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ward Har

? cious effects

treaties or rewards, be induced to have any con- A.D. 1662. cern in the sale. Another person was there- and Sir Edfore appointed to succeed him, in order to de- ley. liver it up, and Sir Edward returned to England; where, when he told the king " that the place was sold for no more than the artillery and ammunition were worth,” the king expressed his surprise at it.67

This transaction proved, in its consequences, The perni. of infinite prejudice. Spain and Holland grew of selling it. jealous that King Charles would be closely attached to the interest of France,-and from this crisis he became so; whilst England for a trifle, of no benefit to the public, lost a place which would have been a great security to her navigation, and which has always been a fatal rock to her trade, in every war with France. As soon as the French king was in possession Dunkirk

made a free of Dunkirk, he made it a free port, and took all port. imaginable methods for enlarging the trade and navigation of France; and, being intent upon increasing his navy, which before was inconsider

67 Unfortunately for Sir Edward's fame, it appears from the Dalrymple Papers, that in 1678, “ Harlie, ci-devant gouverneur de Dunquerque,” received 300 guineas from Barillon, Louis the Fourteenth's ambassador.

A.D. 1662. able, he commanded supernumerary seamen to

be put on board the French trading ships, and trained up at his own charge, in order to supply his men-of-war. Thus Lord Clarendon, by this hasty and unwarrantable sale, contributed as much to the greatness of France, by making her a maritime power, as Cromwell had done before, in supporting her interest against the

crown of Spain. Lord Cla- The sale of Dunkirk justly exasperated the thergoodof minds of the people, especially the trading part; the public.

and Lord Clarendon being known to be the author of it, soon lost his credit with the public: and for want of this, in concurrence with other reasons, he afterwards lost his interest with the king.

rendon loses


Obsequiousness of the Parliament.-Effects of the Uniformity

Act.—Lord Ashley appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer.His zeal and exertions in the execution of the duties of his new office.—War declared against Holland.—[Bill for granting Indulgences to Nonconformists.]— Severe Measures against the Nonconformists. — Five-mile Act. — Policy of France.— Shaftesbury's perception of character — useful to him as a Minister.—His Character of the Hon. William Hastings.-Breach with Hamburgh.—Peace with Holland.

to the

When the parliament met, on the 18th of A.D; February 1662-3, the commons proceeded in the Meeting of same steps as in the former session. With the obsequious same obsequiousness, they received the dictates court. of the throne for the guide of their actions. Every sense of liberty was sunk in adulation ; and, as if the abuse of freedom had rendered them weary of the blessing, they seemed ready to make a voluntary surrender of it. To strengthen the hands of the crown against themselves, a bill was passed, intitled, “ An additional act for ordering the forces of the kingdom ;” and thereby they




A.D. established a military power, under the sanction

of parliament.

The parliament of Scotland likewise, as if to equally oba vie with them in servility, passed an act called

“the loyal offer;" whereby that nation engaged themselves to have twenty thousand foot and two thousand horse, sufficiently armed and furnished with forty days' provision, to be in readiness, when called for by the king, to march to any part of his dominions of Scotland, England, or Ireland, in case either of foreign invasion or intestine troubles; “ or for any other service wherein his majesty's honour, authority, or great

ness might be concerned.” Bad effects. In the speech which had been delivered by the formity act. lord chancellor, at the king's passing the act of

uniformity, May the 19th, 1662, there were unusual expressions of asperity against the nonconformists; and the houses were told, “it was great reason that they, upon whom clemency could not prevail, should feel that severity they had provoked." Near two thousand ministers were ejected from their livings the next St. Bartholomew's day. The rigour which the presbyterians suffered in consequence of this act, divided the

of the uni



An attempt to so

soften its

protestant interest, and raised great discontents A. D. in the kingdom.* The king “ had promised the presbyterians, that he would either not pass the to soften its act, or procure a particular exemption for them. After the act was passed, they addressed the king and council for a dispensation from the penalties annexed to it. This petition would doubtless have been rejected, if the king had not signified to the council the obligation he was under to grant the request."

In the beginning of January, he published a declaration, in which, after an assurance of his firm adherence to the act of uniformity, he said, “ for the sake of others, he was willing to dispense with some matters in it:" and, in his speech to the parliament, February 18th, 1662-3, he told them, “he could heartily wish that he had such a power of indulgence to use upon occasions, as might not needlessly force the dissenters out of the kingdom; or, staying here, give them cause to conspire against the peace of it.” Upon this encouragement from the king, and to compose the minds of the dissenters, whose numbers made them considerable, Lord Roberts (lord

* Rapin.

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