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averted by gentle and natural means founded on justice, without which the blessing of heaven ought not to be invoked, at least can never be expected on any plan; but with it, a simple, easy one, formed however for permanency, as this is conceived to be, may produce important happiness. He would fain hope there is sufficient generosity of mind, public spirit, and "munificent kindness" to be found in the Lords of Manors,' &c. to relinquish their not exclusive, if not ideal rights in such waste lands as might be wanted in aid of this plan, considering them in their manorial character, to be guardians of the claims of the national poor as well as their own.
And where, it may be demanded, shall real disinterested generosity and true patriotism be found, if not in the benevolent, warm breasts of the exalted and enlightened ranks in these united kingdoms? And at what period, if not whilst " tribute to heaven" for wide-preserved possessions is re-echoing from East to West, from North to South? At home the like tribute ascends, for imminent dangers averted, for freedom more secured, more dear to all-for honor well sustained in every exigence-for extensive commerce, wealth, peace, and smiling plenty; and the protracted blessing of our loved sovereign's life, a very " nursing father" of his people; his Queen, a " nursing mother;" brightest examples to every throne, to every subject, of public, private, social, christian virtues !
The principal discouragement to the Leaven plan is to be found in the difficulty of obtaining the consent of the Lords of Manors, as also that of the Landholders and Farmers; the two latter description of persons observing its tendency to keep down the price of articles of subsistence, would strenuously oppose it; but the Poor's Rate, when diminished, would, there can be no doubt, more than counterbalance the objection.
The voice of gratitude is insufficient: the gratitude of the heart would stimulate to true patriotism, and promptly employ the means yet in our power, (though hourly in danger of being lost by general inclosures,) of creating a barrier, by a judicious appropriation of the waste lands, against the enormous overwhelming evil of national fluctuating riches by the aggregate cheerful labor of the larger part of its unprovided family-by such a Janded fund as would be immoveable and unfailing, "while seed time and harvest shall remain."
3 It is a circumstance highly gratifying to the feelings of the author, in particular, as it must prove to the nation in general, that after the farther lapse of 14 years, that valuable life is by Providence still prolonged, though clouded by an affliction, to which, fortunately, the royal sufferer is not painfully conscious. By treading in his father's steps, and retaining in his councils his chosen Ministers, our illustrious Regent prevents the national blow from being so severely felt as it otherwise infallibly would be.
THE PLAN ITSELF.
WASTE OR OPEN LANDS
to be inclosed; the quantity at discretion, and proportioned to the extent of the parish. These inclosures to be called (as intimated and defined in the general view)
to be cultivated for the benefit and support of the parish poor, who may prefer it to the old mode of parochial relief. These farms severally to provide salaries, fuel, provision, and other things described afterwards in the three statements annexed.
It is premised,
1. That out of each of these farms, or on the whole quantity, a considerable proportion of acres should be inclosed with a furze fence of great breadth, to be annually cut in exact portions for oven faggots, &c. and to be planted with trees as a wood. This and other constant reserved employment, is designed for labourers who might be out of work, that no person might have reasonable cause to complain he could not get his daily bread. The wages in such cases, it is intended, should be two-pence under the farmers' wages, that the farmers at large might not think themselves deprived of their aid, which on the contrary it is meant to promote, by inducing more fixed residence in respective parishes than at present.
2. That there should be in a convenient situation, acres for pasture ground, for the sole use of the freehold and tenant cottagers, fenced with furze, or as otherwise may be judged best, and regulated according to the most approved husbandry.
3. Other acres to be reserved for potatoes to be sold for local benefit, being not only a wholesome substitute for various kinds of grain, but also giving, in the cultivation, taking up, &c. easy employment to children.
STATEMENT OF THE LEAVEN FARMS.
To be divided into one, two, or three at most: 1 or principal farm, to contain..
The cultivator of these respectively, to be a person of best repute in his own parish (if possible) in affairs of husbandry, standing in need of such aid. Their families to be well supplied from the farm, and themselves to have a salary of £, for judicious and faithful management, but to derive no other profit from the farms, as the produce of them is to be sold for the support of the general plan.
The 1st or principal leaven farm to supply
1 for the cultivators of all the three.
2 do. apothecary.
3 do. mill.
4 do. maltster and brewer.
5 do. village shop.
6 do. House of Industry.
7 do. Sunday Schools.
8 Asylum for aged and for children.
The 2d Farm, to supply, by the produce raised upon it, the several above establishments; and also to advance all sums of money for laborers' wages, and other contingent expenses.
The 3d Farm, to supply,
1 Curates' stipends :-an addition where considered at present too small; and providing entire stipends for the officiating clergyman where new chapels may be found necessary, on tithes according to general enclosure.
2. All church outgoings.
3. Payment of taxes of every kind, including repair of roads and pathways. At the farm, a caravan, to convey the aged and infirm to church regularly on a Sabbath day.
