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north, in giving their fuffrages, decla- without being obliged to force her way ted, that the ftipulated succours ought through the Austrian Netherlands, as to be furnished to his Britannic Majelty, formerly, by the besieging of one for. in the apparent danger his European do- tified cown after another. In the mean minions were in of being attacked by time, it was the opinion of many among France. After that, the court of Lone them, that if they exerted their whole don intimated, that she did not infift Atrength, they might serve both their further upon the fuccours ftipulated, as best friends and the general cause of matters then stood ; which gave great Protestantism; but that upon fuppofi. 1 pleasure in the United Provinces, as it tion of their lying fupinely by, if their freed them from a great imbarrassment. Britannic and Pruffian Majesties should

Some time after the treaty between be crushed, they would be absolutely at the courts of Vienna and Versailles was the mercy of a Popilh confederacy; openly avowed, and the French had in, and if these princes should find means vaded Minorca, his Prusian Majesty to extricate themselves out of their difasked the States-General, in what man- ficulties without them, they would have ner they intended to behave, in case he no reason to expect great favour from should be obliged to come to an open either. The towns of Amsterdam, Dort, rupture with the house of Austria, and Harlem, Gouda, Rotterdam, and should at the same time be attacked by Enckhuysen, came to a previous refoFrance, in consequence of that treaty ; lution against complying with the requiand the British minister at the Hague fition, in which they treated G. Bria made requisition of the succours by both tain's claim to fuccours in a pretty smart fea and land ftipulated by the treaty manner. The body of the Nobles were of 1678. The King of Prullia after- of a quite different opinion from that of wards demanded, in his own name, a those towns; but were not able to carry speedy and positive declaration, Whe- their point against them. It is in the ther their High Mightineffes would power of Amiterdam alone to be a dead grant to the King of G. Britain those weight upon any measure. In the mean succours? or whether they would refuse time, that is the place where the party them, and for what reasons ? It was in the interest of France most prevails, added, that the King of Prussia, provi, and where the Princess Governante has ded they would, with a good grace, fur- almost nothing to say. That town has nith the succours ftipulated, offered the from time to time prevented any resolu. republic his fupport and affiftance against tion being taken to augment the landany power whatsoever that should mo. forces of the republic; and the weaker leit her on that account. It may well she is in that respect, the deeper imbe supposed, that by this time the que- pression must the threats of her powerful stion did not merely relate to those luc. neighbour make upon her.

The recours; but that it was wanted to be public's marine is in a low condition, known, whether the joint influence of consisting of but few ships, these geneG. Britain and Pruffia could poflibly in- rally little, and having most of their duce the Dutch to take such a step as guns of so small a bore, that, in the premight be a plain indication of attach- lent ftate of things, they could pass foc ment to their particular interefts, and little better than good privateers. It of a vigorous resolution to join in fup the United Provinces the people are di. porting the general cause of Protestant. vided into two parties. Those of the ism, which those powers reckoned to be one wish to throw off the stadtbolderian in imminent danger. If their High government, and therefore take part Mightinesses were intimidated by the with the French, who they know favour menaces of France before the treaty of their desire; those of the other want to Verfailles, they had more reason to be retain that government, and consequenzso afterwards, when that power could ly incline to the interest of G. Britain, march troops directly to her frontier, which theylook upon as one of itslupports.

We usually suppore, that those who wars, Had the affairs of the British comay become our readers at the begin- lonies in North America been managed ning of any year, know so much con- according to any consistent and regular cerning the most important late public plan, as the French have shewn those of transactions in Great BRITAIN, as their plantations to be, one would be that they will be able to connect with apt to think that they should, though at them the future articles of news to which a considerable expence, have been the they relate.

