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C O N T E Ν Τ S. HISTORY: The fummary or recapitulation of || The dramatic story of the tragedy of DOUGLAS the public affairs of last year, concluded 113. 138.

Adm. Byng's trial concluded. A summary || Extracts of a pamphlet, intitled, A serious of the evidence, viz. that which relates to ge inquiry into the nature and effeéts of the siage. neral facts 127. that against the Admiral 128. Difficulty in treating this subject 143. The and that for him ib. The Admiral's defence argument stated 144. Four things implied in 130. The resolutions of the court-martial the idea of even a well-regulated Itage ih. 135

Three general arguments against the stage, viz. - The plague broke out at Constantinople That it is an improper amusement 145.

That 154. Preparations making by the Austrians it is so far from being a proper method of in. and Prussians 155. A neutrality to be obser struction, that it is pernicious 146.- That none ved in Tuscany 156. The Antigallican's prize can attend plays, without partaking of the fins forcibly seized by the Spaniards ib. France in of others, and contributing to their pollution a distracted condition ib. Proceedings against 149 Damien the assassin 157.

An abstract of the Act to prohibit the making of • Proceedings of presbyteries, in consequence Spirits from grain, óc. 151. of letters wrote by the presbytery of Edinburgh, POETRY. An elegy to the memory of Mr concerning ministers who had been in the play Harry Midleton 153. Upon a lady running house 158. Substance of the libel against Mr away from an officer 154. Chusing a wife by Carlyle 159. and of his answer 160.

a pipe of tobacco ib.

To a young lady, upon Premiums to be given by the Edinburgh her sticking a pincushion in a variety of figures society for 1757 160. Their managers and ib. Epitaph on Mr A ib. officers 163. Questions treated in their meet- Lists, TABLES, &c. 164. 168. New ings ib.

marine officers 166.

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A summary of the PUBLIC AFFAIRS of 1756, continued from p.18.

T is well enough known, that tho' The 'republic of Venice likewise rethe Swiss cantons constitute a folved to maintain a neutrality with rekind of republic, yet some of them fpect to both the German war and that

are Protestant, and others Popishi, between G. Britain and France; in the Supposing that the war begun in Ġer- mean time sending out some armed frimany may probably end in a religious gates, to protect her trading vessels from one, they held a general assembly to- any inconveniencies to which the misap. wards the end of the year, in which plication of the marine laws might exthey unanimously agreed to observe a pose them. Early in the year, the reftriét neutrality. In consequence of this public ceded to the Empress - Queen the they wrote to the colonels of their regi- property of the road that crosses her terments in the French, Sardinian, and ritories from the Mantuan to the TyroDutch service, not to act offensively; lese, in consideration of receiving what and also informed those powers of their belonged to the latter between the river resolucion.

Adda and the fort of Fuentes. This VOL. XIX,



exchange appears to be advantageous to conclusion of the alliance between the both powers. The Empress-Queen can Empress-Queen and the French King now march troops between Germany there has been no occasion for talking and Italy, without being obliged to ask in that manner. The King of Sardinia a passage for them through the Venetian has put his dominions in the best posture dominions. On the other hand, the of defence, and waits quietly to see republic has got what is intrinsically what turn affairs will take elsewhere, the more valuable than that the parted with peace of Italy not appearing to be in imand will not be obliged to be under dif- mediate danger. ficulties with respect to other states, in The GENOESE have for a confidera. granting or refusing the favours which ble time adhered firmly to the interest of the house of Austria had so often occa- France, from which they expected profion to request.

