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licensed fold liquors, which was about 1755: Thatthough the crop 1756 was not one house in eight; that in Holburn die perhaps more remarkably bad here than vision there were 7066 houses, of which some of the others, yet in England, and 1350, licensed and unlicensed, fold li. over all the north continent of Europe, quors, which was about one house in five that crop was worse than any that has and one fourth; that in St Giles's there occurred for thirty years paft; and even were about 2000 houses, and 506 gin- here the crops of barley, wheat, and fhops, which was about one house in pease, are universally complained of : four; and that there were, besides, in That in a country which does not grow the said parish of St Giles's, about 82 enough to supply itself, the price of its twopenny-houses, of the greatest infa- produce must always depend upon the my, where gin was the principal liquor prices in that country from which it is drank. The gin-act has in some supplied ; and that therefore our prices measure reformed this abufe.

muft depend on those in England: That, Another writer reduces the causes in years of moderate plenty, the surplus from which a scarcity can arise to four grain exported from England does not, heads: 1. Inclemency of seasons ; 2. by the best computation, amount to one Want of tillage ; 3. Consumption in ar- thirtieth of the growth; and it is not surtificial uses ; 4. Exportation. He says, prising, that a bad season should dimi. That when a scarcity arises from the nifh the produce to a greater extent than two first causes, the effect of the other this furplus, since a bad crop of wheat two ought to be prevented : That with does frequently not amount to one half regard to tillage, it has not yet come of a good one ; besides, a considerable to a proper height in Ireland, nor has a. quantity was exported this year before ny bounty been granted in England on the prohibition took place That the the exportation of white peale : That late proclamation against forestallers, the annual exportation is computed at &c. though well intended, had very bad 500,000 quarters of wheat, and the di. effects; it gave a general alarm to the filling at 450,000 quarters; that when- whole kingdom, and to all Europe, that ever a scarcity requires the bounty should the crops in England had failed : This cease, the distillery ought to be discou. had the same effect as a general combiraged by an additional duty; and when nation would have had amongst the exportation is stopt, a double duty ought farmers, landlords, and dealers; it occato be imposed on distilling; and if the fioned mobs, and even the interppfition prices fill increase, distilling should be of justices to prevent corn from being eprohibited : That the bounty on wheat qually diftused over the country : That should cease when the lowest price of the statutory prohibitions, not to sell but wheat is 4 s. per bushel ; when above in public market, and against interpofi6 s., exportation should stop: That a tion between the grower and consumer, few great markets on each side of the can only in common sense be applied to kingdom should be appointed to return the neighbourhood of a great city, or to to the commissioners of the costoms districts which consume their whole proweekly an account of the prices of grain, duce : That interposition is not only nethe average of which the commissioners cellary, where the grower and consumer should certify to the council monthly er live at great distances, but it is not atquarterly, for the proper proclamations. tended even with the consequence of rai

In a paper printed here about the mid- fing the price by passing through more dle of February, (Remarks on observa- hands; for the corn-merchant, by aptions), which is more particularly adapt- plying his whole attention and capital to ed to the causes of the present dearth in that iingle branch, is able to make purScotland, it is observed, That for six years chases at the lowest rates from the farm. paft vast quantities of grain have been ers, and before any general alarm is tayearly imported from England, and par- ken ; that he has more exact, early, and ticularly to supply the deficiency of crop regular information, of the real degree

