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Caligula and bis Sisters, Julia, Dnisilla, Agrippina. Sard. This is one of the most

singular historic intagli in existence, and its genuineness beyond suspicion.. 164 Antoninus Pius: Cameo. Emerald. The stone is a true Emerald, though of

bad quality; doubtless from the Egyptian mine 164

Philosopher meditating upon the Immortality of the Soul: Greek. Agate of three bands. The severed head upon the ground typifies Death, as the

escaping butterfly the Soul set free (Rhodes) 165

Sailor of Ulysses opening the Bag of Winds given to him by .Eolus to ensure a

calm voyage: Etruscan scarab. Sard 1C5

Caligula as Mercury. Sard (p. 171) (Rhodes). 170

Apotheosis of Augustus, who is bome up to heaven by Mithras. The " Cameo

of the Sainte Chapelle," Paris 181

Greek Cameo found in Cabul. Sardonyx (p 199) (Rhodes) 185

Ceres, with name of artist, Aulus. Sard (Rhodes) 200

Cicero; contemporary portrait. Antique paste 200

Si'^et of Rutina. Red Jasper. A monster with heads of a boar and a bull

conjoined (p. 484) 201

Gryllus, signet of Titinius. Obsidian. The "motive" of this composition (nut clearly given by the cut) is two doves pecking at the ear of a huge mask, one from above, the other from below. The figure is completed by a wolf's head. This was a favourite caprice. One exactly similar, but

better finished, is now iu the collection of O. Morgan, Esq., M.P 201

Neptune: Poniatowsky gem. Amethyst (Rhodes) 202

Inscribed Etruscan gem. The name is that of the hero, but written in the customary barbarous manner (Foreign Collection) (p. 168) 202

Hercules strangling Antaeus; Earth, the giant's mother, reclining below:

Cinque-Cento. Sard (Rhodes) 206

Di-drachm of Caulonia, showing the guilloche Etruscan border 210

Maecenas, by Apollonius. Jacinth. This portrait is perhaps superior even to

the Julius of Dioscorides, being in a more elegant and softer style (Rhodes). 211 Satyr surprising a sleeping Nymph (Amymone); signet of Aspasius: Roman work. Agate. Extremely minute, half the diameter of the cut, yet most elaborately finished (Rhodes) 228

Faun with Urn: finest Greek style. Sard (Rhodes). 230

The Julius of Dioscorides. Sard (British Museum) 238

Hydraulis: Plasma (p. xvii.) (British Museum). The two men at the sides are working the pumps that force the water into the huge bronze reservoir, shaped like an altar, which supports the pipes and the performer. The air compressed in its upjKT part served the purpose of the wind-chest in the modern organ. The letters are blundered, but probably stand for VIVAS; addressed to the musician to whom the gem was doubtless presented by an admirer.* 242

Cupid rescuing Psyche; by Pamphilus. Sard (British Museum) 245

Hermes making Lyres (Foreign Collection) 246

Korna holding forth a torques, the usual reward of military valour: a Victory presents an olive-branch; at her side is a singular vizored helmet on a

stand. Spotted Sard 255

Hercules and the Stymphalian Birds (Foreign Collection) 200

s The description of the hydraulis, invented means of water; fur the pipes are bvnt down by Clrelhiua of Alexandria, as given by Athe- , into water, and the water being ' pounded ' by n*ua (iv. 75), exactly applies to this intaglio. ] an attendant, whilst tubes pass through the

■ The hydraulic organ seems to be somewhat «lter the natnre of a water-clock. Perhaps it ought to be termed a wind-instrument, inasaroch as the organ is filled with breath by

body of the organ itself, the pipes are filled with wind and give forth an sgreeable sound. The organ resembles in form a round altar."

Juno; by John Pichler. Sard (Rhodes) 201*

Ship under sail—emblem of mortal life (Foreign Collection) 27b

Cupid chained by Psyche to a column. Girasol. The signet of M. Mausitis

Priscus 284

Narcissus and Echo: I Ionian. Prase. Cupid, emerging from the fountain, is aiming his shaft at Narcissus; Echo, reduced to a shadow, borers before

him (Rhodes) 254

Mask hollowed out behind to contain poison. Onyx (p. 278). The subject apparently chosen by the wearer from the same motive that caused masks to be adopted as the usual decorations of monuments, or else to mark his

opinion, " Life is a jest and all things show it." 289

Signet and Monogram of Paulus. Sard 294

Serapis: Roman work: Cameo. This Onyx has running through its white layer—in which the bust is cut—the large perforation of the original

Indian bead 301

Triple Mask: Roman. Jacinth (now in Lord Braybrooke's Collection) 301

Jupiter Olympius: Roman work of the best times. Sard (Rhodes) 302

Attributes of Ganymede: Roman: Cameo. Onyx 311

Diocletian and Maximum as Jauus. Green Jasper, 315

Antique gem with forged name of artist (Mycon), an addition of the last century:

