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Jording of them, yet some had the courage to befriend him, particularly the Lord Lorn, afterwards the famous marquis of Argyle, who did as much for him as was within his power to do; but the bishop of Galloway threatening that if he got not his will of him, he would write to the king, it was carried against him, and upon the 27th of July 1636, he was discharged to exercise any part of his ministry within the kingdom of Scotland under pain of rebellion, and ordered within six months to confine himself within the city of Aberdeen, &c. during the king's pleasure, which sentence he obeyed, and forthwith went toward the place of his confinement.

From Aberdeen he wrote many of his famous letters, from which it is evident, that the consolation of the Holy Spirit did greatly abound with him in his sufferings yea, in one of these letters, he expresses this in the strɔngest terms when he says, “ I never knew before, that his love was in such a measure. If he leave me, he leaves me in pain, and sick of love, and yet my sickness is my life and health. I have a fire within

me, I defy all the devils in hell, and all the prelates in Scotland to cast water on it.” Here he remained upwards of a year and a half, by which time he made the doctors of Aberdeen know that the Puritans, as they called them, were clergymen as well as they. But, upon notice that the private council had received in a declinature against the High Commission Court in the year 1638, he adventured to return back again to his flock at Anwoth, where he again took great pains, both in public and in private amongst that people, who from all quarters resorted to his ministry, so that the whole country side might account themselves as his particular flock; and, it being then at the dawning of the reformation, found no small benefit by the gospel, that part of the ancient prophecy being farther accomplished, For in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert, Isa. xxxv. 6.

He was before that venerable assembly held at Glasgow in 1638, and gave an account of all these bis former proceedings with respect to his confinement, and the causes thereof. By them he was appointed to be professor of divinity at St. Andrews, and colleague in the ministry with the worthy Mr. Blair, who was translated bither about the same time. And here God did again 80 second this his eminent and faithful servant, that by his indefatigable pains both in teaching in the schools and preaching in the congregation, that St. Andrews, the seat of the arch-bishop, and by that means the nursery of all superstition, error, and profaneness, soon became forthwith a Lebanon out of which were taken cedars, for building the house of the Lord, almost through the whole land; many of whom he guided to heaven before himself, who received the spiritual life by his ministry and many others did walk in that light after bim.

And as he was mighty in the public parts of religion, so he was a great practiser and encourager of the private duties thereof. Thus in the

year 1640, when a charge was foisted in before the general assembly at the instance of Mr. Henry Guthrie, minister at Stirling, (afterward bishop of Dunkeld,) against private society meetings, which were then abounding in the land, on which ensued much reasoning, the one side yielding that a paper before drawn up by Mr. Henderson should be agreed unto concerning the order to be kept in these meetings, &c. but Guthrie and his adherents opposing this Mr. Rutherford, who was never much disposed

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to speak in judicatories, threw in this syllogism, " What the Scriptures do warrant no assembly may discharge; but private meetings for religious exercises the Scriptures do warrant, Mal. v. 16. Then they that fear. ed the Lord spake often one to another, &c. James v. 16. Confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, &c. These things could not be done in public meetings, &c. and although the earl of Seaforth there present, and those of Guthrie's faction upbraided this good man for this, yet it had influence upon the majority of the members, so that all the opposite party got done, was an act anent the ordering of family worship.

He was also one of the Scots Commissioners, appointed anno 1613, to the Westminster Assembly, and was very much beloved there for his unparalleled faithfulness and zeal in going about his Master's business. It was during this time that he published Lex Rex, and several other learned pieces against the erastians, anabaptists, independents, and other sectaries that began to prevail and increase at that time, and none ever had the courage to take up the gauntlet of defiance thrown down by this champion. *

When the principal business of this assembly was pretty well settled, Mr. Rutherford, on October 24th, 1647, moved that it might be recorded in the Scribe's book, that the assembly had enjoyed the assistance of the Commissioners of the Church of Scotland, all the time they had been debating and perfecting these four things mentioned in the solemn league viz. Their composing a Directory for Worship, an uniform Confession of Faith, a Form of Church Government and Discipline, and the Public Catechism, which was done in about a week after he and the rest returned home.

Upon the death of the learned Damatius anno 1651, the magistrates of Utrecht in Holland, being abundantly satisfied as to the learning, piety, and true zeal of the great Mr. Rutherford, invited him to the divinity chair there, but he could not be persuaded. His reasons elsewhere, when dissuading another gentleman from going abroad, seem to be expressed in these words.-" Let me intreat you to be far from the thoughts of

leaving this land; I see it, and find it, that the Lord hath covered the “ whole

land with a cloud in his anger, but though I have been tempted " to the like, I had rather be in Scotland beside angry Jesus Christ, " knowing he mindeth no evil to us, than in any Eden or garden on " the earth.” + From which it is evident that he chose rather to suffer affliction in his own native country, than to leave his charge and lock in time of danger. He continued with them till the day of his death in the free and faithful discharge of his duty.

