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have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity. We must therefore acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war—in peace, friends. .

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare that these United Col. onies are, and of good right ought to be, free and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that, as free and independent States, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a

firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

Signed by order and in behalf of the Congress.

JOHN HANCOCK, President.

Attested, CHARLES THOMPSON, Secretary.


Josiah Bartlett,
William Whipple,
Matthew Thornton.

Samuel Adams,
John Adams,
Robert Treat Paine,
Eldridge Gerry.

Stephen Hopkins,
William Ellery.

CONNEOTIOUT. Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott.

Robert Morris,
Benjamin Rush,
Benjamin Franklin,
John Morton,
George Clymer,
James Smith,
George Taylor,
James Wilson,
George Ross.


Cæsar Rodney,
George Read,
Thomas M'Kean.


William Floyd
Philip Livingston,
Francis Lewis,
Lewis Morris.

Samuel Chase,
William Paca,
Thomas Stone,
Charles Carroll, of Carrollton.


Richard Stockton,
John Witherspoon,
Francis Hopkinson,
John Hart,
Abraham Clark.

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WE, the People of the United States, in order to form a more

perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


$ 1.-All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

$ II.-1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States; and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislature.

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