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of plenty or scarcity from every crop; ny years past; and that even English and he can also save very considerably wheat, barley, and oats, are fold cheapon every article of freight, insurance, er here, than at London, or at any ocommission, and other incidental char. ther English port of consumpt. This ges; and accordingly, in England, the can only be attributed to the skill and manufacturers of grain, and the corn. honefy of the corn-merchants, who by factors or merchants, are entirely distinct, purchasing their grain immediately after and yet they can afford to sell their bis- harvest, while it was cheap, have been cuit and beer cheaper here than we can able to sell it afterwards at a lower price. fell our own : That the profits upon the It may be observed, that if hoarding corn-trade are not so great as is com- of grain by public authority were apmonly imagined; that the chief profit pointed after a bad season, it would be arises from the quick and certain returns attended with many good consequences. it affords, but that the most successful At present, after a bad season, the marcorn.dealers, upon an average of their kets are full, and the prices low for some whole fales for twenty years, or even time, which occasions a greater waste upon an average of their sales during a. than is necessary for the fubfiftence of the ny three years, have not made 2 or 3 inhabitants; but afterwards the prices per cent. clear profit: That at no time is rise intolerably high. By public hoardthe interposition of merchants so necessa- ing, the prices would rise sooner, but Ty, as during public scarcity ; because they would never rise fo high; and corn though the growers, when overloaded would be distributed to the people, as with grain, will fometimes themselves biscuit is to a ship's crew when a scarci. fend it in queit of a market; yet when ty of provisions is apprehended; by the demand is every where quick and which means the same quantity of grain frequent, they find it unnecessary to take will last longer. Corn-merchants fupthat trouble, nor will they fell but to ply in some measure the want of such those of the best credit; and those who public hoarding, and it is against their do not send to fetch it, must run the risk interest to act upon a plan different from of famine. It is averred, That the what the general good requires, They corn-merchants of this city have hur- may keep up their corn at the beginried to market all the grain they possi- ning of the season, and by that means bly could buy, either in Scotland or make prices rise earlier than they otherin England, and that the quantity they wise would; but they also prevent them have bought in Scotland is very incon- 'from rifing so high, because it is the siderable : That though in all times merchant's interest to sell off his corn of scarcity there have been loud cries a- before next harvest, otherwise he may gainst hoarding, that yet that practice lose more than he could gain. Although never prevails less than during such no corn-merchants existed, prices would times; because the most certain method always rise in times of Ycarcity beyond of gain to the merchant, is to hurry his what the real deficiency of grain would grain to market, in order to obtain quick require : for as soon as the alarm is geand frequent returns ; besides that the nerally spread, the farmers and growers high price requires too great a stock to immediately keep back their grain from permit of hoarding; and the risk of a market; and upon this footing it has fall in the market would make that a been computed, that one tenth defect in very imprudent measure, especially as the harveit, will raise the price of corn hoarding is attended with a very great three tenths, and that three tenths defect expence, and a risk that the grain may will near triple the price. . This has the be ipoiled. Another fact is averred, That same effect with an universal combinathe prices at the port of Leith have been cion, and is much more dangerous than uniformly lower for six months past than what is to be feared from the combinain any place of consumpt in the island, tion of corn-merchants. These gentleand this has even been the case for ma- men, by purchasing large quantities at


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the cheap season, are enabled to make thought that the stopping of the diftillery
high profits by a very moderate rise of would have reduced the price of corn :
the price; whereas it requires a very but the distillers are buying up large
considerable rise to afford a moderate stocks of grain, in order to resume their
profit to every separate farmer or grower. business at the expiration of the prohi-
Besides, the merchant, by his extensive bition : so that we humbly presume the
intelligence, knows exactly the real de- prohibition ought to have extended to
gree of scarcity, and will proportion the their buying any corn, as well as to their
price to that; whereas the farmer will extracting spirits from it."
often be deceived by the general appre At a catastrophe so affecting as that of
henfion, and raise the price for a time a family perishing for want of food in a
higher than in proportion to the real land of plenty, we should pause,—and we
scarcity: and though in the end he him. should weep, --was not the eye attracted,
self may suffer by this upon a sudden fall, and our indignation raised by this para-
yet the distress to the country in the mean graph which immediately follows it.
time must be very great; and it is un "It is imagined there will be thegreat-
doubted, that the merchant, by diffusing est concourse of nobility and gentry, &c.
the produce of the island equally to all this week at Newmarket races, that has
its parts, must prevent, unless in times of been known for many years past, there
real famine, the prices in any one place being several first-rate horses to start."
from rising to an intolerable height. The apprehension of many families

N. B. Our readers have seen by what methods perishing in extremity of pain, for want it has been endeavoured to lower the prices; viz. of fuftenance, while those who have moby an imbargo on all thips laden or to be laden ney enough already, are wresting their with corn, &c. in G. Britain and Ireland, Dec. 4. bread from them in order to get more, [xvii. 567.); by the act to prohibit the exporta: joined to this consideration, that great by the acts to discontinue the duties upon corn people, who should be the guardians of imported, and to prohibit the exportation of corn the poor, are wasting their time and from our colonies, passed Feb. 15. (57, 8.); and their money at Newmarket, maugre by the act to prohibit the making of spirits from the calamities both of famine and of grain (151.].

war, is enough to make an Englishman AREFLECTION. April 11. 1757. rather than in his own country. Lit. Mag.

forget himself, and wish to be any where HE

papers of the day are not on

ly a daily amusement, but a dai I wonder it has not occurred to some ly leflon in life. Every paper is a fort of your correspondents, during these of tragi-comedy, that represents the dif- times of necessity and complaint, to adferent distresses and pursuits of mankind. monilh the gentlemen who keep horses Each compiler is a picturesque historian, for pleasure only, to retrench them that presents you with something to laugh of their oats. Is it not a scandal, that at, and something to bewail ; and their these idle brutes Tould have three or four compilations, though a chaos of confu- feeds a day, when many a poor soul sed matter promiscuously jumbled toge- cannot command Half a mess of pottage! ther, are aptly expressive of the miseries

I am no enemy to the pleasures of and follies of mankind.

the chace ; but fo much a man, that I In one of the papers of this day you cannot see my horse pampered, wbile so will find the following melancholy ac- many of my fellow-creatures starve for

- We hear from Cumberland, want of the food beasts needlessly enjoy. thatcorn is so scarce there, that people ac -For God's fake, fportsmen, as that tually die for want of bread : and that diversion at this season of the year is dea poor widow and two children, after structive to the grounds, keep your beasts living some time on grains and bran, at their natural food, grafs or hay alone, were found dead one morning; the chil. which will not a little contribute to the dren had ftraw in their mouths. It was relief of the poor.

