shade,

In him no place they own, Who, looking clear through all things undismay'd,

In all sees God alone.

An instant lingering on the nightly wold,

'Mid rocks of mournful brows, While sweeps the howling gale from caverns cold,

And waves the leafless boughs ;
With dread the man beholds the shadows drear,

That ape a demon train-
Before a glance of thought the view is clear,

And earth is still’d again.
So thou, O God! to man's weak darkness known,

A light sustain’d by gloom,
Wilt make thy steadfast will to good my own,

And lead me through the tomb !

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