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WITHOUT indulging any vague and dubious conjectures, or pushing our researches up to that distance of time in which there is a difficulty of separating truth from fable, the Greyhound, from our early history, appears to have been an object of value' and esteem, not only to the sportsman, but to the great men of our island. An establishment for field amusements was considered as necessary to their rank and station, and on many monuments in our churches and cathedrals we find the greyhound sculptured at the feet of their masters. A Welsh proverb3 intimates a gentleman may be known

"A gre quoque grehunde apua nostros invenit nomen," is the fanciful idea of Dr. Caius, "quod præcipui gradus inter canes sit et prima generositatis. Gre enim apud nostros gradum denotat." I. Caii de canibus Britannicis libellus. 31. 8. Lond. 1729.


An early French writer on the subject, after an enumeration of the Field Establishment of a seigneur of that time, has facetiously added, "Plus pour revenir à propos, le seigneur doit avoir sa petite charette, la ou il sera dedans avec la FILETTE agée de seize ou dix sept ans, la quelle luy frottera la teste par le cheminis."

La Venerie et Franconnerie

de Jacques de Fouilloux, &c.

Paris, 1535.

3 Wrth ei walch, ei farche, a'i filgi, yr adwaenir bonheddig.

Pennant's British Zoology, vol. 1,53.

by his hawk, his horse, and his greyhound; and Mr. Pennant' has observed, by a law of Canute, a greyhound was not to be kept by any person inferior to a gentleman. The anecdote of the unworthy favorite of King Richard' the Second has found its way into the pages of most of the historians of his reign, but of all the Canine species the greyhound, indeed, seems to have the weakest attachFrom whence the race derives its immediate origin, may be still a doubt. The Comte de Buffon, who has entered so deeply into natural History, and illuminated many of its darkest shades, is of opinion, that the modern greyhound is derived from, what he terms, the "Matin," but in its descent becomes finer, more slender, and more delicate in shape and skin, from climate, care, and attention to a mixture only with its own species.3 Fawn-colour he con


British Zoology, 1, 55.

2 Le Roy Richard avoit ung levrier lequelon nommoit Math, tres beau Levrier oultre mesure, et ne vouloit ce chien cognoistre nul homme hors le Roi et quand le Roy vouloit chevaucher, celluy qui lavoit en garde le laissoit aller, et ce levrier venoit tantost devers le Roy le festoyer ce luy mettoient incontinent qu'il estoit eschappé les deux pieds sur les epaules. Et adoncques advint que le Roy et le Conte Derby parlans ensemble en la place de la court du dit chasteau, et leur chevaulx tous sellez, car ils vouloient monter a cheval, ce levrier nomme Math qui estoit coustumier de faire au Roy ce que dist est, laissa le Roy et sen vint au Duc de Lenclastre, et luy fist toutes telles contenances que paravant il avoit acoustume de faire au Roy, et lui assist les deux pieds sur le col, et le commenca moult grandement a cherir, le Duc de Lenclastre qui point ne cognoissoit ce levrier, demanda au Roy, et que veult ce levrier faire, cousin, dist le Roy, ce vous est une grant signifiance et a moy petite. Comment dit duc lentendez vous. Je lentends dist le Roy, le levrier vous festoye et receult au jourdhuy comme Roy d'Angleterre que vous serez et ien seray deposè, et le levrier en a cognoissance naturelle. Si le tenez deles vous, il vous suyura et meslongera. Le duc de Lenclastre entendit bien ceste parolle et fist chere au levrier le quel oncques depuis ne voulut suyvre Richard de Bourdeaulx, suyvit le duc de Lenclastre. Chronique de Froissart, Tom. 4. Feuill. 72, edit. de Paris, 1530. 3 S'il existoit des chiens sauvages, qui n'eussent jamais été altérés par l'education domestique on verroit tous les caractères de l'espece des chiens réunis dans un seul individu, et il n'y auroit entre les chiens que de légères variétés, comme il s'en trouve parmi les renards, parmi les loups, &c. mais les chiens étant devenus des animaux domestiques on a développé toutes les propriétés de leur nature. Les divers climats, dans lesquels ils ont éte transportés, les diverses nouritures qu'on leur a données, les divers exercises qu'on leur a fait faire, ont produit des différences dans la forme de leur corps

siders as the natural predominant colour,' and he thinks those which are white, black, grey, or of any other colours, owe them to a mixture with the "Matin" or the Dane, and those with long hair, to one with the Spaniel."

Though the observation is qualified with the "peut-etre," or "perhaps," the rough-haired greyhound is generally stigmatised by the sportsman as a species of mongrel, and undoubtedly has not often that perfect symmetry, which makes the high-bred greyhound so beautiful.

The different perfections of the greyhound have been comprised in the following rude and barbarous rhymes :

et dans leur instinct: lorsque ces différences ont été assez sensibles pour être remarquées on a eu soin de les perpétuer: on les a même augmentécs en faisant accoupler les individus doués des mêmes qualités de la sont venues de races nouvelles et distinctes.

Buffon. Hist. Nat. Tom. 5, 232.

Le matin transporté au nord est devenu grand Danois, et transporté au Midi est devenu levrier; les grands levriers viennent du Levant.

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Buffon. Hist. Nat. Tom. 5, 227. Mr. Dallaway informs his readers, these greyhounds are large and white, and that the legs and tails of them are fantastically stained with red. Constantinople, p. 311.

The "Matin," however, is not to be confounded with the English mastiff, which is rather the " Dogue" of Buffon. The French Matin is tall and slender for his size, and resembles a half-bred greyhound.