Greek work, on a very tine ruby-coloured Sard (Rhodes) 316

Signet of Maecenas: Etruscan scarab. Calcedony 319

Mithridates; a contemporary portrait. Yellow Sard of a very singular quality,

nearly opaque (Author's Collection) 322

Stymphaliau Bird: Roman. Burnt Sard (Author's Collection) 327

Bunch of Grapes: Roman. Red Jasper (Author's Collection) 328

Gryllus, a fantastic Horse: Roman. Sard 329

Sol within the Zodiac (Foreign Collection) 331

Augustus with his Horoscope Capricorn (Foreign Collection) 332

Ilipparehus the Astronomer: Roman. Lapis-lazuli. The gold spots of the

stone have been taken advantage of to form the snn and stars 337

Alexandrian Emerald: of Roman date, and the ideutical gem figured by Caylus
(Vol. I. pi. lxvi.), who calls it " une ties belle prisme d emeraude; but it

is a true Emerald of the Mount Zahara mine 337

Mithraic Bull—symbol of the Earth. Green Jasper (Author's Collection). .. 338 Mithraic Talisman of Nicandra. Green Jasper. A gryphon supporting a wheel —a common attribute of Sol—stands upon a column, to which a figure is fastened with hands bound behind the back. The legend on the reverse invokes his protection for Nicandra and Caleaudra; apparently Alexandrian ladies, judging from the orthography of the name Neicandra, instead of

Nicandra 340

Anubis, surrounded by the seven vowels (p. 345), standing on a serpent. Green Jasper. The stone is broken at each extremity, but the head is evidently that of a jackal, not a hawk's as it appears in the cut. The work of the intaglio is extraordinarily tine, rendering this gem quite unique in its class. 342 Abraxas. Green Jasper. Also of unusually good and finished work, and belonging to the very dawn of Gnosticism; certainly not later than

Hadrian's reign 342

Chneph: Alexandrian. Sard. The legend, if written in the usual letter, is
XvovQis Aw>x 2e/ie$ EtActju, followed by the trind emblem so common in

these formula 344

Martyrdom of a female Saint. Red Jasper. This was probably executed about the time of Diocletian, its style bearing a close affinity to the neat work

characterizing his restoration of the coinage (Litchfield) 352

Triune deity, with Coptic legend. Green Jasper. This figure has the heads of

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the ibis, jackal, and hawk, attributes of Isis, A nobis, and Phre or Sol, whoso triple godhead he symbolizes. The legend on the reverse ends with the word Sovpopra, a title constantly occurring in these invocations, but a.s yet unexplained 358

Mithraic Symbol. The two Principles, altar with the sacred wafers, lustra!

water, raven, &c.; above are seen the busts of Sol and Luna. Plasma.

The work of the rudest description 359

Hermes Heptachrysos: Roman. Sard 363

Isiac Vase. Red Jasper. This is an extremely elegant composition. Asps form the handles, under which are Satyric masks. The (afterwards)

Christian symbols upon its surface are worthy of attcution 366

Oculist's Stamp. Sard (British Museum). 37+

Jupiter, Sol, Luna. Opal (p. 66) 376

Cassandra mourning the doom of Troy. Sard. Gerhard, however, explains this as Aglauros meditating suicide. The subject is, in fact, extremely obscure. It may mean lioma lamenting some great calamity before the Palladium.. 378

Minerva supporting the bust of Domitian. Sard. The head has, in the gem, a proper radiated crown, which is blundered in the cut. The work of this gem is particularly neat 378

Hercules trimming with his sword an uprooted tree for his club: Etruscan scarab. Sard. Mercury furnished Hercules with a sword on his first starting upon hi* adventures, but he exchanged it for a club on having to deal with the impenetrable hide of the Nemean lion, which he was obliged to flay off with the beast's own talons (Apollodorus, ii. 4) 380

Type of the Satyric Drama. Red Jasper. This symbolical group comprises the

satyr, the mask, and the goat, the original prize of the early comedians. .. 380

Gorgon: Greco-Italian Cameo. Sard. An unique example of so early a period, worked in the same manner as the scarabs. This identical Gorgon s head is seen on the coins of Posidonia, and may be safely assigned to Hie same date. 383

Potnpey, with his titles. Nicolo. The legend is formed of the contractions for "Cnanis Pompeius Imperator Iterum Pnefcctus Classis et Orb Maritime," his style upon his denarii; where it will be remarked that the engraver— like the Arrius immortalized by Catullus—has thought proper to spell Orx withanH 384

