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great deal of Auctuation, leaning some. arose between the parliament of Paris times strongly to one fide, and some. and the archbishop of that metropolis, times to the other, now pursuing this the man who appears to have been the measure for restoring the public tran- beginner and grand promoter of the prequility, and then anon its opposite. In. fent religious disputes. The parliament ftead of causing his declaration of Sept 2. having twice fummoned that prelate to 1754 [xvi. 442.] be uniformly execu- nominate a superior to a community of ted, we were informed early last year, women called the Hospitaliers; he made that a dispute had arisen between the answer, that being by right prime suseveral parliaments and the great coun- perior of that house, he intended to gocil of state; and chat, after some dis- vern it himself. Upon this the parliacussions, his Majesty determined, that ment ordered those nuns to chuse a gothe grand council alone should have a vernor for themselves ; which they acright to take cognisance of ecclefiaftical cordingly did. On the 19th of Septem. affairs. This produced new remonftran- ber the Metropolitan mounted the pulpit ces from the parliaments, and much dis. of the parish-church of Conflans, where

In the prefent situation of af. his country-seat stands, and pronounced fairs, it cannot be expected that we the sentence of excommunication against should get fo full and distinct accounts those nuns, and their new superior, beof affairs from Paris as formerly. About cause the latter had been chosen withthis time the King declared his resolu. out his presiding in the election. He at tion to suppress forty places of counsel. the same time published a pastoral inlors, or fitting members, of the parlia. struction, threatening with excommuniment of Paris,

successively as the gentle- cațion all who should call in question the men should die or resign, the number of constitution Unigenitus being a decree of which that respectable body confifted, the church, or an article of faith ; or having possibly been found of too much who should read, or make use of the influence in the struggle they had lately parliament's arrets concerning the affairs maintained, with lo much spirit and to which that constitution gave rise. constancy. The Dukes and Peers of It is very possible, that the Archbishop the kingdom intended to assemble, pro. might be emboldened by what he knew bably in order to deliberate upon the was passing at Rome on the subject. In disputes between the parliaments and effect the Pope emitted a new bull selathe grand council, but were forbidden tive to it on the 16th of October, which to meet. Upon this they caused a pe- was afterwards printed at Paris in Latin tition be presented to the King, con- and French. In it the Pontiff declared, cerning the privileges they had always That the authority of the constitution enjoyed, and chiefly that of assembling Unigenitus is so great in the church of themselves whenever they saw occasion. God, and it requires of all the faithful This petition was signed by all the such a sincere veneration, submision, Peers, as we were informed; and it was and obedience, that no person can resist assured that his Majesty thewed great it without incurring the danger of being disfatisfaction upon the reading of it. eternally damned; that therefore the No answer being made to this petition, facraments ought to be refused to all who they presented a second, setting forth, act refractory to this bull in a public that one of their chief privileges being and notorious manner; that as to the to assemble whenever the circumstances notoriety of those refractory persons, it of affairs require it, the constitution of is sufficient that they be authentically the state is iuch, that Lewis XIV. and declared such by a competent judge, or his royal predeceffors, never opposed that they declare themselves such when their meeting. We did not hear of this the viaticum is brought to them, or, in having received an answer more than fine, that their opposition be so well the preceding ore.

known that it is become a poblic scanFar in the year a new subject of frife dal. After having mentioned fome cir


