Manual of Mineralogy, Including Observations on Mines, Rocks, Reduction of Ores, and the Applications of the Science to the Arts ..

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Peck, White & Peck, 1864 - 456 Seiten
 

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Seite 84 - Fine drills are made of small splinters of bort, which are used for drilling other gems, and also for piercing holes in artificial teeth and vitreous substances generally. The diamond is also used for lenses for microscopes. When ground plano-convex, they have but slight chromatic aberration, and consequently a larger field, and but little loss of light, compared with similar lenses of other materials.
Seite 313 - Extraction of Palladium in Brazil. The extraction of palladium, from the auriferous sand of Brazil, consists in fusing it with silver, and, consequently, forming a quaternary alloy of gold, palladium, silver, and copper, which is granulated by projecting it into water. By treating this alloy with nitric acid, the gold is separated from the other metals which are soluble in the acid; the silver is precipitated by a solution of common salt in the state of insoluble chloride, which being separated,...
Seite 96 - Naphtha issues from the earth in large quantities in Persia and the Birman empire. At Rangoon, on one of the branches of the Irawady river, there are upwards of 500 naphtha and petroleum wells which afford annually 412,000 hogsheads. In the peninsula of Apcheron on the western shore of the Caspian, naphtha rises through a marly soil in vapor, and is collected by sinking pits several yards in depth, into which the naphtha flows. Near Amiano in the state of Parma, there is an abundant spring. In the...
Seite 64 - As standards of comparison, the following minerals have been selected, increasing gradually in hardness from laic, which is very soft and easily cut with a knife, to the diamond, which nothing will cut. This table is called the scale of hardness. 1, talc, common foliated variety ; 2, rock salt; 3, calc spar, transparent variety ; 4, fluor spar, crystallized variety ; 5, apatite. transparent crystal ; 6, feldspar, cleavable variety ; 7, quartz, transparent variety ; 8, topaz, transparent crystal ;...
Seite 91 - The place is now protected by a strong building, and the workmen are required to put on a working dress in an apartment on going in and take it off on coming out. In an inner room two men are seated at a large table...
Seite 294 - The vitreous copper ore resembles vitreous silver ore ; but the luster of a surface of fracture is less brilliant, and they afford different results before the blowpipe. The solution made by putting a piece of the ore in nitric acid, covers an iron plate (or knife blade) with copper, while a similar solution of the silver ore covers a copper plate with silver.
Seite 192 - ... mineral. The same characters, excepting the last, distinguish it from gypsum ; besides, it does not crumble so readily on heating. Obs. Mica is one of the constituents of granite, gneiss and mica slate, and gives to the latter its laminate structure. It also occurs in granular limestone. Plates two and three feet in diameter, and perfectly transparent, are obtained at Alstead, Acworth and Grafton, New Hampshire. Other good localities are Paris, Me. ; Chesterfield, Barre, Brimfield, and South...
Seite 136 - Flint is massive compact silica, of dark shades of smoky gray, brown, or even black, and feebly translucent. It breaks with sharp cutting edges and a conchoidal surface.
Seite 88 - Belgium and Middle Europe; in India, China and Japan ; in the islands of the Indian Archipelago ; in Australia and New Zealand ; in South America, Chili and Peru ; in Greenland, Melville Island and in British America. But nowhere is the coal formation more extensively displayed than in the United States, and nowhere are its beds of greater thickness, more convenient for working, or of more valuable quality. The eastern half of the continent of North America exhibits five great coal fields, extending...
Seite 372 - Moses, we discover glass ornaments in tombs which are as old as the days of Moses. According to Pliny and Strabo, the glass works of Sidon and Alexandria were famous in their times, and produced beautiful articles, which were cut, engraved, gilt, and stained of the most brilliant colours, in imitation of precious stones. The Romans employed glass for various purposes ; and have left specimens in Herculaneum of window-glass, which must have been blown by methods analogous to the modern.

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