Death of Eschylus. An eagle drops a tortoise upon his bald pate, mistaking it

for a stone. He holds a bowl to signify his love of wine (Stosch) 388

Polyphemus: Sard. A fragment of a magnificent Greco-Italian scarab. The giant seated upon an inverted amphora, has been beguiling his hopeless love for Galatea upon a rustic lyre, which appears dropping from his hand: in the field is the plectrum, the exact form of which instrument is here very carefully defined, and gives additional value to this* remarkable intaglio. .. 389

Plato; signet of Saufeius. Sard. An early Roman work, dating from the Republic. Heads of Plato can only be distinguished from those of the Indian Bacchus—whom he resembled as much as his master did Silenus— when the butterfly-wings, in allusion to his doctrine of the soul's immortality, are introduced, as here, upon the shoulder, or, as sometimes, behind the ear. I believe, however, that I have discovered another distinction— the extremely elevated eyebrows, arched into a complete semicircle, in such portraits; a personal peculiarity of the sage that did not escape the witticisms of the comic writers of his own times. Thus Amphis, in the Dexidenudes (Diog. Laert. iii. 1)- .. Q puio ^

How all thy wisdom lies in looking grave;

Majestically lifting high tliy brows

Like as the snail [protrudes his eye-tipped horns].'' 418

Psyche mourning; the flight of Cupid (Foreign Collection) 433

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Phenician Sphinx. Spotted Onyx. The object in the background is probably a

mummy-formed divinity (Rhodes).' 438

Silenus placing a crater on its stand iy-foBr/mi, or incitega): Roman. Sard

(Author's Collection) 442

Parthian King between two crowned Asps. Sard. On the reverse of this most puzzliug gem are cut a serpent, some Greek letters, and certain unknown characters. It is probably due to some early Persian Manichean, or Gnostic, which would explain the introduction of the asps, the Egyptian symbol of royalty 448

Indian Sacred Bull, with Pehlevi legend. A calcedony, hemispherical, stamp. This Brahmiuee bull figures even on the early Assyrian monuments. Here the legend commences with the usual AI\ or title of the king, but the other letters are so rudely cut as to be undecipherable; perhaps the three last stand for Bagi, "the Divine." 454

Favourite Racehorse, Syodus (Speedaway). Jacinth. Greek work of uncommon spirit, commemorating, there can be little doubt, some victor in the Stadium (Rhodes) - .. 466

Somnus, on his rounds, holding a wreathed horn in each hand, and from one pouring out his balm upon the earth. The god here is depicted with butterfly-wings like Psyche, of which J have seen no other example, since his figure upon monuments can only be distinguished from Cupid's by the diversity of their attributes. Lcssing has admirably treated this subject in his dissertation, "Wie die Alten den Tod gebildet." The work of this intaglio belongs to the best period of Roman art, and is cut on a Sard of the finest quality 470

Death, within an opened monument; beneath is the pig, the funeral sacrifice: Cameo. Onyx. The ancieuts represented Death and Sleep as twinbrothers, but black and white in colour, carried in the arms of their mother Night (Pausan. Kliac. xviii.). In addition to the difference of colour Death is distinguished by his inverted torch, Sleep by the horn whence he pours out his dewy blessings.

"Et Nox, et cornu fugtebat Somnus Inani."—Jlieb. vl. 27.

"Night fled, and with ber Sleep with emptied hom." 471

Dagon: Phenician scarab. Green Jasper; or perhaps a green terra-cottn. .. 476

Babylonian Cylinder. Loadstone. Remarkable for the neatness of the cutting

of the cuneiform inscription filling one half its surface 488

Fauns playing: Nicolo. Described byCaylus(II. pi. lxxxiii)as having been recently discovered at Xaintes, set in a massy gold ring weighing 1J oz. The antique setting has disappeared, by reason doubtless of its large intrinsic value, but the correspondence of the scale and material prove the identity of the gem itself. 489

Canopic Vase: Greco-Egyptian date. Almandine; retaining its antique ironring (p. 285). On the belly of the vase is the sun's disk, and below, the royal vulture with spread wings. The iron ring itself is elegantly formed. (Author's Collection) 498

6 ftescribed by Kaspe as " a Persian Sphinx, I the bas-reliefs of Chelniinar; with a figure beor .Mithras, the Image of the Sun, as seen upon | hind, like Horns, swathed."

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SOURCES WHENCE GEMS WERE OBTAINED BY THE ANCIENTS.

Before we enter upon the consideration of the intagli and camei themselves, and of the various styles of art which they present, it will be more appropriate to give a brief description of the different sorts of gems upon which they usually are found, to point out their respective characters, and at the same time to identify, as far as can be done, the species of stones principally employed by the ancients for these works; and to distinguish them from those only known to modern engravers, or at least more generally used by the latter than by the artists of antiquity. The sources whence they were obtained will be separately noticed under each head, but a most suitable introduction to this section will be the elegant description given by Dionysius Periegetes of the trade in precious stones carried on by the Orientals early in our era; for, although the date of his poem is disputed, yet his allu

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