cumstances which should be admitted as bishops and bishops in their right to teach evidence that the viaticum is not to be the ecclefiaftics and the people commitrefused to a person, he says, “ But if ted to their care ; nevertheless exhortany doubts remain concerning the fick ing and injoining those superior clergy person, and the fufpicion be weighty, to keep within the bounds of Christian the curate ought, in fuch case, without charity and moderation, and to avoid entering into any dispute, to set before every thing which might disturb the puhim, with great mildnefs, and in pri. blic tranquillity; that civil causes and aco vate, what are the grounds for suspect. tions concerning the administration and ing his sentiments, and exhort him to the refusal of the sacraments should be remove them, especially in that moment brought before the ecclefiaftical judges, when the decision of his eternal salva. in exclusion to all secular judges and trition is depending; adding, that, to avoid bunals, who were injoined to refer those all scandal, he will administer the via. causes to them; yet without prejudice to ticum to him, if he desire it; but that, the appeal in case of abuse; that the instead of obtaining mercy at the hand clergymen charged with the adminiftraof Christ, he will render himself guilty of tion of the facraments, should not be liaa horrid crime, and eat and drink judg. ble to prosecution, for refusing them to ment to himself.” Some time after the persons whose disobedience to the condeclaration of Sept. 2. 1754 was issued, ftitution Unigenitus was evident in either the Pope had wrote a letter, in which he of the two first ways condescended on acknowledged his Moft Christian Ma- in the Pope's late bull; those clergymen jesty's right to regulate what related to in the mean time not being permitted to the external adminiftration of the facra- put to those to whom they adminiftered, ments within his dominions. It is not any indiscreet questions tending to disturb therefore to be easily supposed, that a the peace; and, in fine, that all which pontiff of his learning and moderation had been done upon occasion of the would have emitted such a bull without troubles should be so entirely void, that the solicitation, or at leaft confent, of the persons against whom prosecutions the French King, who has no extraor: had been carried on, or sentences given, dinary character for steadiness.

should be reinstated in their places and On the 7th of December the parlia- functions. Within a few days the ecment of Paris issued an arrer for sup- clesiastics of different orders who had pressing this paper, and saving to that been banished by the several parliaments, court the providing in a proper manner returned to their charges. against the inconveniencies which might Though we have endeavoured to carresult from it. The 13th his Majesty ry on the thread of that story unbroken, went to the parliament-house to hold yet several other things happened the what is called in France a bed of justice, fame year, at different times, which are to which the princes of the blood and well worthy of notice. The declaration peers of the realm are called. Being just mentioned to have been made at the seated on the throne in bis royal robes, bed of justice, was attended with other he declared, that he absolutely would royal acts and orders, which we shall have the peace of the church restored, here relate, because of the remarkable which had been so long disturbed by the consequences soon produced by the whole ecclesiastical disputes. After this a de- in conjunction. The Chancellor also read claration was read, bearing, That all an edict of his Majesty, for suppressing his subjects must pay to the constitution the two chambers of the parliament of Unigenitus the respect and submission due Paris called those of the inquests and reto it, though they should not attribute to quests; and, lastly, a declaration, conit the denomination, characteristic, nor taining fifteen articles relative to the dithe effects, of a rule of faith ; that it fcipline of the parliament. At the close was not meant by the former prescribing his Majesty added the following laconic of absolute filence to prejudice the arch- address. “You have heard, Gentlemen,

my commands, and I know how to make money upon the subjects. His Majesty them be obeyed, and shall punish the having issued three declarations on the insolence of those who dispute them.” 16th of July, for raising an additional This bed of justice is reckoned one of the twentieth penny, and imposing fome omost remarkable in the French annals. ther new taxes, the parliament of Paris At the reading of these declarations, and refused to register them. After diffealso of that relating to the conftitution rent spirited remonftrances by the parUnigenitus, the countenances of the inem liament on that subject, a bed of justice bers of parliament, with those of some was held at Versailles on the 21st of Auprinces of the blood and several peers, gust. The King being seated upon the expressed their grief and disgust. 'The throne, the first president addressed him Chancellor next proceeded to collect the agreeably to a vigorous resolution of the votes. A profound silence was the in- parliament the evening before. His terpreter of those who did not chuse to Majesty made answer, that he had noexpress their dissatisfaction. After this thing to ask of his parliament, but that the registration was ordered, by his Ma- they would register his chree declarations jesiy's mofi express command. The King, for raising money. The members of in withdrawing, declared again, that he the parliament remained in a profound would have his intentions executed, and silence, and the Chancellor, pursuant forbade all deliberations on the subject. to his Majesty's intentions, declared the Confequently there was no order or re. registry. On the 23d the parliament refolation of parliament; but 160 mem• solved, that a verbal process should be bers, by a signed deed, formally resign- made of all that had been said and done ed their places. Upon this all public on that occasion ; in which it should be business was suspended; and the advo- declared, that they had not given their cates and attorneys shut up their cham- opinion that they adhered to their ar, bers and offices. On the 20th of De- ret of the 20th, and protested against cember the grand chamber repaired to all that was done at the bed of justice conVersailles with a petition to restore the trary to the laws of the kingdom. That chambers of inquests and requests; but parliament made further remonftrances were told, that his Majesty could not against the new taxes. The parliament grant what they requested, because he of Toulouse remonstrated against the adftill looked upon as vacant the offices of ditional twentieth penny in very strong the inquests and requests, who had gi- terms. A declaration for raising that ven him their demision. Being returned new subsidy having been sent by the to Paris, they deliberated upon this an- comptroller of the finances to the parliafwer, and resolved to continue remon- ment of Pau in Guyen to be registered, ftrating ; but it was assured, that the they returned it, with a letter, containing majority of them were determined to re: in fubftance, that they did not so much as sign their employments also, if the King think it necessary to deliberate whether should persist in refusing to grant the re- they should register it, fince it was abunion of all the members of the par- folutely impossible for the province to liament. We were informed, that, a- pay che subsidy. The comptroller-gebout the same time, four princes of the neral having sent the same declaration a blood were laid under arreit, for remon- second time, they returned it again itrances which they made against what purely and fimply. It can be no great his Majesty did in this bed of juftice. wonder, that during the course of these Thus ftood matters in the end of last transactions we were told from time to year.