first to form a strong barrier of forts near It is therefore now proper to conclude the utmost limits of the territories fur. with taking notice of a few things re- rendered to them by the natives; as aspecting Plantation affairs. So much long the southern banks of the river St has been said and written within these Lawrence, the eastern at least of the few years concerning the importance, lake Ontario, at the pass of Niagara, rise, and progress of the disputes be along the western banks of Lake Erie, tween the British and French in North A. and down such branches of the Millisipmerica, that there is no Briton who at all pi as they were intitled to; that they interests himself in public matters, but should have caused good roads be made must know something of the subject. It from proper places on the sea-coast to is generally known, that ever since the those several forts ; that new-comers conclusion of the last war, the French should have been obliged to settle at or have been carrying into execution a set- near those roads, and gradually increase tled plan for erecting, all along the back the cleared grounds on each side; that of the settlements actually made by the the country in general should have been British, being a vast length, a chain of obliged to put the new settlers, who in forts, from their colony of Canada on that case would always happen to be the north, to that of Louisiana on the next the woods, in a good posture of fouth. That plan is now in a manner defence against a sudden attack; and completed. By this means the British that cross roads should have been made are already almoft quite cut off from all afterward, at proper distances and in trade with the distant Indians; and ma- proper directions, to have the cleared ny of the nearer ones have been partly grounds from time to time eplarged on seduced, partly forced, not only to break each side of them, in like manner. off all friendly correspondence, but to. This was far from being the case with aslift in distressing them. The British the British colonies. Not only did vaaffert, that several of those forts are rious religious principles and usages prebuilt upon

territories formally surrender- vail in them severally, but they reckoned to them by the tribes of Indians to ed themselves to have different, nay whom they formerly belonged; and this sometimes clashing interests. The old the French, in justification of their own colonists took care of themselves, the conduct, are obliged to deny. Besides new took their ftation as bear them as the chain by way of the lakes Ontario they conveniently could, and for the and Erie, and down the branches and most part every one did what he thought body of the river Misisippi, the French best for himself. Governors of a partierected, on the south of the river St Law- cular turn of mind would zealously larence, and to the north or north-west bour to cause them mind the public good of the lands actually settled by the Bri. of a colony, and even that of the colotish, one fort at Crown.point on the I. nies jointly; but the mercy of such paroquois lake, reckoned to be far within triotic governors was not always laid to the province of New England or New their hands, and they feldomer improYork; with one upon Se John's river, ved it as they ought. When such a dif. and two without the isthmus of Chinecto, jointed state of things is duly confidered, the three last being on grounds which we cannot be much surprised at what the British infift were formally ceded to the French officers, in their overflowing them by treaty at the end of Q. Anne's of spirits, told Col. Washington in 1753,