When the udhappy difference fell out beween those called the protesters and the public resolutioners annis 1650 and 1651, he espoused the protesters' quarrel, and gave faithful warning against these public resolutions, and likewise during the time of Cromwel's usurpation he contended against all the prevailing sectaries that then ushered in with the sectaries

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• It is reported, that when king Charles saw Lex Rer, he said it would scarcely ever get an answer; nor did it ever get any, except what the parliament in 1661 gave it, when they caused it to be burned at the cross of Edinburgh, by the hands of the hango

+ See his Letter to Col. Gilb, Ker, Part II. Let. 59.


by virtue of his toleration. * And such was his unwearied assiduity and diligence, that he seemed to pray constantly, to preach constantly, to catechise constantly, and to visit the sick, exhorting from house to house, to teach as much in the schools, and spend as much time with the students and young men in fitting them for the ministry, as if he had been sequestrate from all the world

besides, and yet withal to write as much as if he had been constantly shut up in his study.

But no sooner did the restoration of Charles II. take place than the face of affairs began to change, and after his fore mentioned book, Lex Rex, was burned at the cross of Edinburgh, and at the gates of the new college of St. Andrews, where he was professor of divinity, the parliament in 1661, were to have an indictment laid before them against him, and such was their humanity when every body knew he was a-dying, that they caused summon him to appear before them at Edinburgh, to answer to a charge of high treason: + But he had a higher tribunal to appear before, where his Judge was his friend, and was dead before that time came, being taken away from the evil to come.

When on his death-bed, he lamented much that he was withheld from bearing witness to the work of reformation since the year 1638, and upon the 28th of February he gave a large and faithful Testimony # against the sinful courses of that time, which testimony he subscribed twelve days before his death, being full of joy and peace in believing.

During the time of his last sickness, especially when his end drew near, he uttered many savoury speeches, and often broke out in a kind of sacred rapture, extolling and commending the Lord Jesus, whom he often called his blessed Master-bis ķingly King. Some days before his death he said, I shall shine, I shall see him as he is, I shall see him reign, and all his fair company with him; and I shall have my large share, mine eyes shall see my Redeemer, these very eyes of mine, and no other for me this may seem a wide word, but it's no fancy or delusion ; it's true, it's true, let my Lord's name be exalted, and if he will, let my name be grinded to pieces, that he may be all in all. If he should slay me ten thousand times ten thousand times, I'll trust. He often repeated, Jer. xv. 16. • Thy words were found, and I did eat them, and thy word was unto me the joy and rejoicing of my heart.' Exhorting one to be diligent in seeking God, he said, 'Tis no easy thing to be a Christian, but for me, I


* Betwixt this toleration and that of the Duke of York, there was this difference; in this all sects and religions were tolerated, excepi popery and prelacy; but in that of York, not only these two were tolerated, but all others, except those who professed true presbyterian covenanted principles; and as for queen Anne's toleration, it was nothing else than a reduplication upon this, to restore their beloved idol prelacy again.

+ It is commonly said, that when the summons came, he spoke out of his bed and suid, Tell them I have got a summons, already before a superior judge and judicatory, and I behove to answer my first summons, and ere your day come I will be where few kings and great folks come. When they returned and told he was a-dying, the parliament put to a vote, Whether or not to let him die in the college. It carried, Put him out, ouly a few dissenting. My lord Burleigh said, Ye have voted that honest man out of the college, but ye cannot vote him out of heaven. Some said, He would never win there, bell was too good for him. Burleigh said, I wish I were as sure of heaven, as he is, I would think myself happy to get a grip of his sleeve to hawl me in. See Walker's Rem. page 171.

| This Testimony, and some of his last words were published in 1712.

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have gotten the victory, and Christ is holding out both his arms to embrace me. At another time, to some friends about him, he said, “ As the beginning of my sufferings I had mine own fears like another sinful man lest I should faint, and not be carried creditably through; and I laid this before the Lord, and as sure as he ever spake to me in his word, as sure his Spirit witnessed to my heart, he had accepted my suffering, he said to me, fear not: the outgate shall not be simply matter of prayer, but matter of praise.' I said to the Lord, if he should slay me five thousand times five thousand times, I would trust in him; and I spake it with much trembling, fearing I should not make my putt good. But as really as ever he spake to me by his Spirit, he witnessed unto my heart, “ that his grace

should be sufficient.' The Tuesday's night, before his death, being much weighted with the state of the public, he had that expression, “ Terror hath taken hold on me, because of his dispensations.” And after falling upon his own condition, he said I disclaim all that he ever made me will or do, and look on it as defiled and imperfect, as coming from me; and I take me to Christ for sanctification, as well as justification; and repeating these words, “ He is made of God to me, wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and redemption;" he added, I close with it, let him be so, he is my all in all this.