time, that the minds of the people in Not only the parliament of Paris, but general were violently agitated, espelikewise the other parliaments through- cially fince they durft not, as in some oout the kingdom were very refractory ther places, let the fumes of their induring the year, with respect to the re- ward vexation expire in free talk. giftration of edicts for the levying of Notwithlanding all these intestine

broils and heartburnings, the court of part of a French one under M. de Ga. Versailles found means vigorously to liffoniere, in which the conduct of both teftify her resentment against G. Britain, Admirals was either resented or at least for taking measures to disconcert her blamed by the people of their respective scheme of incroachments in America. countries, has been so much the subject A great many troops were cantoned a. of conversation and disquisition since, long the coast towards the British chan- and must be so fresh in every one's menel, and we often heard of some hun- mory, that we fall say nothing of it dreds of fat-bottomed boats being pre- here. The professed design of Adm. pared for transporting them. His Bri: Byng's going out, was to reinforce the tannic Majesty having formally declared garrison of St Philip's, to prevent the war on the 17th of May, it was answer- landing of French troops on the island ed by a counter declaration of his Most if it had not happened, or, if it had, to Christian Majesty, published, at Paris hinder their getting supplies of men, the 16th of June. Whether the French provisions, and ammunition. Instead really intended to invade G. Britain, or of attempting to throw fuccours into only to give such an alarm as might Fort St Philip's, the British Admiral tend to prevent the sending out of power- shaped his course back for Gibraltar in a ful squadrons to different places for op- day or two after the action mentioned. posing their designs, is uncertain. In The garrison at first consisted of but the mean time a numerous fleet of war- 3500 men, and got no reinforcement. fhips and transports had been got toge- One the other hand the French were cher at Toulon, That fleet sailed the from time to time augmented, so that 12th of April, having from 13 to 15,000 upon the whole above 20,000 of them land-forces on board, who debarked at arrived, and every thing that they wantCieutadella in the island of Minorca on ed was sent them. Notwithstanding the 18th. The French still make a this disparity of circumstances, the brave great noise about G. Britain's having old Gen. Blakeney made a vigorous and begun hostilities at sea, without a pre- a pretty long defence. A general affault vious declaration of war, It has, on having been made on the 27th of June the other hand, always been infifted up- at night, the French made themselves on by the British, that France was evi- masters of some redoubts which put them dently the aggressor, by both invading in poffeffion of the subterraneous passatheir territories and commencing hostili- ges leading to the body of che fort. ties in America; and that what was Next day the besieged found it neceffadone at sea, was only with a view of ta- ry to make proposals for a capitulation. king from a bad neighbour the means It was agreed, that the garrison should of continuing her injurious conduct. march out with all the honours of war, And here it is easy to observe, that the carrying with them their whole effects French were the first who invaded terri, which could be put into trunks, and tory in Europe, and that their troops should be transported to Gibraltar in had actually landed in Minorca before ships paid by his Most Christian Majefty. the declaration of war on either side. Thus did G. Britain lose a place of great All the British forces on that island reti. importance to her trade, which had red to Fort St Philip's, in the neigh- been fortified at a vast expence, and bourhood of Mahon. Gen. Blakeney, with it a part of her national honour, the governor of that place, had caused Some have asserted, that the ministry the roads be fo thoroughly broken up of London did not intend to keep Miand spoiled, that the French were not norca. This they support by observing, able to open their batteries before it till that during the equipment at Toulon the 8th of May. The action which proper measures were not taken for happened off that island on the zoth of strengthening the garrison of St Philip's; May, between part of a British fqua- that Adm. Byng was fent out fo late, dron commanded by Adm. Byng, and with so small and ill-provided a fleet;


