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the celebrated Dr. Tissot. During twenty-one years, that I kept hounds, I never knew it fail on any occasion, and though they were often bitten in the face and head, with the precaution of their being previously wormed, from a confidence that the neighbourhood ran no risk, I never destroyed a single one.
Such are the remedies recommended against this distressing accident, but it is to be lamented, that a preservative against it is not more generally adopted by the simple operation of worming the dog, as it is termed, or removing a small ligament under the tongue.2 The ancients even supposed it to be a cure for the disorder, but they certainly over-rated its effects.
Pliny informs us, "Est vermiculus in linguâ canum, qui vocatur Lytta, quo excepto, infantibus Catulis, nec rabidi fiunt, nec fasti
' Mr. Beckford, in his Treatise on Hunting, recommends Turbith Mineral
to be taken three successive days, the dose being cach day increased. I never gave more than four grains every second day for a week, and found them equally efficacious.
2 Mr. Daniel, in the "Rural Sports", has given the following instances of its efficacy, "under the hope of inducing the general practice." A terrier bitch went mad that was kept in the kennel with forty couple of hounds, not a single hound was bitten, nor was she seen to offer to bite. The bitch being of a peculiar sort, every attention was paid to her, and the gradations of the disease (which were extremely rapid) minutely noted. The hydrophobia was fast approaching before she was separated from the hounds, and she died the second day after. At first warm milk was placed before her, which she attempted to lap, but the throat refused its functions; from this period she never tried to eat or drink, seldom rose up or even moved, the tongue swelled very much, and long before her death the jaws were distended by it.
A spaniel was observed to be seized by a strange dog, and was bit in the lip. The servant, who ran to part them, narrowly escaped, as the dog twice flew at him; a few minutes after the dog had quitted the yard, the people who had pursued him gave notice of the dog's madness, who had made a terrible havoc in the course of ten miles, from whence he had set off. The spaniel, who was a great favorite, had medicine applied, and every precaution taken: upon the fourteenth day he appeared to loathe his food, and his eyes looked unusually heavy; the day following he endeavoured to lap milk, but could swallow none; and from that time the tongue began to swell, he moved himself very seldom, and on the third day he died. For many hours previous to his death the tongue was so enlarged, that the fangs, or canine teeth, could not meet each other by an inch.
dium sentiunt." And the uncertain author of the Cynosophium observes, Εν τῷ κάτω μέρει τῆς γλώσσης αὐτοῦ, δεσμοῖς τισι κατέχεται· γίνεται δὲ εἶδος ἐκτύπωμα σκώληκος ὅμοιον νεύρῳ λευκῷ, πρὶν ἢ οὖν αὐξήσῃ καὶ λάβη πάντατον λαιμὸν τοῦ κυνὸς ἀποκόψω ἐκ τῆς γλώσσης αὐτοῦ καὶ θεραπεύσεις.2
The Venatici Scriptores, or the Latin Poets on the chace, have also detailed the opinion.
Plurima per Catulos rabies, invictaque tardis
Nil tamen usque adeo prodest, ac prima sub ipsum
Nam qua parte imo conjungi lingua palato
Cernitur, et fauces nativo concolor auro
Occupat, in rabiemque feros agit usque Molossos
The hounds were some years afterwards parted with, and were sold in lots. A madness broke out in the kennel of the gentleman who purchased many of them, and although several of these hounds were bitten and weat mad, only one of them ever attempted to bite; and that was a hound from the Duke of Portland's, who, in the operation of worming, had the worm broke by his struggling, and was so troublesome,that one half of it was suffered to remain. The others all died mad, with symptoms similar to the terrier and spaniel, viz. a violent swelling of the tongue, and a stupor rendering them nearly motionless, both which symptoms seemed to increase with the disease. Daniel's Rural Sports, vol. i. 161, 162. 8vo. 1807.
' Plinii Hist. Nat. lib. 29. c. 32. Paris Qto. 1685.
Many of the Greek medical writers, according to Gesner, have entertained a doubt whether the substance was a worm or not. They seem even to have denominated the complaint itself Lytta, and J. Pollux understands the term in this sense: Νοσήματα μέντοι κυνῶν τρία· λύσσα, ποδάγρα, κυνάγχη· ἀλλ ̓ ἡ μὲν ποδάγ ρα οὐ πάντη ἀνάστατος, ἡ δὲ κυνάγχη δύσατος, ἡ δὲ λύσσα εἰς θάνατον φέρει.
3 Grat. Falisci Cynegeticon. 383.
Cap. 8. sec. 53.
Vulnificus vermis, suffunditque ora veneno.
Quem si quis potuit ferro resecare, potentem
Is tanti abstulerit causam, stimulumque furoris.'
However erroneous the ancient idea of the operation may be in its full extent, as a preservative against mischief, I can bear my testimony to its efficacy. I have seen many and repeated instances of its preventing any injury whatever in the strongest paroxysms of the complaint; and I have confined dogs, who have died mad and been wormed, with others of little value, for the express purpose of the experiment, without the latter receiving any inconvenience whatever. The effect indeed appears to arise from a mere mechanical cause, for the tongue being swoln hangs out of the mouth, and, having lost its natural check by the removal of the ligament immediately under it, the dog cannot withdraw it into the mouth to bite.2
Of the Podagra3 considered by the ancients so difficult of cure, I can say little. It is a complaint not very frequent, I believe, in the
'Hier. Fracastorii Alcon. 169.