tection and succours in return. They His SARDINIAN Majesty' has long have lately furnished his Most Christian kept a close connection with the courts Majesty with some thousands of sailors of Vienna and London. It is not pro- and shipbuilders ; besides engaging to. bable that he is fond of the late alliance keep a body of troops ready for his ferbetween the Empress-Queen and his vice, and not to permit any British men Most Christian Majesty. In the last of war to enter their ports. Several war, he was able to make the balance differences have happened between them in Italy at length incline towards the and the courts of Vienna and Turin, Austrian fide, against the troops of some of which still subfift. France and Spain in that country, with In June 1753 the inhabitants of St those of Genoa and the Duke of Mode- Remo, a town and district dependent on na, befides the Neapolitans, who at first Genoa, oppressed, as they said, with joined their sovereign's family the Bour- taxes imposed contrary to the convention bonites, but after some time struck out made when they became subject to chat. as neutral. By that means he was so republic, attempted to throw off the respectable, that it one party pretended yoke, and put themselves under the to treat him ill, he was sure of finding protection of the Empress-Queen, affertprotection and allistance from the other. ing their place to be a fief of the emBut now that the courts of Vienna and pire. Being attacked, however, beVerfailles are united, if they should a. fore receiving any affiftance, they were gree to carry any measure into execution, soon obliged to submit at discretion to however detrimental it might be to his their old masters“; who treated them Sardinian Majesty's interest, it does not with great severity, and resolved to build appear that he could make any opposi- a citadel for commanding the whole tion of consequence, surrounded as he is town. Upon this many of the inhabi. by their dominions and those of their al- tants took the first opportunity of retilies. The Duke of Savoy, his son and ring privately 10 other places. The apparent heir, is indeed married to the year after, those who remained at St King of Spain's half-lifter, from whence Remo, not able to bear the hardships it may be fupposed, that the Bourbo- put upon them, were on the point of nites would not willingly see him op- making a like attempt, but were prepressed ; yet still it is natural to think, vented. This induced more of the that his Sardinian Majesty would rather leading men to retreat, with their best with himself able to command respect, effects, to Oneglia ; where the King of than that he should be obliged to hold Sardinia received them as unfortunate his poffefsions and privileges on so un- oppressed people. The government of certain a tenure. Early in the year we Genoa at different times fummoned all heard of a treaty between the courts of who had quitted the place to return to Turin and London, in virtue of which their habitations ; but without effect. the former was to act for the latter with Application having been made to the 35,000 men, in case of need. Since the court of Vienna, the Emperor's aulic


council, after some deliberation, passed think fit. Strong remonftrancës against an act in their favour; to which the the ere&ting of it were made by the King republic paid no regard, as the court of Sardinia in particular; who received of Versailles had caused her mini- a smooth answer, but had not influence fter at Vienna remonftrate against the sufficient to hinder the carrying on of the decree, and kept about 60,000 men works. Another difference happened cantoned in Dauphiny and Languedoc, between his Sardinian Majesty and the ready to support her ally. That same Genoese that year, the former having year the inhabitants of Campo Freddo, made prize, near Oneglia, of a vessel another territory dependent on Ge- from Ventimiglia, as being laden with noa, and an acknowledged fief of the contraband goods; in revenge of which, empire, reckoning themselves unjustly the inhabitants of Ventimiglia plundertreated, carried their complaints directa ed and burnt two villages on his Sardily to Vienna. Though the French mi. nian Majesty's territories. We have not nister there represented, that the affair heard of that affair being yet accommoought to have been first judged of by dated. As the case stands at present, the regency of Genoa, yet the aulic the King of Sardinia has not a great council likewise gave sentence in favour chance of getting such matters adjusted of the inhabitants of Campo Freddo ; much to his fatisfaction, without falling which was formally notified to the re- in more thoroughly with the schemes of public. In the beginning of 1755 it France than we have yet heard of his was again intimated, that if the go. doing. Whether the court of Vienna, vernment of Genoa did not quickly do at the time of forming her alliance with justice to both St Remo and Campo that of Versailles, had any thing ftipu. Freddo in regard to their grievances, lated concerning the fortress at St Remo the Emperor would take measures, for we know not, but do not remember to which they might blame themselves if have seen ought in the public papers they did not like them. The Genoese, relating to the erection of it during the knowing how near their assistance was last summer or since. at hand, caused their minister at Vienna Before the conclusion of the treaty bemake a firm and resolute declaration; tween France and the house of Austria, and there the matter rested without letters had come from Genoa, bearing, more words. In the mean time, as the that the community of St Remo had members of the former parliament of St fent deputies thither, who had expreffRemo refused to return, they established ed a fincere repentance in their conftitua new one. They also gave orders for ents for what they had done, and proaugmenting their forces by sea and land; mised, that, for the future, they should and set in earnest about building the cita. yield an entire submission to the repudel at St Remo previously resolved upon. blic; also, that the community of CamInstead of a small fort on the sea-shore po Freddo had declared a renunciation at first spoken of, there now appeared of its application to the aulic council of the scheme of a large fortress, capable the empire. These were immediately of containing 5 or 6000 men; in order followed by accounts, that the inhabito the erecting of which a great number tants of St Remo had distributed a proof churches, palaces, and private hou. test, against the pretended act of lub. ses, were to be pulled down. So ex- mission which the Genoese forcibly tensive a fcheme gave umbrage to feve. extorted from three depaties whom they ral powers of Italy, and those interested had detained at Genoa, and who had in its security, among which the court greatly exceeded their powers. Wich of Vienna was one. They fufpected that respect to Campo Freddo, we had no this fortress was to be built with French further advice. It is not probable that money, and that it was intended to fa. the affair is yet over. Perhaps the Geo cilitate the entrance of French troops noefe may not be quite fond of the new into Italy, whenever that crown should connections between the courts of Vien