and that just before the French ambas- full confidence that those countries would sador left London, he had 270,000 l. be protected by the French against all Sterling remitted to him, which they enemies. This was one of the novelties infinuate to have been the price of the of last year. The Dutch troops retired Now and awkward methods used for op- from all the barrier-towns, except Na. : posing French enterprises. We do not mur, in which alone they continued to pretend to give any judgment on the keep garrison. subject. Whatever may have been the G. Britain being threatened with an views of particular persons, it cannot invasion, it was natural to suppose, that be doubted but that the British sovereign the court of London would demand of and the great body of his people much the United PROVINCES the succours regretted and resented the loss. When of 6000 men ftipulated by treaty, which winter approached, the French troops she did on the i 3th of February. The in different incampments along the coast French used the utmost industry, by arof the channel broke up, and most of guments, threats, and promises, to keep them retired to the interior parts of the the States-General from entering into kingdom.

the views of his Britannic Majesty. Even After the King of Prussia entered Sa. before the treaty between the Émpressxony, we were from time to time told, Queen and bis Moft Christian Majesty that a powerful French army was ready was concluded, the Dutch declared, that to march, for the assistance of both the nothing could be more agreeable to Empress-Queen and the King of Poland. them than a strict neutrality; but at the During the year, however, whose hi- same time hinted, that if any attack were story we are recapitulating, it did not stir made on the continent of G. Britain or from home.

Ireland, they might probably be involAccording to several accounts, the ved in the war. The French King exland-forces of France before the middle pressed his surprise at the reservation of summer amounted to above 300,000 made with respect to an attack upon the men. In the beginning of last year her continent of G. Britain or Ireland; denavy was said to consift of 11 1 veffels of fired their High Mightinesses would exall sorts. During last year we had early plain themselves with more precision advice, that at Breft and Rochefort they upon the part they intended to take in were building four ships of 110 guns that conjuncture; and declared, that he each ; in summer, that at Havre they could not reckon among his friends, had finished two frigates; and by a let- those powers, who, far from fulfilling ter from Toulon, dated Nov. 19. that the defensive engagements they had conthey had upon the stocks there two ships tracted with him, would make a comof 74 guns each, and two of 64, with mon cause with, and furnith fuccours to two frigates, and would soon put on a his enemy. On che ad of March, thirty fhip of 116 guns, and another of 100. British transports arrived at Helvoetsluys, Ever since the last war chere has been a in order to receive the Dutch succours, scheme on foot in France for augment- but returned home without one of them ing their feet to an equality with that of on board. It was remarked, that the G. Britain. This was at any rate to greatest opposition to the imbarking have been gradually carried into execu- of them was made by the province of tion; and the present rupture between Friesland and the town of Amsterdam; the two nations, only makes them ftrain while other places, more immediately every nerve in order to get it done the exposed to the resentment of France, more speedily.

gave their consent. When the province We had no news of importance from of Holland, which is by far the moft the AUSTRIAN - NETHERLANDS, but rich and populous, went into that refu. that, about the beginning of November, sal, the body of the Nobles, the towns it was almost quite evacuated of troops, of Delft, Leyden, those of the South which marched towards Bohemia, in quarter, and several of those of the


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