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alleged for this bill were, that in preparing white flour, a great proportion of the wholesome part of the grain is excluded, which might be turned to human subsistence. The advocates of this measure seem to have forgot that though these portions of the grain are rejected in the manufacture of bread, they are by no means lost to human subsistence, inasmuch as they serve for the feeding of poultry and hogs, which would perish without this resource. It is clearly the interest of the miller and baker, as it is of every other manufacturer, so to prepare and apportion the different forms of his commodity, as to meet the several wants of the different classes of the community, and in so doing, he best consults their advantage by avoiding misapplication and waste.

Among the new legislative enactments made in consequence of these two successive years of scarcity, that for the enumeration of the people should not be forgot. In the course of the discussions on this subject, frequent references were made to the amount of the population, with a view to ascertain the measure of consumption, and to adapt the resources to it. But as there were no means of ascertaining this but by inference and conjecture founded on very vague data, a bill was brought in and passed, for making an enumeration of the people in Great Britain, which was carried into effect, and the result reported next year, 1801, and has been again acted upon in 1811: affording valuable documents to the statesnian, and interesting materials for the cultivation of natural, as well as political and moral science. The quotations made in the course of this discussion may serve as an example of this.

The purpose however of greatest utility to which such reports could be turned, would be that of computing the value of lives, with a view to the equitable calculation of reversionary payments and life insurances. They could not answer this end however without an addition to the present heads of information. This addition would consist in a division of both sexes into classes according to their ages, specifying the number under 3 years from 3 to 10, from 10 to 20, and so on as far as 90. The calculations could then be adjusted to the respective rates of mortality in town and country, and in different districts of the country. As this would be of incredible utility in a country such as this, where institutions of this kind are so numerous and still increasing, it is to be hoped it will be adopted in the next enumeration. That it is quite practicable is demonstrated by its having long made part of the Swedish tables of population. These remarks were suggested in a conversation with Mr. Morgan, actuary of the Equitable Insurance Office, who has perhaps applied his mind with as much assiduity and success to such subjects as any one ever did.


















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I ADDRESS the following detail to you with confidence, requesting you to insert it literally in your work. Your readers will see that if I have not been so prompt as might have been expected in refuting the calumny of which I have been the victim, my delay has only been occasioned by the retirement, to which I have been obliged to submit, not leaving me the means of doing it. I lost no time in availing myself of those which came within my power, to lay before the English government my answer to the allegations which have been made against me, entreating that it might be published through the medium of the daily papers. But notwithstanding it must have arrived in London in the course of last December, I have never been able to discover that my demand on this subject has been listened to; and it is only since I have recovered my liberty that I have been able to take upon myself the vindication

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in which my honor is so much interested. So far from wishing to keep in obscurity the crimes which have been imputed to me, I will with my own hand draw aside the veil with which it may perhaps be supposed I intended to envelope them, and pluck the mask from the hypocrite" or calumniator, who, believing my voice to be for ever silenced, has taken advantage of my situation to draw down the animadversions of the public upon my head. I do not mean to confine myself solely to the pen; I wait only for the arrangement of requisite materials, and an answer to the case I have transmitted to England, to hasten thither myself, unless I am refused permission, and cite my calumniators to meet me in a court of justice, where I shall either be myself confounded, or expose them to all the severity of English laws, from which those who accuse innocence have every thing to fear. They will have sufficient time to prepare themselves to answer me, and will have no excuse to allege for declining a meeting. The reparation shall be as complete as the outrage has been public.

I owe it to the family of which I am the head, and to the people among whom I was born, to refute an imputation so odious, as that I am indebted to crimes for the honors and distinctions with which my services have been recompensed. As soon as I shall have triumphed over my accusers in England, I shall answer to my calumniators in France, and freely shall I speak; the clearness of my conscience enables me to do so, and I shall keep nothing back; for they who have lost all other aid, have a right to take refuge in public opinion in order to preserve their claim upon the esteem of the good.

I am one of the victims who confidently entrusted their destiny beneath the flag of the Bellerophon. In manifest violation of every thing which had been stipulated between the Captain of that vessel and myself, I was first interdicted

from all communication with England, and afterwards, in consequence of an official order which he gave after the removal of the Emperor on board the Northumberland, I was obliged to surrender my sword to the Captain of the Bellerophon.

The personal measures of which I saw myself the object, inspired a suspicion in my mind, that in violation of all civil and military laws, which even in Africa are equally respected with religious duties, it was intended to deliver me up to France, where I must inevitably have been sacrificed to the party spirit which at that time developed itself there with so much fury, that I could place no confidence in the impartiality of justice. I was the more uneasy under this reflection, as I saw myself loaded with public reprobation, in consequence of being accused of the assassination of an English subject. Thus situated, finding no support on any side, I had the prospect of perishing covered with infamy, and leaving disgrace entailed upon my children. I determined to write to Sir Samuel Romilly, a lawyer celebrated for his talents and respected for the elevation of his sentiments. I interested him in my unfortunate situation, and was happy enough to convince him that no unworthy conduct of mine had brought me into it. The vigilance with which I was watched on board the Bellerophon, did not prevent me from sending to the post by the same means that the Captain used for his own private correspondence, which undoubtedly was not carried to the Admiral, as all other letters on board were obliged to be, for examination. I could not however prevent Sir Samuel Romilly's answer from falling into the hands of Admiral Keith, who broke the seal, and saw from the contents that it was a reply to some other letter which had escaped the watchfulness of which I was the object. He nevertheless charged the Captain of the Bellerophon, in giving me it opened, to signify

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