Cal. Mer. April 5.


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Thr. L.

fair all day




METEOROLOGICAL JOURNALS of the WEATHER. [xviii. 663-] In Ludgate Street, London, by fa. Ayscough.

Near Carlisle in Cumberland. Baro

Barometer Wind. WEATHER.

meter Wind.


D. 24/30,21 3539 NE

24 29,8038

S frost, and pretty clear 2530,16 37 38 NE ditto

25/29,94251 E

Jhard frost all day 2029,98 35136 NE ditto

20|29,7532 E

ditto 2730,133638

N m. sm. rain, clo. day 27|29,85127 E ditto 28 30,30 3713,8 N W fair day

28/29,90 34

E ditto 2930,44134138 NE m. sm. rain, fair aft.

29130,2 129 SE ditto 3030,33136 NE m. hard frost, fair day 30/30,1033

SE ditto 3130,22 3638

fair all day

35 N W gentle thaw all day J.

J. 113 0,1636/40 NE ditto

1129,75 32 S E gentle frost, and cloudy 229,7030137 NE ditto


E hard frost all day 329,853335 NE m. hard frost, fair day

SE ditto 3

29,6531 429,99 33/36 NE ditto

29,8635 E ditto 530,203135 NE ditto

530,10 SI SE

ditto 6/30,47 5134 NE ditto

6 30,2032


ditto 730,25|28|32 NE ditto


ditto 8130,8 2031

NE m. frost, clo. day 8 29,80 22 SE ditto 9|39,0 30 31 W m. frost, foggy day

929,50/27 SE extreme hard frost all day 1029,553235 SE m. sim. r. a. much fn.

1029,10 311 SE

morn. hard frost, fair day 11 29,373336 NE m. snow, cloudy day 1129,1033 W gentle front 12 29,4 134 36 | NW cloudy day

12/29,20301 Se ditto 1329.2 3437

SE m. fo. clo. rain & sn. a. 13 2 8,80 33 E m. hard frost, a little snow 1428,78 3539

NE m. r. & fn. much r. a. 1428,9032 E hard frost all day 15|29,11 37138

NE m. f. snow after, cl. a. 1529,44311 NE hard frost, a little snow 10/29,7834 36

fair all day

16129,5021 S hard fr. fo. from il till 1729,813136 m. hard frost, elo. day 1729,1033

S hard fr. snow 1 inch deep 18 29,5035136 SW

m, foggy, cloudy day 18128,9538 sw m. fr. noon th. small tho. 1929,363943 S W morn. sunsh. rain att. 19/28,6330 SW rain all day 2029,573642 SW m. sunshine, fair aft. 20129,1532

W morn. rain, aft. snow 21129,2 238 38 S morning fair, snow aft. 21129 35

SE Trair all day 22129,893537 | SW

22|29,2526 SW hard frost all day 23129,563638 SW m. clo. r. & sm. În. af. 23129,8 35 W m. thaw, sn. a. fr. fair. 24129,553439 S W m. frost, fair day 24 28,65137) SW m. fr. noon thaw, raio aft. 25|23,85|39|44


morn. rain, funín. aft. 25|28,25 34 S W m. frost, hail & snowy day 2628,96384 SW m. sunnh. fm. rain aft. 26 28,50 32 SW m. frost, thaw at noon 27 29,203 439 NW morn, frost, fair day 27|28,8034 SE m. frost and clo. snow night 28/29,1434 38 | NE m. frost, much snow e. 28 29 29

SE m. hard frost, fair day 29129,55 34 36 NWfair all day

2929,3023) Se ditto 30 29,80 34/36 NW m. sunsh. snow aft.

3029,65131 E hard frost, snow in morn. 31 30,6 31135

NW m. frost, snow ev. 3129,80|21 W bard frost, snow in evening F.

F. 130,2413034

NE m. frost, fair day 129,95|251 SE hard frost all day 230,263135 NE ditto

2 30,5 15 SE extreme hard frost all day 330,183032 NE ditto

329,72 251 SE ditto 429,90|2933

S m. frost, snow & clo. a. 4/29,20 20 SE ditto, with sho. of snow 529,603439

'm. clo. r. & clo. aft.

