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none but English failors : however, to every night a star-gazing. Besides, they keep things quiet, he paid them all their faid Will was eaten up with the gout wages, and put a bit of money over and [75. and xviii. 608.] : and how could a above into their pockets. The old ca fellow with swelled legs know how to bal, who had been before fo infolent and guide the helm ? The Captain, they saucy, and were always jawing at Will say, never loved Will; as he was in and his comrades, now began to fing sually about his business in the ship, inanother tune, and protended they would stead of attending to make his court in help Will if he would let them stand the cabin, which the others did day and at the helm. Will told them, he night. These stories made an impression knew their tricks; that they were a pare on the Captain. Besides, he had a vast cel of rascals, and they should not touch opinion of the Lascars, and thought they the helm with a little finger. He then were the only failors in the world, and set to work in order to get the ship to he did not approve Will's resolution rights. He sent every where for provi, never to enter any more of them on the fions ; for the crew had been a good ship's books. But as Will was the iwhile at short allowance. He filled up dol of the crew, and they were all conthe crew to its fullest complement, but vinced that he had now put them into took care to have none but English sail, the right course, it was not safe to turn
He patched up as well he could him down from the helm ; and therefore the damages done to the masts and the they tried once more to prevail on him rigging, and ordered some of the men to let in some of the old clan. But WILL to scrape the filth from the ship's sides; was obstinate. He told the Captain intending, as soon as he got her into very civilly, that he had took to the helm harbour, to give her a thorough scrub. when the ship was just aground, and the bing, and to new-sheath her bottom. other fellows had deserted it, that he But here the roguery of the old clan was had put the ship into the right course, found out. The fellows that had been and brought her into smooth water ; used to be employed in paying her fides that whenever it was the Captain's pleaand bottom, had at every turn picked fure, he would go from the helm, and fomething out of the ship. Sometimes do what he could to prevent any mutiny they pocketted a few nails ; at another on the occasion ; but the ship would netime they would rip off a piece of plank, ver go right, if, when he was pulling and then they smeared the defect over the helm a-weather, the Captain should with tallow: fo that when the ship came let another fellow stand by him and push to be examined, it was found that she it a-lee. was scarce able to swim. This made a The Captain loves the old clan, and great uproar in the ship ; and the clan does not like Will. The old clan are thinking themselves undone, and finding desperate, and are resolved, rather than that Will was obstinate in his resolu- fail, to toss him overboard. The crew tions to bring them to justice, they got swear, that if they touch a hair of his into the Captain's cabin in the night, and head, fome folks shall smart for it. But began to terrify him with stories, that we are all in an uproar : for though Will was run mad ; that instead of go. Will has put our crazy ship into a good ing about among the crew, and drink. fighting condition, and stopped her ing flip with one, and giving a drain or leaks; we are just now alarmed with the a chaw of tobacco to another, to keep Captain's resolution to turn Will off, them in humour, which they insisted and to set some strange fellows to comwas the only business of a pilot, he em. mand, who we fear are insensible or reployed his whole time in manning and gardless of our danger, and ready to rerepairing the ship, in giving orders to sume the bad measures of the old cabal ; the under-officers, or in making obser- and perhaps take out half of our crew, vations on the ship's course. Nay, they and send them to man another ship of complained he spent two or three hours the Captain's in the Lascar country.
