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acid aerometer application arrangement axle bars bear date June blast boiler bottom Brooman caissons chain Chancery-lane coal coating combination communication connected construction cylinder described disc Edward Edward Newton electrical conductor employed engine fabrics feet fixed fluid furnace groove gutta-percha heat Henry hot blast improvements in apparatus improvements in machinery inch india-rubber invention consists iron James John John Henry Johnson joint Lancashire lever lime machine manner manufacture material means ments metal mode motion moulds obtained Office for Patents ordinary oven paraffine pass patentee claims piece pinion pipes piston placed plate pressure provements puddling furnace pump purpose railway ratchet-wheel ratus Richard Archibald Robert Mushet rollers rope rubber screw shaft shown side slide spindle spring steam steam-engine steel substances suitable sulphur surface Thomas thread tion tubes tuyeres upper valve vertical vessel weight wheel William William Clark William Gossage wire yarn
Seite 33 - Swedish pig iron, from which steel of excellent quality was made,. and tried for almost all the uses for which steel of the highest class was employed. It was then decided to discontinue, for a time, all further experiments, and to erect steel works at Sheffield, for the express purpose of fully developing and working the new process commercially, and thus to remove the erroneous impressions so generally entertained in reference to the Bessemer process.
Seite 35 - ... was not less remarkable, as the several samples of steel tested in the proving machine at Woolwich Arsenal, bore, according to the reports of Colonel Eardlcy Wilmot, RA, a strain varying from 150,000 Ibs.
Seite 299 - The length of a pendulum beating seconds in a vacuum at the level of the sea in the latitude of London.
Seite 34 - ... of air sprung upwards through the fluid mass ; the air expanding in volume divided itself into globules, or burst violently upwards, carrying with it a large quantity of the fluid metal, which again fell back into the boiling mass below. The oxygen of the air appeared in this process, first, to produce the combustion of the carbon contained in the iron, and, at the same time, to...
Seite 34 - ... favourable circumstances under which combustion takes place. There is no intercepting material to absorb the heat generated, and to prevent its being taken up by the metal ; for heat is evolved at thousands of points, distributed throughout the fluid, and when the metal boils, the whole mass rises far above its natural level, forming a sort of spongy froth, with an intensely vivid combustion going on, in every one of its numberless, everchanging cavities. Thus, by the mere action of the blast,...
Seite 34 - ... ton of pig metal, with 60 per cent. less lime, and 20 per cent. less fuel, than were generally consumed when working inferior ores ; while the furnaces using this ore alone yielded from 220 to 240 tons per week, instead of, say 160 to 180 tons per week when working with common iron-stone.
Seite 35 - When the first mould was filled, the plug valve was depressed, and the metal was prevented from flowing until the casting ladle was moved over the next mould, when the raising of the plug allowed this to be filled in a similar manner, and so on, until all the moulds were filled. The casting of large masses of a perfectly homogeneous malleable metal into any desired form rendered unnecessary the tedious, expensive, and uncertain operation of welding now employed wherever large masses were required....
Seite 241 - ... States did he thus exert himself to establish and apply to every possible use his invention, but in England, France, and other countries of Europe, he zealously pursued the same career. In 1855, he appeared at the World's Fair in Paris, and the golden medal and the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour were awarded to him as the representative of his country's inventive genius.
Seite 33 - Steam and pure hydrogen gas were tried with more or less success in the removal of sulphur, and various fluxes composed chiefly of silicates of the oxide of iron and manganese, were brought in contact with the fluid metal during the process, and the quantity of phosphorus was thereby reduced. Thus many months were consumed in laborious and expensive experiments; consecutive steps in advance were made, and many valuable facts were elicited.