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case, governed by felt; and in the latter, in the possessive, governed by declining.
52. When the infinitive follows the transitive verbs bid, dare, feel, see, let, make, need, and hear, the sign to is usually omitted : as, “I felt my strength return :"-"Nothing need be said:"_"We heard the thunder roll :"_" Pride guides his steps, and bids him shun the great."
The sign of the infinitive is also omitted, in some instances, after the verbs have, behold, observe, perceive, know, and help: as, “Would they have us reject such an offer ?!
53. In the use of verbs, those tenses alone should be employed which correctly express the sense intended.
Although this rule is somewhat indefinite, yet when taken in connection with the definitions and illustrations of the tenses, that are given in many grammars, it will, in most cases, be a sufficient guide to the student. It is violated in the following example :—“After I visited Europe I returned to America." The verb visited in this sentence relates to a time previous to that denoted by the verb returned. It should, therefore, be in the past perfect tense. Corrected :-"After I had visited Europe I returned to America.”—“I expected to have seen you,” is also incorrect. The verb “ to have seen” cannot here relate to a time prior to that denoted by the verb “expected.” It should not, therefore,
. be in the past perfect tense.
Corrected :-" I expected to see you.”
54. Never is sometimes improperly used for ever :
as, “ They might be extirpated, were they never so many." Corrected: They might, &c., were they
--" ever so many."
55. A negation is properly expressed by the use of one negative only. The following sentence is therefore erroneous :
“ I never did repent for doing good,
Nor shall not now." - Shakspere. 56. Two negatives in the same clause are generally equivalent to an affirmative, and are sometimes elegantly employed to express' a positive assertion : as, “ The pilot was not unacquainted with the coast :”—“Nor did he pass unmoved the gentle scene.” The intervention of only, or some other word of kindred meaning, preserves the negation : as, “He was not only illiberal, but covetous."
57. A repetition of the same negative renders the negation more emphatic: as, “I would never lay down my arms :
-never, never, never.”—Pitt. 56. The adverb no is often improperly used for not: as, “ Whether he will or no, he must be a man of the nineteenth century.-Macaulay.
59. Adverbs should be placed in that situation which contributes most to the harmony and clearness of the sentence, and which accords best with the usage of the language. This rule is violated in the sentence, “ Thoughts are only criminal when they are first chosen and then voluntarily continued.”—Johnson. As it now stands, the adverb only properly qualifies criminal, whereas the author intended to have it qualify the clause following when. Corrected :-" Thoughts are criminal only when they are first chosen, and then voluntarily continued.” The following sentence is also faulty :-" It is not the business of virtue to extirpate the affections of the mind, but to regulate them." Corrected :- “ The business of virtue is not to extirpate the affections of the mind, but to regulate them."
60. An adverb should not be placed immediately after the infinitive particle to. This rule is violated in the following sentence :-"Teach scholars to
-“ carefully scrutinize the sentiments advanced in all the books they read:” say “Teach scholars to
: scrutinize carefully,” &c., or "curefully to scrutinize," &c.
61. Than should be used to correspond with rather, and with all comparatives. The clause following other is also more properly introduced by than, though good writers occasionally employ some other term. ' N.B. “ In the Book of Common Prayer we have, · Thou shalt have no other gods but me :' and the same expression occurs in Addison, Swift, and other contemporary writers. Usage, however, seems of late to have decided almost universally in favour of than.”—Dr. Crombie.
62. The conjunction so is occasionally used in the sense of if or provided that: as, “ It signifies little whether it be
well executed or not, so it be reasonably well done, and without any glaring omissions or errors.”—Lord Brougham.
63. The word both should not be used with reference to more than two objects or classes of ob
jects. The following example is, therefore, erroneous :-" He paid his contributions to literary undertakings, and assisted both the Tatler, Spectator, and Guardian.”—Johnson. Both should be omitted.
64. The conjunction as, used in connection with an adjective or adverb in the positive degree, is sometimes improperly coupled with a comparative, and followed by than: as,“ The latest posterity will listen with as much or even greater pleasure than their contemporaries.”—Everett. Corrected :-“The latest posterity will listen with as much pleasure as their contemporaries, or even greater."
65. A preposition and its object should be so placed as to leave no ambiguity in regard to the words which the preposition is intended to connect. The following sentence is faulty in this respect :“ The message was communicated by an agent, who had never before discharged any important office of trust, in compliance with the instructions of the executive." In is here intended to show the relation between was communicated and compliance; whereas the present arrangement indicates that it expresses the relation between had discharged and compliance. Corrected:"The message was communicated in compliance with the instructions of the executive, by an agent who had never before discharged any important office of trust.”
66. Care should be taken to employ such prepositions as express clearly and precisely the relations intended : as “ He went to Glasgow :"-"He arrived at Liverpool:"-"He rode into the country:"
" He resides in London :"- “ He walks with a staff by moonlight:"_"The mind is sure to revolt from the humiliation of being thus moulded and fashioned, in respect to its feelings, at the pleasure of another."- Whately.
67. But is sometimes employed as a preposition, in the sense of except: as,
“ The boy stood on the burning deck,
Whence all but him had fled.”-Hemans. 68. “ O'clock” is an eliptical expression, contracted from 66 Of the clock :”—“At seven of the dock." — Spectator. “By five of the clock.”— Shakspere.
69. The preposition into expresses a relation produced by motion or change : and in, the same relation, without reference to motion : hence, “to walk into the garden," and, “ to walk in the garden," are very different.
70. Between or betwixt is used in reference to two things or parties : among or amidst, in reference to a greater number, or to something, by which another
be surrounded: as, “Thou pendulum betwixt a smile and tear."--Byron. “ The host between the mountain and the shore.”—Id.
“To meditate amongst decay, and stand
A ruin amidst ruins.”—Byron. 71. Two separate prepositions have sometimes a joint reference to the same noun: as He boasted of, and contended for, the privilege.” This construction is formal, and scarcely allowable, except