A summary of what has been lately wrote
Another English writer imputes the with regard to the high price of grain. farmers and dealers keeping back corns
high prices to the same cause, viz . the T"
HE present unhappy ftuation of from the market; and, 2. to the con
G. Britain with regard to the high sumption by the distillery; and proposes price of grain of all kinds, has given oc as a remedy, that the imbargo on excafion to a great number of papers. In portation [xviii. 567.) should be conti. some of which it is endeavoured to be nued, and that the use of wheat and unproved, that the scarcity is rather an ar- malted grain in distilling should be proiificial than a real one; and remedies hibited till September next. It is comhave been proposed in this view. On puted, that 445,000 quarters of unmaltthe other hand, it has been argued, that ed corn is annually used in distilling, the scarcity is entirely owing to the fai- which is a loss of 140,000 l. yearly to lure of lait crop; and a variety of me. the revenue. It is averred, that distil. thods have been suggested in order to lers do not confine themselves to the make this fatality less feverely felt. A worst kind of grain, but make use of the summary of what has been wrote upon beit; and that hogs fattened by distillers both sides, may be useful to the public. wath are not so wholesome a food for
A pamphlet was last winter published the navy, as those which are fed with in England; in which the author main- corn even of the worst kind. tains, That the high prices of grain are In a paper printed here in January entirely owing to a combination of the last, (Observations on the grievances, &c.), farmers, and millers, or corn factors ; it is argued, That the increase of agrithat they contract for large quantities, culture occasioned by the bounty, has not exposed to market, as the law di- been so great, that it is impossible to berects; that the poor are prevented from lieve an unfavourable season alone can purchafing corn unground ; that the produce a great scarcity; that it will refarmers find it their interest to fell quire a very bad season to destroy the wholesale to the millers, who can give surplus; and that in most parts of the a higher price for wheat, because they country the crop 1756 was middling; do not use above two thirds of the lower that therefore the extreme high prices priced wheat, in what is called fack. which now prevail, must be imputed to four, by which means the poor have no the practice of ingrossing corn; and for opportunity to purchase. He likewise proof of this the royal proclamation maintains, that the greater price the (xviii
. 561.) is mentioned ; that the inmiller pays for his wheat, the greater grosiers not only keep up their grain, advantage he has from the disposal of but add to their stocks every day, by his meal: and he computes, that a dex. purchasing even in small quantities from trous miller, while wheat is at the pre- che farmers; that corn from the farmer sent price, may gain 40 per cent.; and to the consumer is no proper object of if he has fix returns in the year, may commerce, especially in times of dearth, increase his capital 240 per cent. per ana because the price must be raised by the
- The remedies he proposes are, number of hands it passes through; that That no corn above a quantity to be spe. the ingroffers are now the only sellers in cified, should be sold but in open mare the country, and have thereby the comket, and none by samples; that dreslmand of the market. The remedies ing-mills be abolished, or at least be proposed by this author are, An inquiry subjected to the inspection of parish. into the conduct of the corn-dealers : officers, and clerks of the market; that 2. That the laws to prevent ingrossing corn-factors be not allowed to buy till may be reviewed, and the execution of the poor are supplied; that they shall them made more certain and effectual. not be allowed to put large quantities of A letter is published in the General grain into their storehouses without a Evening Port of Feb. 15. in which it is permit from a magistrate.
said, that in all the villages in Oxford: VOL. XIX.
shire, the farmers had then large ricks Another writer infifts, That many of of wheat untouched, and which they the proposals made for lowering the with-held from market. The remedy price of grain, though well intended, proposed is, either that a law should be would do more harm than good; that a made, obliging every farmer to bring combination between the growers and out his wheat for sale at a fixed reason. corn.dealers is not the principal cause of able price, and that an assize should be the high prices, but the failure of last fixed for the farmer as well as for the crop; that the cold wet weather last baker ; or, 2. that an act should pass, May, blafted both wheat and barley, laying a duty of 2 s. 6 d. per bushel on and occasioned the price of corn to rise all wheat found on hand at Lammas then very suddenly. - That the remenext, unless the owner can produce a dy proposed, of ordering all corn to be certificate of its having been offered to fold in market, and not by samples, is sale in some market for 7's. per bushel, not required by law, and would be at. and refused.