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when he went a good way back into the with 25 officers, and about 600 private country to learn what was transacting, men fallen, not one of whom was ever namely, that though their people in that after heard of alive. Having left a garquarter were few in comparison of those rison in Fort Cumberland near Wills's of his country, yet they would do their creek, the remains of this shattered arbusiness before the British colonies could my marched to Philadelphia, in order agree on any vigorous measure to op to be employed as occafion might repose them. The French having begun quire. It was some time in August behoftilities in the summer of 1754, against fore Gen. Shirley, with the troops of Col. Washington with a small body of the middle provinces, got to Oswego, a Virginians, on lands which the British British fort on the lake Ontario. Inreckoned their property, the latter be- ftead of proceeding to Niagara, which gan, in 1755, to exert themselves a lit- by that time was reinforced by most of tle for afferting their rights. One army the French who had formerly been upwas to be employed towards the river on the Ohio, he only gave orders for Ohio, in the back part of Virginia ; an- the erecting of two new forts for the other towards Niagara, a French fort strengthening of Oswego. Late in the between the lakes Erie and Ontario; a year Maj.-Gen. Johnson marched tothird against Crown-point; and a fourth wards Crown-point, with a body of in Nova Scotia. The laft mentioned New Englanders and New-Yorkers. army was first in motion; and before He had a road to cut through the woods the end of June, those who acted on at the great carrying-place, and forts to that side had made themselves mafters build for securing a communication and of the fort of Beausejour without the retreat, and so proceeded but slowly. itthmus of Chinecto, another fort on It appears to have been awkward in the the river Gaspereau, and a third at the conduct of the British, that their several mouth of St John's river. Into the first expeditions were made at a considerable. of these the British put a garrison, it be- distance of time one after another ; by ing much better than the fort they for which means, excepring in Nova Scomerly had within the isthmus, and de. tia, the French had always an opportumolished the two laft. Nothing further nity of collecting their main force in the of any consequence was done in that place where it was most necessary for country, except that about 2500 of the their affairs. On the 8th of September French neutrals, as they are called, were an action happened between the British shipped off, to be distributed among the colonists, under Gen. Johnson, and the southern British colonies. Gen. Brad. French commanded by Gen. Dieskau, dock set out for the Ohio, at the head who came on purpose to attack them. of about 2coo British regulars, and The aggressors met with so warm a resome provincials from Virginia, Mary- ception as obliged them to retire with land, and Carolina, a considerable time confiderable lofs. Gen. Dieskau himbefore the other two armies were ready self mortally wounded, with about thirto act in concert with him. After he ty others, most of them dangerously was far advanced, he divided his army, wounded, were made prisoners; and, leaving about 800 men to follow with to the reproach of French politeness tomost of the waggons, and marching on wards Ġen. Braddock's army, were the first division haftily and incautiously, moft humanely treated. till, on the oth of July, he was una During these transactions, some of wares attacked in a pass, by a body of the Indian tribes between the French French and Indians, who fired from be. forts and the British settlements wavered hind trees and other covers. The Bri- much in their sentiments and conduct, tish were soon thrown into such confu- according to their different views of inhon as obliged them to make a precipi. terest and self-preservation. In sumtate retreat, leaving behind them all mer 1755, the Shawanese and Delatheir cannon, provisions, and stores, wares, on the back of Pensylvania, upon VOL. XIX.

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fome disgust openly joined the French, quantity of small arms, provisions, and and did a great deal of mischief in that stores, which they carried off, after deprovince, where the use of even defen- molishing the forts. This was not the five arms is declined by the bulk of the only loss; for the British had seven new people, being Quakers.

armed vessels, mounting from 18 to 8 Much in this manner stood matters in guns, and above 230

whale-boats

capathose parts at the commencement of last ble of containing fixteen men each, in year. Through the winter, frequent ad- order to dispute the navigation of Lake vices were sent us of great preparations Ontario ; all which of course fell into the making for acting vigorously the then hands of the French, and at leaft douensuing campaign. Both arms and mo. bled their force by water in that part. Aney were early sent over to them from bout the same time a party of French G Britain. Considering the scarcity of and Indians from the Ohio besieged and species in the British plantations, the re. took Fort Granville, one of those which mittances of that kind which have been had been lately erected on the back of made, and the general humour of tra. Pensylvania. ders, it is to be presumed, that many We had no accounts of any action people there would not care how long worth notice having been performed by the war were carried on, did they not ap- the British during the last year, except prehend themselves to be in danger, not- that Col. Armstrong, with about 300 withitanding what their neighbours might Pensylvanian provincials, in the begin. suffer; and it is certain, that great num- ning of September, destroyed Kittanbers in the British colonies have already ning, a town of the hostile Indians on been ruined through the selfishness of the Ohio, about twenty-five miles above their fellow-colonists.