* The operation is of little difficulty. Underneath the tongue there is a small ligament, by which the motion of the tongue is regulated, and the skin being divided by a lancet, a small membrane is visible. On being cut at the root, it is easily drawn out by an awl or crooked needle. Care, however, should be taken to draw it gently, that it may not break, and the whole must come out. Should it break, the lancet must be again used where it breaks, and the remaining part drawn out.
The efficacy of the operation has been denied lately by an anti-vaccinist (Hist. of Canine Madness, 8vo. 1809) of some celebrity. I ought to make some apology for this indecorous reference (see Ring on Vaccination, p. 13) but I cannot give up facts of which I have been an eye-witness, and the result of experiments that I have made, on the solitary instance of a single anonymous case, taken from a provincial paper; in which case there was no certainty the operation was ever performed, or performed as it ought to have been. Since the publication of this Treatise on Canine Madness, I have had an opportunity of repeating the experiment. In the year 1812, a greyhound bitch, two years old, that had been wormed, died mad. She continued from the first appearance of the disorder till her death loose in a stable, with two other dogs of little value, and neither of them received any injury. The bitch died with the symptoms mentioned by Mr. Daniel in the "Rural Sports," with the tongue much swoln and with great stupor, and added another proof to those I had before seen of the advantage of the operation. 3 Of the Podagra, Ælian has not the same favorable opinion. Kúwy i modαγρήσας σπανίως άναῤῥωσθέντα ὄψει αὐτόν. De Nat. Animal. Lib. IV. c. 40.
And Aristotle agrees with him.---Ὀλίγαι δὲ καὶ τῆς ποδάγρας περισώζονται
sporting calendar, though I have seen some instances of it. Indolence, want of exercise, and high living are supposed to be its parents in the human frame, and as the brute creation cannot give into such excesses, it is of course free from their consequences and the maladies occasioned by them.
There are a few other complaints,' to which the dog is subject, but they may be confined almost to worms and the mange.
The worms to which they are subject may be ranged perhaps
under three classes.
The Ascarides of the human body. One with the appearance of a maggot and red head; and the Tania or tape worm. The Tænia or tape worm is of all others the most troublesome and dangerous. In some cases it has been found almost of an incredible length to subsist in such an animal, and as it rolls itself up, it sometimes creates impenetrable obstructions in the intestines, and produces fits and mortification. In all these cases the vermifuge prescriptions, calomel, Ethiop's mineral, aloes, and antimonial alteratives may be given, which may be had a tany Druggist's and also the Lichen Islandicus. Mr. Blaine's worm powders may be also tried, for in cases where one remedy does not succeed, others have
To accidents the dog, like other animals, is equally exposed. Different remedies must of course be applied to each, and no general rule can be laid down for them. The Riga Balsam, when genuine, is an admirable application for cuts and wounds, and indeed strains of every kind. The following infusion has been also warmly recommended:
Barbadoes aloes-one ounce,
Cork the bottle, and let it stand in a bark bed, or near the fire, for ten days or a fortnight.
An excellent embrocation for strains also may be procured by infusing in half a pint of rectified spirits of wine, two ounces of camphor,and a bullock's or cow's gall.
A bruise on the stifle is a more serious complaint, and is sometimes very difficult of cure. Tincture of cantharides, with a little of the oil of origanum, or any other of the warm oils, may be well rubbed on the part.
Powder of tin or pewter-a drachm,
To be repeated every second day for a week, keeping the dog warm.
Aloes and the juice of wormwood, with hartshorn and sulphur, of the size of a hazel nut, may be given in fat or butter, and is generally successful. But the lichen islandicus has a greater effect, followed by a little aloes and sulphur.
often been more fortunate, either from the state of the dog or constitution. The mange is a disorder to which dogs, and particularly young ones, are often liable, and it frequently arises from bad diet, wet straw, and poverty of blood. This is the common and scabby mange, and many recipes' for it may be had at any farrier's. The Mercurial ointment, with the addition of a little sulphur and gunpowder, usually succeeds, and a flannel collar with Mercurial ointment has been applied by some of my friends, but I have generally used a strong decoction of the dried leaves of the common Fox Glove. It
Mr. Beckford recommends
A Pint of train oil,
Half a pint of oil of turpentine,
A quarter of a pound of powdered ginger,
To be mixed up cold and rubbed in frequently. When the disorder is inveterate, the following ointment has, I believe, also great effect:
Hellebore root powdered-six ounces,
Sulphur vivum-half a pound,
Black pepper powdered-two ounces,
Oil of tartar-one ounce,
Sal ammoniac finely powdered-half an ounce,
Hog's lard-one pound,
Olive oil-a pint.
The diseased and scabby parts to be gently rubbed with a little of the ointment every night for four or five times, and the following purge given and repeated the fourth day after taking it:
Ginger powdered--three grains,
Conserve of hips or roses-half a drachm,
with a sufficient quantity of syrup of buckthorn to form a ball. ointment has been used for the last time, the dog should be well washed with warm water and sweet soap (taking care of the eyes), and kept warm. The sal ammoniac and turpentine, though rather lowered by the hog's lard and olive oil, will, I fear, he still painful.
2 Three ounces of dried foxglove leaves may be boiled in a quart of water to a pint.
To make dogs fine in their coats, Mr. Daniel recommends
One pound of sulphur,
A quart of train oil,
One pint of oil of turpentine,
Two pounds of soap,
to be used once in two or three months. The dogs in two or three days af