Ils sont de couleur Fauve-claire pour la pluspart. Ceux qui ont d'autres couleurs comme le Blanc, le Noir, le Gris le tiennent peut-être du Melange des Matins ou des Danois, comme le Poil long de certains levriers vient du Mélange des Espagneuls.

Buffon. Hist. Nat. Tom. 5, 241.

2 In the rough or long-haired greyhound, a warm attachment to its master is always visible, and as the spaniel, of all dogs, is one of the most faithful, this circumstance may strengthen the Comte de Buffon's supposition. So true it is, that after generations, nature will at intervals break forth,

"licet usque recurret."

I once thought the long-haired rough greyhound was peculiar to the North, but they exist, it seems from the Journal of Mr. Hobhouse, in a warmer climate, as the Canes Laconici, in Laconia, where he sported with them at Votizza. (Letter 17, 228. 1st Edition.) The hair though long may have been perhaps soft and silky, like that of the Persian cat. I had one of these Eastern greyhounds lost in 1813, in the streets of Constantinople, and I understand they have great size and speed.

The head like a snake;

The neck like a drake;

The back like a beam;

The side like a bream;
The tail like a rat;

The foot like a cat.'

Ludicrous as this poetical effort may be, the description is still correct, and these different qualities, when united, even now form the model of perfection in the race. On the superior breed of greyhounds, there has been a variety of opinions: the blood of the late Lord Orford's was allowed to stand very high, if not the first, in the public estimation. Perhaps there has not been any person, who took more pains to arrive at the utmost state of perfection in his object, and it is a circumstance generally believed, that he even

These lines seem to have been transplanted from an earlier publication which has some additions to them.


A greyhounde should be heeded lyke a snake, and neckyd lyke a drake; Fotyd lyke a cat; taylld lyke a ratte:

Syded lyke a teme; and chyned lyke a bream.

The fyrste yere he must lerne to fede,

The seconde yere to feld ym lede,

The thyrde yere he is felow lyke,

The fourth yere there is none syke.

The fyfth yere he is good ynough,

The syxth yere he shall hold the Plough.

The seventh yere he woll avaylle,

Grete Bytches for to assayle.
The eyththe yere lyck ladylle.

The ninth yere Cart Sadyll.

And when he is come to that yere: have him to the Tannere: For the best Hounde that ever Bytch had : at the ninth yere is full bad. The Treatise perteynynge to Hawkynge, Huntynge, &c. emprynted at Westmestre by Wynkyn du Worde. 1496.

Few dogs, I believe, retain their speed beyond their eighth or ninth year. Elian has supposed the age of the dog seldom extended beyond fourteen. Κυνὶ δὲ βίος, φασὶ, μέγιστος τέτταρα, καὶ δέκα τὰ ἔτη,

Elian. de Nat. Animal. lib. 4. c. 41.

Arrian, however, (or rather the younger Xenophon under the naine of Ar

had recourse to a cross with the English bull-dog,' in order to acquire a courage and resolution till then unknown. After seven descents, it is said, he obtained the object, for which he had been so solicitous, without any diminution of speed, or the beauties of shape and symmetry. Lord Rivers's stock is now allowed to be one of the first in England, and its superiority may be owing to a judicious cross of the Dorsetshire and Newmarket blood. Snowball, so much celebrated in the annals of coursing, the property of Major Topham, was out of Phyllis, a Berkshire bitch, given him

rian) seems to think there is a difference in the sex. Καὶ ταύτῃ εντομότερον καὶ αἱ θηλεῖαι μὲν ἀγαπητὸν, εἰ δὲ ἐς πέμπτον ἔτος διαφυλάξειαν τὸ ὠκὺ ἄῤῥενος δὲ καὶ ἐς δύο κατον διαφυλάττουσιν. Arrianus de Venatione, c. 32. The Comte de Buffon reasons from the growth of the dog to the duration of his life: "La durée de la vie est dans le chien, comme dans les autres animaux proportionnelle au temps de l'accroissement; il est environ deux ans à croitre, il vit aussi sept fois deux ans. Buffon. Hist. Nat. Toin. 5, 223. 'I have often thought I could discover a little of the Bull-Dog in some greyhounds that I received from Newmarket. They had, in one or two instances, the light Fawn Colour, so common in the Bull-Dog, with a flatness of the head and shortness of the tail.

2 The Comte de Buffon has some very philosophical observations on this subject:-Ce qu'il y a de singulier, c'est qu'il semble que le modèle du beau et du bon soit dispersé par toute la terre, et que dans chaque climat il n'en reside qu'une portion qui dégénère toujours, à moins qu'on ne la réunisse avec une autre portion prise au loin; en sorte que pour avoir de bon grain, de belles fleurs, &c. &c. il faut en échanger les graines et de ne jamais semer dans le même terrein qui les a produits; et de même, pour avoir de beaux chevaux, de bons chiens, &c. &c. il faut donner aux femelles du pays des mâles étrangers et réciproquement aux Mâles du pays des femelles étrangeres, sans cela les grains, les fleurs, les animaux dégénèrent, ou plustot prennent une si forte teinture du climat, que la matière domine sur la forme, et semble l'abâtardir; l'empreinte reste, mais défigurée par tous les traits, qui ne lui sont pas essentiels. En mêlant au contraire les races, et surtout en les renouvelant toujours par des races étrangeres, la forme semble se perfectionner, et la nature se relever et donner tout ce qu'elle produit de meilleur. Buffon. Hist. Nat. Tom. 4,216. One of the last editors of Oppian, Mons. Belin de Balu, thinks the Greek poet reconimends a different practice by the

- ἀπὰρ πολυφέρτατα πάντων Φύλλα μένει μονόφυλλα.

Oppian. de Venat. 1,399.

but I doubt of the construction. The Greek poet might intend a mixture only with the same species, without recommending any affinity of blood.

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