na and Versailles, as it is hardly to be are often of but very short duration, expected that the latter will now uni. Whatever may turn out in the case beformly make public, or even private op- fore us, the French, on the ed of Noposition to the claims of the former. vember, actually landed 4000 men in

The Genoele have had a long strug- Corfica; who immediately took poffefgle to maintain with the malecontents of fion of the harbours and forts of Ajaccio, Corsica, in which the success on either side Calvi, and St Fiorenzo. Part of the has, at different times, been considera- republic's troops had formerly gone bly various. The insurgents, however, home. Upon the arrival of the French, though at the expence of much blood and the Genoese who garrisoned those places many fatigues, have continued to keep retired, part of them going to Bastia, the greateit part of the island from under and the rest being imbarked in order to that yoke to which the whole was for return to Genoa. In the end of the merly subjected. It has for some years year the malecontents were said to have been asserted, that their old masters, so effectually blockaded Bastia, that it quite wearied out with the difficulties was with difficulty the inhabitants could they met with in reducing them to obe- procure the necessaries of life. It is vedience, had resolved to sell the fove- ry probable, that these islanders would reignty of the island, at one time to Spain, wish to be rather under the dominion of at another to France. Formerly it was France than that of their old masters, reckoned, that such a measure would which they have long been accustomed be disagreeable to the courts of Vienna to look upon as unsupportable. and Turin, and consequently to that Most of the troops in Austrian Lomof London, as then connected with them BARDY have marched to Bohemia; and both. Early last year we were told, the Duke of Modena continues to suthat the malecontents had offered to put perintend the Empress-Queen's affairs themselves under the protection, first of in Italy, as well as his own. the Prussian monarch, and then of his Not long after the alliance between Britannic Majesty. At the same time the courts of Vienna and Versailles was the Genoese suggested, that the money made public, it was observed that the with which the insurgents were supplied, 'Emperor's subjects in TUSCANY began came from G. Britain. Once it was gi. to treat the Britifh in a manner different ven out, that the French had engaged from what had been ordinary. One Forto secure Corsica to the Genoese, with tunatus Wright, the captain of a Briout pretending to any other interest in it. tish privateer, against whom the French In autumn

it was positively asserted, had particular resentment for his brave. that the republic had formally sold the ry, was reckoned to feel the first efilland to his Moft Christian Majesty, for fects of the change at Leghorn. Next twelve millions of livres, to be paid in we were told, that the court of London equal inoieties within ten years.

