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to the metropolis and large towns, and cultivated their ground chiefly with the labour of the mother and children, to have the preference whenever one of the freeholds became vacant, as the successor this preference being intended both as a general stimulus and valuable reward of a regular, respectable country life. Thus combining on the leaven plan all the rational best comforts of existence for the poor-healthful employment-wholesome air-plenty of plain food-cleanliness obtained with ease and cheapness freedom from temptation-cheerful and suitable society-proper education for children-certainty of providing for them in that state of life unto which it has pleased God to call them "-freedom from all coercion as parishioners-and, to give stability to all earthly comforts, a weekly attendance required on public religious duties, to invoke the blessing of the Almighty Father of all the families of the earth: this grateful homage made so easy to them as to become indeed a sabbath-a rest, pleasure, and delight.
FUND FOR THE LEAVEN PLAN IN ITS COMMENCEMENT. A fund to be raised, as for turnpikes and canals, to pay the annual interest of which portions of wastes may be sold till the leaven farms are in sufficient cultivation to defray the interest.'
OBJECTIONS CONSIDERED. The principal one would probably be a reduction of the revenue, by lessening the enormous evil of alehouses (and consequently the number of licenses,) without which little permanent benefit could be expected from a plan, designed to encourage industry and sobriety in the village poor.
But it is more than presumed this deficiency in the revenue would considerably be made up by the additional land in cultivation and other taxes from the new enclosed wastes, beside the great national wealth ultimately flowing in from such an accéssion of cultivated land on the leaven farms.
And should the new taxes partly fail at first to make good any diminution of the public income, a leaven tax (the only one thus imposed) of one shilling perhaps on every leaven cottage tenant, and two shillings on each freehold might more than supply the deficiency, and be doubtless considered as a very reasonable con
In addition to a loan, a fund might be formed for the building, &c. of the Leaven plan, by appropriating a convenient part of the parish levy, (on an average of three years) to be judged of by two magistrates or sessions: the second year the levies might probably be reduced one fourth, and continue annually diminishing, as the leaven plan advanced, until a very trifling Jevy might be sufficient, in addition to the funds from bequests, &c. (which are to be found in most parishes) to meet the exigencies of those parishioners, who could not be immediately benefited by the Leaven plan.
tribution to a state for furnishing the poor with so many permanent comforts, unequalled enjoyments, and placing them in so respectable a situation as to be enabled to do it.
Neither would the waste lands, that must on this plan be sold in some parts to supply the want in others, operate otherwise than in favour of the opulent landholders greatly; as the quantity of land sold or exchanged would exceed the cultivated acres so exchanged or sold, besides the compensation made to them by the reduction, possibly the annihilation of poor's rates, &c. So that the opulent classes, as many as might make purchases, ought not to complain of being unreasonably abridged: although many would unavoidably be debarred from it, who might like to possess the latent advantages, by which alone the unhappiness of the poor, and the heavy burden on the public could be relieved. And surely such national blessings are cheaply obtained, when they proceed not from the purse of the individual, or the public, but only from what avarice might desire to grasp, at the expence of that justice, which is due to another order of society.
Neither can the danger of increasing patronage and influence of ministers, these cottages and lands of PAUPERS acquiring no vote, be objected, should bad men ever succeed our happily enlightened temperate upright ones, or the royal prerogative be extended, should the still greater calamity befal the country of ever lamenting the want of a patriot king; such as in mercy we are still blest with; but above every other danger, free from the agency, in every period, of that Hydra, the jobber in monied
PROGRESS OF TAXATION,
A NEW PLAN
BY STEPHEN PELLET, M. D.
Dii quibus imperium est animarum-
Semper ego auditor tantum, nunquam sed reponam.
MUCH has been said of the causes of the present distress, and of the means most likely to relieve it. Yet they are both so extensive that the subject is far from being exhausted; and it is certainly deserving of the most serious as well as cool consideration.
It is most true that the transition from a state of war to a general peace, has been the occasion of great distress to numerous individuals who were supported by employment in the various manufactures which supplied the government with the implements of war. Gun makers, sword cutlers, iron and brass manufacturers in general. Harness makers, clothiers, drapers, and tailors; shoe makers and hatters; hosiers, &c. must miss greatly the work required to supply the soldiers now disbanded, with clothing and other necessaries. The provision merchants losing the contracts which enabled them to employ so many hands, must now not only give up this profitable business, but discharge an immense number of clerks and labourers of every description. And the immense number of soldiers and sailors discharged must be a great burden to the country till some other employment can be found for them. The reduction of the navy must equally affect all the trades connected with it, carpenters, smiths, rope-makers, sailmakers, &c,