Fort Duquesne, and killed between thirSome more British troops having been ty and forty of those people. fhipped off for America, they got all Gen, Sir William Johnson, who has fafe to New York before the end of for a number of years been in great re. June last; and the Earl of Loudon, ap- pute among the Indians, has of late been pointed commander in chief in those of much service to his country, in dis. parts, arrived at that city the 26th of fuading those of the Six Nations and 0. July; from whence he set out next day thers from going over to the French in. for Albany, in order to take upon him tereft. Some deputies of those tribes the command of the army assembled were sent last summer with a message to there. His Lordship found things in so the Delawares and Shawanese. After bad a situation as obliged him to be only fome altercations, and then reasonings, on the defensive Whether Gen. Shir. those two tribes laid down the hatchet ley was in any respect culpable, we do they had taken up against the British conot pretend to know; but he was af- lonists, the happy effects of which were terward divested of both his command in foon felt by the back settlers of Pensyl. the army, and his government of New vania and Virginia. Repeated advices England, and was called home to Britain. from North America bore, that after Though the preservation of Oswego was Lord Loudon's arrival things seemed to of very great importance, no troops had take a better turn. Towards the end of been sent thither additional to those the year they said, that instead of the which had been in it through the winter. French and their Indians coming down Being attacked by the French, the gar- to Shenectady and Albany to scalp, the risons of that and the two neighbouring British were scalping up as far as Crownforts, consisting of Shirley's and Peppe- point, and keeping the French Indians rell's regiments, with a part of Schuyler's at home. We had advice laft winter, regiment of militia, furrendered prison. of great preparations making by the Briers of war on the 14th of August. The tish for a vigorous campaign next sumaggressors found there 107 pieces of can So we were told during the two non, and 14 mortars, besides a great preceding winters, but were always dif

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appointed, when the season fit for action I. The general facts established by the

If we find matters turn out evidence are as follow. better in the season 1757, we shall glad The Admiral was within three miles ly give accounts of them to our readers. of St Philip's, and had sent out some

The Spaniards - tell us, that the re- frigates to land a letter for Gen. Blakebellion in Paraguay, in South America, ney, when he discovered the French has received such a check from their feet. troops, affifted by those of Portugal, that As soon as the French fleet was dife they hope it will soon be at an end. covered, he called in the frigates and

We had no advice worth notice from cruisers, and made towards the enemy. the East Indies through the year, but When our fleet first stood for that of that the British Vice-Admiral Watson, the French, the ship which was fternon the 14th of February, took Geriah, moft in the engagement was first ahead; the chief fort of the famous pirate An. so that the ships which afterwards formgria, who used to subfilt himself and his ed the rear then formed the van. subjects by freebooting upon fhips of This order continued till the signal all nations which came in his way. An. was made to tack. gria himself was out of the place among

When the signal to tack was made, the Morattes; but the British made pri. we had stretched beyond the

enemy with soners his wife and children, his mother, the then van, but the rear was just even his brother, and the commander in chief with them. of his grabs. The British found in the After we had tacked, the Admiral's place upwards of 200 pieces of can- division, which then became the rear, non, 6 brass mortars, a large quantity of was something aftern of the French ammunition of all kinds, and about but Mr Welt's division, which then be130,000 1. Sterling in money and effects. came the van, was not aftern of the van. Of late the French have told us, that The two fleets were not parallel to fome nabobs to whom Angria used to pay each other in either division ; there be. tribute, are resolved to be revenged on ing only one mile distance between the the British. No body doubts but that the headmost ship of our van, and the head. French would be glad of this, though most ship of the enemy's; and three Angria was a plague to the trading part miles distance between the sternmost ship of mankind in that part of the world. of our rear, and the sternmost of the eIn the mean time they seem to acknow- nemy's. ledge, that the British are in alliance The distance between the two diviwith one powerful nabob, who is able to sions of both fleets was about three afford them such assistance as they will miles; so that the rear division of the probably need. In the present situation French was three miles aftern of their of affairs, both British and French are vao, and our rear division about the fending reinforcements of war-fhips and fame distance aftern of our van; though foldiers to the East Indies.

the distance of the French rear was ei. ther a little less than three miles, or

the distance of our rear a little more, as Adm. Byng's trial continued. (94.]

our rear was somewhat aftern of the eNstead of continuing to give an ab- nemy's.

stract of each deposition, with the While the two fleets were in this situname of the witness, which would pro- ation, the signal to engage was made, tract the account of the trial to too great and the signal for the line of battle ahead a length; we shall (ftill following the was continued, which determined the Gentleman's Magazine) reduce the evi- order to be preserved during the whole dence to a general summary, under three action. heads.

The Intrepide, the sternmost ship of 1. That which relates to general facts. the van division, was disabled in the be2. That against the Admiral. ginning of the action. 3. That for him.

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II. The

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