When was obliged to use solicitation after fo. ther of these two accounts was nearest licitation, before she could obtain leave the truth, we cannot pretend to know ; for any of her men of war to put into but it is most probable that the court Leghorn in the winter, if there should of Versailles would rather avow the for be occasion for it. Afterwards it was mer to the house of Austria, her new al. asserted, that they were putting that ly, which can scarcely be supposed e- port in a good posture of defence, left e. ven now to be quite divested of the jea vents in Germany might tempt the Brilousy she used to be struck with, in re- tish men of war to pay them an ungard to any accession of power to the friendly visit. Bourbonites in Italy or the adjacent Little news of importance arrived islands. Though it is no uncommon from Rome during the year, which will thing to find treaties take to themselves not come in more properly in another the character of everlasting ; yet every place ; except that, near the conclusion one knows, that the most solemn of them of it, the Pope, generally reckoned the


beft who has filled the chair for hundreds clared that they had no hostile intenof years, had several fits of the gout, tion, but only to be prepared against all attended with such symptoms as made events in fo critical a conjuncture. In his physicians fufpect that his life was fact we were told at different times, that in imminent danger every time. they had thirty or thirty five men of war

At the beginning of the year his Sici. ready to put to sea on the shorteft noLIAN Majesty's troops were reckoned at tice. The whole royal navy of Spain 55,000 men. Notwithstanding this a is said to consist at present of one thip new tax was laid on the clergy, in or- of 14 guns, fix of 80 each, thirty-five der to augment his forces both by sea of 70, four of 64, fix of 65, nineteen and land. In fummer there was an e. frigates from 30 to 16, thirteen xebeques ruption of Mount Vesuvius, and another of 24, four bomb-vessels of 12, and of Mount Etna, both of which did con- four fire-Ships, all which may be ready siderable damage.

for the sea in a short time. The British and French minifters at Little news of importance came from Madrid have both been very diligent, PORTUGAL during last year, except furthe latter in making proposals tendingto ther accounts of the consequences of the cause that court declare for his Moft dreadful earthquake on the 1st of NoChristian Majesty, the former in endea. vember 1755, and of other earthquakes vouring to keo her in the humour of which have from time to time happenobserving an exact neutrality. As difo ed fince, and hitherto prevented the reputes concerning American boundaries building of Lisbon, that formerly flougave rise to the prelent war between G. rishing city. About a third part of it, Britain and France, we have formerly consisting of the outskirts, which it would given it as our opinion, that it is by no be a great loss to abandon, being still means for the intereft of Spain to join standing, the resolution to build it athe latter, because the carrying of her gain on the same spot seems to be fixed. schemes in America into execution, It will greatly excel its late condition, would at length enable her to seize the and be more safe in case of future earthrich Spanish settlements there whenever quakes, by the regularity and largeness she should come to a resolution to do it. ot its streets and squares, and the lowThe court of Madrid appear to have ness of the houses, which are not to exbeen of the same sentiments: for not. ceed two stories. Many tradesmen were withstanding the success which the French disappointed in going thither last year had in the Mediterranean, and which for employment; but the earthquakes put into their hands a powerful means having greatly abated for a considerable of tempting the Spaniards to join them; time, the general opinion is, that the yet his Catholic Majesty continued to rebuilding of the city will be carried on declare, that he persisted inviolably in with vigour during summer next. The his design of affifting neither fide; and royal family is living in a wooden pathat he would willingly undertake the lace; and great numbers of the people office of a mediator, if any favourable in wooden hutsk till better accommodacircumstances should offer for overtures tion can be provided. of an accommodation. We were also The religious disputes which were recold, that the King of G. Britain ac- vived in France about the beginning tually folicited his Catholic Majesty to of May 1752, have hitherto been carmediate a peace, and that he remained ried on with much warmth, sometimes disposed to do so; but no terms were one side, sometimes the other appearing proposed that could satisfy both the con to have the ascendent. For an accounc tending parties. Sometimes it was ta- of the nature, origin, and progress of ken notice of, that the Spaniards were these disputes, we must refer the reader augmenting their forces by sea and land. to our preceding summary: When representations were made on that Through the whole of this affair his subject by the British minifter, they de- Mont Christian Majeity has discovered a VOL. XIX.




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