tended with very bad consequences. In a late pamphlet published here, The acts 5° & 6° Edw. VI. only pro( A letter to the Lord Provoft), the laws vide, that no person shall buy corn coof France with regard to the corn-trade ming to market, or dissuade those who are referred to, as published in a late are coming, otherwise he shall be deemed book, (Dictionary of commerce). Corn a forestaller. 2. That no person buy to is there a contraband commodity, and fell again within four miles, otherwise cannot be exported without permission; to be deemed a regrater. 3. That no and even the inland trade of corn is put person shall go about buying to sell aunder restrictions: combinations among gain, otherwise be deemed an ingroffer. merchants are punished by a fine, and But that every one, notwithstanding this incapacity: no corn can be purehased law, is at liberty to buy for his own use in the field before it is reaped; no meal without coming to market. That if the can be bought by dealers within ten contrary should take place, a baker in Jeagues of Paris : dealers are obliged to a village where there was no market, register their bills of parcels as foon as might be obliged to hire a team, to their grain arrives; and if spoiled, must fetch corn fix or eight miles, through fell it in the boat,
impassable roads, which perhaps his next On the other hand, it has been ar. neighbour had carried the fame road to gued, That the present scarcity has been sell; and a village might be ftarved in occasioned by the universal failure of the midst of plenty, because they could last year's crop; that in many places of not carry their corn to and from market, England last harvest was not one half on account of the roads, in the depth the ofual bulk, and the apparent bulk of winter ; That the price would be thus did not produce more than half the increased, and not lowered; and it would former quantity; that the smallness of cost to a day-labourer one day out of the grain this year is a complaint all fix, to provide himself at market, when over the nation; that some farmers who he might be provided by his next neighofed to sell thirty quarters wheat and bour. That it is imposible to make any thirty quarters barley, can sell this year regulation as to the quantity which each none of the one, and very little of the farmer should be obliged to fell weekly; other ; that the farmers in general are and if all were forced into market at not to blame, but rather to be pitied; once, it would occafion a glut for a time, that, besides their bad crops, their sheep but a greater scarcity afterwards. That are rotten, and servants wages exceflive it is impossible to fix the price of grain high. The remedy proposed is, That by a general ftandard of the whole kinggentlemen of fortune should raise a fund dom, without the pernicious consequenby subscription, in order to buy corn forces of interrupting the free circulation of the use of the poor, to be given to them, grain from the plentiful to the scarce either at prime coit, or gratis.
counties. The remedies proposed
are, 1. That exportation, which has not be sufficient. Quantity was wanted; occasioned so great an increase of agri- and if this could be obtained, no art culture, should now be stopped for a li- could keep up the price of grain : but mited time. 2. That distilling should no other method could effectually reduce be probibited. 3. That importation the prices. In order to this it is proposhould be encouraged. 4. That roots fed, that diftilling from wheat should be and other garden-stuff should be raised, prohibited for a time, and that the duespecially such as come in before har- ties on importation fhould be suspended vest; that carrots sowed in spring will be while the prices continue high; it is aeatable three months before harvest, and verred, that the wheat consumed by dipotatoes ready long before corn. [52.] stilling in England would maintain
In a paper (Observations on the present 500,000 persons for a year, which is a bigh prices of corn) printed last January greater number than are fed upon wheat here, it is mentioned, That the crop from York northwards; and it is con1755 was so scanty, that very little old tended, that if the aforementioned me. grain remained on the approach of last thods should not prove sufficient, diftilharvest : That the season 1756, from its ling ought to be totally prohibited, and beginning, was unfavourable; much even malting, or that a bounty upon land remained unsown, and much was importation for a limited time ought to sown in bad condition ; the whole fum. be granted. mer and harvest was cold and rainy ; In another paper printed here, (Memuch grain was destroyed by the rains morial for the royal boroughs of Scotland), and winds, and what remained was in the same causes are assigned for the pregeneral not fully ripened ; so that, up. sent scarcity, and the same remedies are on the whole, we have not had in Bri- proposed. It is further mentioned, That tain so bad a crop these thirty years past ; though all possible methods should be and that the greatest part of the north taken to increase the quantity of grain ; continent of Europe has suffered almoft yet care should also be taken to prevent equally. That notwithitanding the pro. any unnecessary consumption of foreign hibition to export, the prices continued grain, that so no more money than is to rise. That the proclamation against absolutely necessary may be sent abroad ; forestallers and ingrossers, had a contra. that therefore all obstructions to the difry effect from what was intended : That fusing the present grain in the country these laws can only be applied, in sound equally to all parts, should be removed ; policy, with regard to the neighbour- particularly