On March the 17th, three gentlewomen coming to see him; after exhorting them to read the word, and be frequent in prayer, and much in communion with God, he said, My honourable Master and lovely Lord, my great and royal King, hath not a match in heaven or in

I have my own guiltiness like another sinful man, but he hath pardoned, loved, and washed, and given me "joy unspeakable, and full of glory." I repent not that ever I owned his cause.

These whom ye call Protestors are the witnesses of Jesus Christ; I hope never to depart from that cause, nor side with these that have burnt the Causes of God's Wrath.

They have broken their covenant oftener than once or twice: but I believe, « The Lord will build Zion, and repair the waste places of Jacob.” 0! to obtain mercy, to wrestle with God for their salvation. As for this Presbytery, it hath slood in opposition to me these years past: I have my

record in heaven; I had no particular end in view, but was seeking the honour of God, the thriving of the gospel in this place, and the good of the new college, that society which I have left upon the Lord: what personal wrongs they have done to me, and what grief they have occasioned to me, I heartily forgive them; and desire mercy to wrestle with God, for mercy to them and all their salvation.

The same day, Mr. James M'Gill, Mr. John Wardlaw, Mr. William Violant, and Mr. Alexander Wedderburn, all members of the same presbytery with him, coming to visit him, he made them heartily welcome, and said, My Lord and Master is the chief of ten thousand of thousands, none is comparable to him in heaven or in earth. Dear brethren, do all for him; pray for Christ, preach for Christ ; feed the flock committed to your charge for Christ ; do all for Christ ; beware of men pleasing there is too much of it among us. Dear brethren, you know I have had my own grievances among you of this presbytery. He, before whom I stand koows it was not my own interest, but the interest of Jesus

earth ;

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Christ, and the thriving of the gospel, I was seeking. What griefs or wrongs you have done me, I heartily forgive, as I desire to be forgiven of Christ. The new college hath broke my heart, and I can say nothing of it, but I have left it upon the Lord of the house and it hath been, and still is, my desire, that he may dwell in this society, and that the youths may be fed with sound knowledge. This is a divided visit of the presbytery and I know so much the less what to say.

After this, he said, Dear brethren, it may seem a presumption in me, a particular man, to send a commission to a presbytery; and Mr. M Gill

replying, It was no presumption: he continued, Dear brethren, take a 'commission from me, a dying man, to them, to appear for God and his

cause, and adhere to the doctrine of the covenant, and have a care of
the flock committed to their charge. Let them feed the flock out of love :
preach for God, visit and catechise for God, and do all for God. Be
ware of man-pleasing: the chief Shepherd will appear shortly; and tell
them from me, dear brethren, that all the personal griefs and wrongs
they have done to me, I do cordially and freely forgive them: but for the
business of the new college, I have left that upon the Lord: let them see
to it, my soul desires the Lord to dwell in that suciety, and that himself
may feed the youths. I have been a sinful man, and have had my fail.
ings, but my Lord hath pardoned and accepted my labours. I adhere
to the cause and covenant, and mind never to depart from that protesta-
tion* against the controverted assemblies. I am the man I was.
still for keeping the government of the kirk of Scotland entire, and would
not for a thousand worlds, have had the least finger of an hand in burn-
ing of the Causes of God's Wrath, O! for grace to wrestle with God for
their salvation who have done it; and Mr. Violant having prayed, at his
desire, as they took their leave, he renewed his charge to them, “ to feed
the flock out of love."

The next morning, as he recovered out of fainting, in which they who looked on expected his dissolution, he said, I feel, I feel, I believe, I joy and rejoice ; I feed on manna. The worthy and famous Mr. Robert Blair, whose praise is in the gospel, through all this church, being with him; [I must tell the reader, our author had this man in high esteem and lived in near friendship and love with him to the day of his death A reverend minister, lately fallen asleep, that was often with Mr. Rutherford, told me, he used to call Mr. Blair a worthy man of God.] As Mr. Rutherford took a little wine in a spoon, to refresh himself, being very weak, Mr. Blair said to him, Ye feed on dainties in heaven, and think nothing of our cordials on earth ; he answered, They are all but dung, yet they are Christ's creatures, and out of obedience to his command, I take them; adding, mine eyes shall see my Redeemer, I know he shall stand the last day upon the earth, and I shall be caught up in the clouds to meet him in the air, and I shall be ever with him, and what would ye have more, there is an end; and stretching out his hand, again, he said, there is an end. A little after, he said, I have been a wicked sinful man, but I stand at the best pass that ever a man did, Christ is

* This appears to be those papers bearing the name of representations, propositions, protestations, &c. given in by him and Messrs. Cant and Livingstone, to the ministers and elders met at Edinburgh, July 24, 1652.


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