4. Money per advance, for stock of materials for the House of Industry.
5. Do. for articles for village shop.
N. B. Surplus to go to a fund.
To each parish a farm house, plain and substantial, with all requisite appendages, and to one of these in each parish an addition of a few neat apartments, with garden and other ground for the resident officiating clergyman where such exclusive assistance may appear to be requisite; or on the other hand to increase (as was hinted before) the too small stipends of the respectable younger clergy, curates of country parishes; who thus encouraged might be the instruments of a great reform in neglected districts, without intruding on the authority of Incumbents of livings, under whose direction they continue with more effect; and thereby forming a firm though distant bulwark to our happy church establishment.
With the like view to the security of good order, and to remove general complaint and discontent, it is farther proposed, that
A VISITOR Should be appointed by the two nearest neighbouring magistrates, and the officiating clergyman instead of the usual parish officers; such visitor to be a gentleman of small fortune ar in some cases a gentlewoman might enjoy the beneficial appointment, agreeably to such practice in many public offices both in the metropolis and neighbouring places; particularly as it might prove a comfortable addition to the income of the prudent relict of
a worthy country clergyman; and to be provided, over and above the salary for a secretary, with a suitable house, and a certain number of acres. All accounts, &c. respecting the Leaven Farms, to pass through his hands, in order to be laid before the Sessions.
EXPLANATIONS AND REMARKS ON PARTS OF THE FOREGOING FLAN.
First, under the articles of Salaries, see p. 229.
N. 4. "Maltster and brewer." A brewhouse and malihouse to a certain extent; the beer to be a regulated assize, in barrels only for family use and not for the accommodation of individuals. The yest and grains to be for the good of the whole Leaven Society, and sold to the poor in just proportions, unless necessary for the farm. The two buildings here referred to, to be furnished from the farm, and the profits arising to make a part of the general in
N. 3. "Mill," or mill-house, with a salary for a laborer of good reputation, to be so rewarded for superintending it: such miller to take no toll, but only a slight fixed payment from the cottagers, who, in turn as they carried it, to be allowed to see their grain ground. For the accommodation of the neighbourhood, the miller to be allowed to grind for hire two or three fixed days in a week, without taking toll, or any part of the bran, &c. but to be paid a fixed price for grinding. The profit hence arising to be accounted for to the Leaven farmer, and paid to him on a certain night, weekly. No other profit to the miller, but his salary above specified, and comfortable privileges annexed to his house, on pain of forfeiting his appointment.
Public, ovens superseded by private ones; equally supplied by furze fagots.
N. 5. "Village shop," being part of a house, for a family, free of rent, the tenant to have land and privileges like the rest upon the Leaven plan, but no profit except salary.
N. 6. "House of Industry," into which any spare suitable building might be converted, rented of the parish by agreement. All labor in this house to be voluntary; a liberal proportion for work to be paid on the saturday evening: indeed, little being withheld, but as a check on waste, but by no means to operate as a discouragement to cheerful industry. Men, women, or children to be received into classes, various branches of trade being conducted and regulated by the master of the house. No other penalty or punishment to be inflicted for neglect of attendance, but the loss of pay. Every kind of work possible to be carried on, spinning, weav ing, shoemaking, rope-making, knitting, netting, carding wool, &c.'
Employment should be suited to local circumstances, and portable work to be allowed, if preferred, to be carried aud done at their own dwellings.
Materials provided, and the goods sold at a village shop, for a profit per cent. very low. Separate rooms for men, women, boys and girls, and an annual reward for best work and good behaviour.
1. "A free day-school" for needle work, reading, mantua making, &c. to be made for sale at a fixed price, and sold towards defraying the expence of a certain salary, house, and garden, provided for the mistress. This school to receive also girls, not entitled to a free one, with a view, by connecting these children by an useful degree of intercourse with the next classes in the neighbourhood, to preserve and promote plain manners, and plain habits for females; no fashionable or useless works being admitted. This, it is hoped, would counteract the sad effects of modern flimsy acquirements in those vulgar boarding schools, of late years sprung up every where to the subversion of morals, subordination, and fidelity in servants.
2. "A parish laboratory," with fixed salary for medical assistance; the person superintending it to be approved of by visitor and sessions. If the parish be so extensive as to require it, in that case a surgeon and midwife to be appointed; otherwise a house, garden, &c. for a female midwife, approved also by visitor and sessions, and only to be removed by their final authority.
3. "A blacksmith's house" gratis, with other privileges; but the tenant of it liable, on just complaint for improper conduct, to be removed by visitor and sessions.
Indeed in all cases the like caution to be observed to prevent the effects of human caprice, which cannot be too much guarded against; the happiness of numbers depending on the due regulation of an institution.
REGULATIONS RESPECTING THE LEAVEN COTTAGERS.
1. The tenants of them to forfeit possession should they turn mendicants, as they are especially designed to prevent the poor from so degrading a state, and to furnish them with the means of all comforts united with their daily labour, with sobriety and industry.
2. The tenantry to be left at liberty as to the management of their land, stock, &c. paying some small proportion of repairs, as a check against abuse or neglect of the premises.
3. Those of the tenantry who have lived longest in the cottages, brought up the largest families, kept them most from emigrating
! Nevertheless not allowed to let the cottages without the consent of the visitor: and the tenant made answerable for any unlawful entry; but it shall not defeat the family claim-but if vacated, to revert to the farms, till the legal proprietor claims and occupies it-or a temporary tenant put in by visitor, for the benefit of the proper tenant's family.