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54. Accordingly, in analyzing either of the primary relations of the system we develope another triad of conceivably distinct but really united parts or relations, and attain other but more confined views of the system. And thus we may descend analytically from the universal, through the general, to the particular, still only contracting our view of the same object or system, equally triune in the narrowest portions of matter or particulars, as in the highest intellectual or universal being.

55. It appears therefore that the universe is a system of systems in triune subordination; and since a system is an united variety of parts essentially related, and the fewest parts of which any system can be composed is three.' Triunity is the simplest systematic form, and appears, therefore, to be that according to which universal wisdom and perfection has framed the world."

56. There remains only, according to the brevity of our limits, that we subjoin the following illustrations of our plan and indicate the relation of the present to all other systems of philosophy.

'Of two parts there may be union, but there can be no interchange or variety of union; consequently three are the fewest parts capable of systematic unity.

2 An all-wise being could not but choose the simplest plan, nor act without unity of design.

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57. The annexed table exhibits in the first part the root and ground of science, every offset of which is prolific of an universal science, differing not in plan but in place or relation. The plan of science as distinguished is therefore the archetype to which each of these universal offsets must conform to become science. In the second part it developes the ramification or plan of science in its genera and primary species; and finally, it exhibits an example of the above conformity in the universal science of purposes, teleosophy or art universal.

58. The characteristic of this philosophy is the universal harmony and necessary consonancy of its parts, none of which are capable of absolute but only of relative distinction, so that if its doctrine be conformable to nature, the universe is an absolute unity or whole comprehending a relative infinity of parts: a perfect system. All unfolding of the universal system is therefore a violence done to its unity, and is attended by a degree of imperfection or defi ciency that increases at every remove.


59. Since universal Philosophy comprehends inherently the relations of Science and corresponds to those of Man and the Universe, every sect and system must partake of some or all of these relations if it be in any respect philosophic. We may therefore distribute the SECTS AND SYSTEMS OF PHILOSOPHY into three primary classes corresponding to the first relations of Science, &c.

60. First that of the MATERIALISTS, whose doctrines are Physically founded; secondly, that of the EXPERIMENTAL

ISTS grounded upon Sense and Experience, and thirdly that of the INTELLECTUALISTS, founded upon Mind alone as distinguished from Matter and Sense: and each of these is Positive or Dogmatical in asserting its own foundation; and Negative or Sceptical in doubt or denial of the others. The Universal DOGMATIST, or Active Philosopher, is therefore he who asserts the universal reality of things, and the Universal SCEPTIC or Passive Philosopher, is he who, without asserting any thing, doubts and denies universally.

61. The above distinctions or Species are not Absolute, but Relative; and exist not pure and independently, but compound and divide into that variety of secondary and subordinate Sects with which the History of Philosophy abounds. It is apparent also, according to the foregoing universal relations, that all these Sects and Systems are Partial, and they err alike in regarding the natures in which they are founded as Absolute and Independent, when in truth they are Correlative, Co-essential, and Co-existent.

62. Every Man is in some sense a Philosopher, and Universal Dogmatism is the commonest or vulgar doctrine. It first divided in the above three relations, each of which flourished in its turn, till Universal Scepticism, notwithstanding it is farthest removed from the common notions of Mankind, supplanted them all. The Sceptic irresistibly opposes the Dogmatic Sects, Material, Experimental and Intellectual, to each other, and with reason rejects them all, because of their total discordance; while he falls into their error of regarding things as absolute, or as nothing, when in truth there is yet another alternative between the absolute state and nonentity; namely, an universal Relative state which may be termed ANALOGICAL: the Analogical doctrine is therefore the medium and ground of reconciliation between the discordant Sects, Dogmatical and Sceptical.

63. And this completes the analogy of Sects and Systems; the Dogmatical, Sceptical and Analogical, being Genera respectively to the Material, Experimental and Intellectual Sects, in the following order.





64. DOGMATISM, or the regarding of things as Absolute, has engaged Philosophers perpetually in the search of simple Causes. It has occasioned Philosophy to be defined the Science of Causes, and given rise to the axiom that nothing can exist without a cause: but if nothing can exist without a cause there can be no first Cause. And since things are universally Relative there is no such thing as simple Cause, but every Effect is the result or produce of Concurrence, which cannot be of One thing, but must be of Correlatives. Hence the First Cause is truly and philosophi cally a Plurality in Unity; and the doctrine of Simple Causes involves absurdity and has no ground to rest upon. But while Dogmatism impels the mind to a First Cause which it can never reach, it neither does nor can determine its spe cies; whether it be Material or Intellectual, yet, wanting an adequate notion of Intellectual Cause, it tends to Materialism and Atheism.

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