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RULES FOR FORMING PARTICIPLES FROM REGULAR

VERBS.

The Imperfect participle is formed by adding ing to the verb; as, call, calling.

The Perfect participle is formed by adding d to verbs that end in silent e; as, love, loved ; and ed to verbs that end in any other letter; as, call, called.

But Verbs ending in silent e, on assuming ing, omit the e; as, love, loving.

Exception 1. Singeing, swingeing, and dyeing, the imperfect participles of singe, swinge, and dye, retain the e, to distinguish them from singing, swinging, and dying, the participles of sing, swing, and die.

Exception 2. Verbs ending in ie omit the e, and change the i into y before ing; as, Tie, tying.

Verbs of one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, (or by two vowels, if the first is u,] on assuming ing or ed, double the final consonant; as, Ship, shipping, shipped ; Quit, quitting, quitted.

Exceptions. Suit, suiting, suited ; bruit, bruiting, bruited

Verbs ending in a single consonant, preceded by more than one vowel (unless the one before the last be u or w,] do not double the final consonant, on assuming ing; as, Load, loading, loaded ; Swab, swabbing, swabbed.

Exception. Recruit, recruiting, recruited.

Verbs of more than one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, (or by two vowels, if the first is u or w,) and having the accent on the last syllable, double the final consonant, on assuming ing or ed; as, Defer, deferring, deferred ; Acquit, acquitting, acquitted.

Verbs of more than one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, and not accented on the last syllable do not double the final consonant on assuming ing; as, Recover, recovering; Quiet, quieting.

Note. The affix from quiet seems to contradict or form an exception to the Rule, as the final consonant is preceded by more than one vowel; but the Rule applies only to the last syllable, which contains no more than one vowel.

Verbs ending in y, preceded by a consonant, change the y into i on assuming ed; as Study, studied.

Verbs ending in y, preceded by a vowel, on assuming ed, do not change the y; as, Journey, journeyed.

Verbs ending in ee, omit the latter e, on assuming ed; as, agree, agreed; fee, feed.

Verbs ending in c assume k before ing and ed; as, Frolic, frolicking, frolicked; Mimic, mimicking, mimicked ; Traffic, trafficking, trafficked.

Shoe makes shoeing; Hoe, hoeing, hoed; Eye, eying, eyed.

The following words ought not to double the final consonant when a termination is added :

Apparel, barrel, benefit, bias, bigot, billet, buffet, cancel, carol, cavil, channel, counsel, cudgel, dial, drivel, duel, equal, fillet, gallop, gambol, gibbet, gossip, gravel, grovel, handsel, jewel, kennel, kidnap, level, libel, limit, marshal, marvel, model, parallel, parcel, pencil, pommel, quarrel, revel, rival, rivet, shovel, shrivel, snivel, trammel, travel, wainscot and worship.

ON “SHALL” AND “ WILL.

tion; as,

In affirmative sentences, shall, in the first person, simply foretells; as, “I shall write."

In the second and third persons, shall is used potentially, denoting a promise, command, or determination; as, “You shall be rewarded ;" “ Thou shalt not kill ;" “He shall be punished.” Will, in the first person, is used potentially, denoting promise or determina

I will go at all hazards.” In the second and third persons, will simply foretells; as “ You will soon be there;" “ He will expect you."

In interrogative sentences, shall, in the first person, may either be used potentially to inquire the will of the person addressed, as, “ Shall I bring you another book ?" or it may simply ask whether a certain event will occur; as, Shall I arrive in time for the train ?" When shall is used interrogatively in the second person, it simply denotes futurity; as,Shall you be in Edinburgh next week ?" Shall, employed interrogatively in the third person, has a potential signification, and is used to inquire the will of the person addressed; as, “ Shall John order the carriage ?" Will, used interrogatively in the second person, is potential in its signification ; as, “ Will you go ?” Will may be used interrogatively in the third person, to denote mere futurity; as, " Will the boat leave to-day ?" Or it may have a potential signification, inquiring the will of the person spoken of; as, “ Will he hazard his life for the safety of his friend ?

In the subjunctive mood, shall, in all the persons, denotes mere futurity; as, “If thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault.” Will, on the contrary, is potential in its signification, having respect to the will of the agent or subject; as, “ If he will strive to improve, he shall be duly rewarded.

ON IRREGULAR VERBS.

The following list comprises nearly all the simple irregular verbs in our language.

When more forms than one are used in the past tense, or perfect participle, that which stands first is to be preferred.

Compound verbs (except welcome and behave, which are regular) are conjugated like the simple verbs, from which they are formed; as, foresee, foresaw, foreseen.

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

Present.
Past

Perf. Part.
Abide
Abode

Abode
Am
Was

Been
Awake

Awoke, Awaked Awaked
Bear
Bore

Born
[to bring forth]
Bear, for-
Bore

Borne
[to sustain]
Beat
Beat

Beaten, Beat
Begin
Began

Begun

Present.
Past.

Perf. Part.
Bend, un-

Bent, Bended. Bent, Bended Bereave

Bereft, Bereaved Bereft, Bereaved Beseech

Besought Besought
Bid, for- Bade, Bid Bid
Bind, un- re-
Bound

Bound
Bite
Bit

Bitten, Bit
Bleed
Bled

Bled
Blow
Blew

Blown
Break
Broke

Broken
Breed
Bred

Bred
Bring

Brought Brought Build, re- up

Built, Builded Built, Builded Burst Burst

Burst
Buy

Bought Bought
Cast
Cast

Cast
Catch

Caught, Catched Caught, Catched Chide Chid

Chid
Choose

Chose
Cleave[to adhere]Cleaved Cleaved
Cleave [to split]Clave, Cleft Cleft
Cling
Clung

Clung
Clothe
Clothed

Clothed
Come, be- over. Came

Come
Cost
Cost

Cost
Creep
Crept

Chosen

Crept Crow

Crew, Crowed Crowed Cut Cut

Cut Dare*

Dared, Durst Dared [to venture] Deal Dealt

Dealt

*Dare, to challenge, is regular.

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