that the riotous practices of hood of great cities; but that the west ihe mob, which only tend to inhance part of our island, though extremely po- the price to the populous counties, by pulous, produces little grain, and in the increafing the risk and charge of the best years requires to be supplied from corn-merchant, should be prevented ; the east coast. This renders traffick in that the old injudicious laws 5° and 6° corn absolutely necessary at all times, Edw. VI. and 5° Elif. against forestalbut chiefly during times of scarcity : but ling and ingroffing, were indeed mitigathis trade cannot be carried on without ted by an act 15° Car. II. cap. 7. $ 4. acting contrary to the letter of the old whereby all persons are allowed to buy statutes against forestalling and ingroff. in open market, and lay up in granaries, ing. That the late proclamation occa. in order to sell again, all kinds of grain, fioned riots in the plentiful counties, when the prices at market do not exceed which prevented the furplus corns from per quarter che sums therein specified, being carried thence io those places riz. wheat 48 s. rye 32 s. barley or where it was wanted. That the inland 'malt 28 s. oats 13 s. 4 d. buck wheat commerce of corn ought to be made as 28 s. pease and beans 32 s. : but that free as possible, that so the produce of this correctory law is imperfect; because last crop may be equally diffused over though wheat and barley feldom or nethe kingdom. But that this alone would ver reach the prices fpecified, yet oats
E e 2
are generally above 13 s. 4 d. per quar- tumults usual in times of scarcity, it is ter, by which all commerce in that are proposed, that such riots should be made ticle still stands prohibited ; and the ju- felony; that the expence of the prosecustices in Northumberland and Durham tion should be paid out of the countyhave taken advantage of this, in order stock; and that the damage done to the to prevent the exportation of their fure proprietor of the corn should be paid by plus oats. A further obstruction is men- the hundred or district, allowing the di. tioned in the comimerce of British corn, strict relief against the county in case of viz. that of exacting coast cockets and conviction. In order to increase the bonds for all corn carried coastwise. quantity of grain in future times, it is The rise of this custom was, that before proposed, that no tenant shall be kept the reign of K. William the exportation from ploughing above an eighth or a of corn was not encouraged, but on the tenth of his farm, provided he do not contrary a duty on exportation was pay. till more during the latter half of his able. In order to secure this duty, it tack than during the first; and it is awas necessary that bonds should be grant. verred, that the tendency of landlords ed for the landing of corn shipped in order to make conditions against tillage in to be carried coastwise, otherwise such their
leases, arises from the bad husband. cargoes might be carried abroad without ry of tenants, who generally thereby expaying duty. But now that the expor. haust the lands; whereas it is certain, tation of corn is encouraged by a boun- from the experience of Norfolk, that, by ty, these cockets and bonds are altoge- a proper succession of crops, land may ther unneceffary and abfurd; and ac- be kept perpetually in tillage without cordingly the city of London was relie- being exhauited. ved from this by act 1° Anne, cap. 26. In another English paper arguments
It is mentioned in a paper published are used for prohibiting diftilling, not in England, after many arguments in only on account of the present scarcity, favour of the general principle of giving but because of the pernicious effects of a bounty on exportation, That popular spirituous liquors : and the evidence talicentiousness, aided by private craft, ken at the bar of the house of Commons have conspired to raise the price of bread in the year 1950 is recited; by which it higher at present than it would have ri- appeared, that the number of patients fen by the real scarcity; that till the in- in the London hospitals had increased furrections in the neighbourhood of War. between 1704 and 1718, from 5612 to wick [xviii. 409.) Toon after last har. 8139, i. e. fomewhat above one fourth veft, no want of corn was apprehended in fourteen years; between 1718 and either in the eastern or southern counties 1734, from 8189 60 12,710, or 13,000, of this kingdom ; but as soon as the a i.e. above one third in fixteen years; larm was spread, the farmers every but between 1734
from where grew watchful, prices rote by de- 13,000 to 38,147, i.e. near three times grees, and the appearance of want pro. the number in fifteen years ; and the duced the effects of real scarcity. This great increase in the latter period was. wsiter maintains, That the revival and attributed chiefly to this cause, that the enforcing of old laws against forestalling poor, in place of buying bread, lived aland regrating would rather contribute to moft entirely upon gin, and eat very ftarve than to feed great numbers of poor little: and it appeared, that one house in many places ; that the establishing an in seven from the Hermitage to Bell afiize of corn, as of bread, is impraai- wharf, was a gin-shop ; that there were cable; because the price of corn depends about 16,000 houses in the city of Lonon che varieties of seasons and the quan- don, and about 1050 licences granted tity produced in this island and in neigh- yearly to victuallers, which was about bouring countries, whereas the price of one house in fifteen ; that there were abread depends only upon the price of bout 17,000 houses in Westminster, of corn. In crder to prevent the riots and which 1300 were licensed, and 9co un.