529,6 38 E gentle thaw, rain at 3 aft. 6 29,51 42/45

rainy day

628,7 44 S W small showers all day
729,41|1247 SW
fair all day

7 28,85|30sw m. showery, rain at 9 ev, 8j29,33|4347 SW m. clo, fair after.

8129,25135 w a shower at noon
930,7 137139NW
fair all day

W m. hard frost

, thaw all day 10.30,27140145 NW ditto

10 29,80 41 W tower at 8 m. fair day 11 30,49142145 SE ditto

1129,7033 W gentle frost 1230,30|3940 SE ditto

12 30 42 sw hard frost morning 1330,27 41 45 W ditto

1329,7037 SW m. showery, fair aft. 1430,1545146 W ditto

14 29,80 401 W Mower at noon, fair day 1530,44 44 46 | NW ditto

1529,95 48 W rain all day 1630,50145 +7

SW m. sunfh.clo. aft. 1630 140 W la small shower at 2 aft. 1730,554648 SW ditto

1729,90 49 SW fair all day 1830,35 40 48 SW fair all day

18/29,601421 SW ditto 1930,224449 s W ditto

1929,50 49 sw ditto 20130,13 46 48 SW ditto

20 29,50441 s W m. small Towers

fair all day

An abftract of the report of the general offi- power for the advancement of that fer

cers appointed to inquire into the condua vice; under these perfuafions, he was of Maj.-Gen. Steuart, and Colonels present at the council of war; where he Cornwallis and Earl of Effingham.

gave that opinion which seemed to him

to be most for his Majesty's service, conT

HE charge against these officers, fidering the circumstances of affairs, the

as contained in the King's war. ftate of the fleet, and the sentiments of rant, dated Nov. 22. 1756, was, their all the gentlemen that were present. not joining their respective commands in The substance of Col. Cornwallis's the island of Minorca. The board of written defence was, That being congenerals, which consisted of Sir John fined to his house by a severe illness for Ligonier, and Lt-Gen Hulke and five weeks, and hearing that the officers Cholmondeley, and met Dec. 8. 1756, belonging to Minorca were ordered to were also to inquire, whether they had repair to their posts; in four days from used their utmost endeavours to throw the time he could poffibly go out, he rethemselves into Fort St Philip; and why, paired to Portsmouth, March 26. in a being only passengers, they allifted at the state of health which an officer less desea council of war, which advised an im- firous of going to his duty, would have mediate return to Gibraltar.

pleaded as an incapacity. --That he Gen. Steuart, in his defence, ac

never perceived any disinclination in the quainted the board in writing, That ha- Admiral to endeavour to land him, and ving received the King's orders in No- therefore no necessity for asking him to vember 1755, to repair to Minorca, to do what he was ordered to do ; that on serve under and be assisting to Lt-Gen. their arrival off the island such an appliBlakeney, he prepared to obey them as cation would have been improper, on foon as possible; but no ship of war was account of the dispositions made by the sent to the Mediterranean till Mr Byng's Admiral on descrying the French fleet; {quadron failed: That in February fol. and the unfortunate engagement renderlowing, being informed that his Maje. ed their landing afterwards impractifty expected he would set out immediate cable. That he aslifted at the counly, he applied to Lord Anson for a ship cil of war because he was summoned by to carry him, together with some officers the Admiral, and looked on himself as and recruits belonging to the regiments under his command ; and nothing hath in Minorca : That the Revenge was ap- been more common than land and fea pointed; but before she was ready, officers fitting together upon sea councils. Adm. Byng's squadron was ordered, and of war. Col. Cornwallis added veron application to that Admiral, he the bally : “ May I be permitted to say, General, with the officers and recruits, that I have been now upwards of twenwere distributed on board the several ty-fix years in his Majesty's service, and ships of his squadron.That with re- employed upon more service and greatgard to throwing himself into Minorca, er variety than perhaps any officer of my heknew that Adm.Byng had orders to put years and standing in the army; that it them on shore ; and therefore a particular has been my good fortune, during the application was in itselfunnecessary; and course of my service, never to have had rendered ftill more so by the appearance a reprimand, or even rebuke, from any of the French fleet on their approaching fuperior officer; and that I have had the the island, and the measures thereupon honour to serve under the several genetaken by the Admiral.That as to ral officers appointed for this inquiry, his aslifting at the council of war, he was and I flatter myself they will bear tesummoned by the Admiral, and being ftimony of my zeal for and forwardness an officer fent on the same service, and in the King's service upon all occasions." having the same point in view, with the The Earl of Effingham's written deofficers of the fleet, and bound to co- fence was much to the same effect as operate with them to the utmost of his that of Col. Cornwallis. VOL. XIX.

F f


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