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The government therefore has allow- 1. They shall be received immediateed this number of boys to officers, not ly upon application, and taken care of only because they are necessary in the in a proper place, where they will be fhip, but because by this means every accommodated with fire and beds, and ship becomes a nursery of young fea• three meals a-day, of good bread, and men, who acquire skill and itrength to- broth, and roots, and meat, till they gether, and are not only able, but ex. are sent on board. pert sailors, before they are one and 2. If any that offer are distempered, twenty years of age.

they are immediately put under proper 'These servants, however, it has been methods of cure ; and when they are found very difficult to procure. The sent on board, they are completely fitpoor vagrants, who are covered with ted out with cloathing and bedding. filth and rags, and fubfilt either by beg- Thus are men and boys stripped of ging or by pilfering, had no immediate their rags, cured of their distempers, inducement, wretched as they were, to and fent clean and well cloathed, with enter on board a ship, where they must as good bedding and accommodations at once renounce their lounging and as any common seaman on board. As idleness for constant activity and la- to the lads, if they are fixteen or sevenbour, and if they had at any time a teen, they are very soon qualified to retransient wish for such a change of fitu. ceive wages as seamen; and as to the ation, they did not know how to apply men, the distinction between landmen to bring it about: the officers who want and seamen on board, which used to ed them, had neither time nor oppor- create animosity, and subject the landtunity to search and folicit them; and men to some hardships, is loft, as they the gentlemen who reside in the country, are no longer known by their apparel. though they might be inclined to ren- These accommodations, besides that der the children of their poor thus ser- they are an immediate inducement to viceable to their country, there being lads and men to enter, are lo necessary no establishment to which they could to health and life, that for want of them apply, had no means of putting their many have miserably perished, who intention into practice.

might otherwise have been of fingular But besides that it is desirable for e- service to their country. very ship to have its complement of The advantages are not less to the boys, it is desirable in a time of war, community than to the individuals; for that not more than one third of the num- .it procures a speedy supply of stout maber should be less than fixteen or seven. riners in the room of those who in the teen, because it would be too long be. prosecution of a war must necessarily be fore those that are younger can be rated cut off, at the same time that those eas seamen ; nor can they create a quick vils are prevented which the idle and succession of youth into the service of dissolute poor of the rising generation officers, as a state of qualification. It would produce if they had continued at must also be observed, that the youth home. that are procured, lose several advanta- To obviate any ill consequence that ges by the difficulty of procuring others: might arise from this encouragement, for an officer, when he loses a servant, and prevent the entering of children and loses his wages; and he will naturally apprentices unknown to their masters be unwilling his servant should be ra- and parents, such matter or parent who ted as a seaman, when he knows not misses an apprentice or child, are invi. how to get another.

ted to see the boys at Mr Fielding's, The view of this society, therefore, where they attend every Thursday from is to encourage the industrious poor to nine to eleven for that purpose; or at send their children to sea, and invite the Seamens office over the Royal Exo the vagabond and pilterer, not only boys change, where the fociety meets on the and lads, but men, to become useful to fame day, and ats from eleven till two, the state by the following advantages.

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and upon producing the indenture of an and greater breaches of our constitution. apprentice, or reclaiming a child, they No laws can be better guarded, than will be immediately discharged.

those now set aside; and therefore we Those who would take the advanta- may fear, that others may, in like manges offered by this society, are to apply ner, be turned out of doors, if a majo. to the society at their office over the rity of men, who find them unfavourChange, to Mr Justice Fielding in Bow. able to their cause, should get into the ftreet, or to the secretary of the society assembly. The distinction used on this in Prince's street, near the Bank. occasion, between fustaining the com. REASONS of DISSENT from a ed could not be done, and receiving the

miflions in question, which it was yield. vote of the general assembly of the church gentlemen who bore them as members, of Scotland, of May 21. 1757,, receic which actually was done, exposes rather ving the commissions of several elders than vindicates the sentence, as it proves not attefied in terms of a 9. al. 1722. it a violation of a law acknowledged to

TE are sensible, that there may be be in force. Any person, on this prin.

many decisions, against which it ciple, may be introduced into the assem. would be unnecessary, nay indecent, for bly; though he has no title, the court a minority to dissent; but we judge the a. can receive him! bove sentence of such dangeroas tenden- 3. The sentence difsented from, was cy, that we are bound to testify our dif- not a strained interpretation or tempo. approbation of it, in as strong and pu- rary suspension of a statute in a private blic a manner as good order, and the cause, but a breach of it in the constirespect we owe to this venerable court, tution of that court which has the deci. do permit. On this account we entered fion in the laft resort of all other causes, our diffent; and, in support of it, we and a great share too of legislative now offer the following reafons. power. No class of laws are more juft

1. This sentence appears to us a niam ly accounted barrier-acts, and ought to nifest violation of a tanding law, by be more sacredly preserved from conwhich, until formally repealed, our oro tempt or violation, than such as these. dination vows bind us to conduct our. A power to dispense with law in other selves. Our commissions from our con- instances, will not infer it in this; beftituents impower us, in all causes that cause, if a court is limited in any respect, come before us, to determine according it must be limited by those laws which to the conftitution of the church of Scot- regard the admission of its members, land; but veft us with no power of de. While such laws ftand in force, no pertermining in a manner contrary to that son whose commision is not agreeable conftitution. It is the glory of our church, to them, has a right to fit in a court. that he hath noble and excellent laws The giving therefore a feat in this veto direct every part of her discipline; nerable affembly to men who have no laws, which, without the consent of a legal title to it, appears to us as great a majority of presbyteries, even a general stretch of power, as it would be to exassembly hath no right to abrogate. clade one whose title was clear and un. But claims of dispensing power will as contested. Other laws; by distance of effectually invalidate laws, as even a time, may lose some of their force; but formal repeal of them. It is the very the laws in question are annually apessence and security of a free constitu- plied, and therefore may be justly confition, that there, not men, not judges, dered as annually renewed. but laws, bear rule. When laws are 4. Of all the laws regarding the elee. suspended, dispensed with, or set aside, tion and qualification of members of af. by the decisions of any executive court, sembly, few or none are more important that security ceases, and despotism pre. than those now in question. They revails.

quire elders to be faithful in the discharge 2. This vote opens the way to other of their office, tender and circumspect in

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ute their walk, punktual in their attending on exercising discipline upon ministers or o.

ordinances, Äriet in their obfervation of the thers who live unsuitably to their pro. Lord's day, and regular in keeping up the fefsion ? and would not diversions of the worship of God in their families. To fe- most insnaring tendency, find in them cure the choice of men thus qualified, assured patrons and zealous supporters ?

commissioners from royal boroughs must We charitably hope, that no member to:

be first attested by kirk-sessions, as best of the assembly who gave his vote for acquainted with them, and least capable receiving the unattested commiffions,

of being imposed upon ; next, they, as had this view of the matter ; and no ya well as the presbytery's own representa- such thing may have hitherto happened : 134 tives, muft be attested by the presbytery yet, as it is evidently pollible, we trust

itself; and, lastly, a committee of as- we will be forgiven, for expressing our
sembly is appointed to canvass all, that fears, left, in any future period, some
fo no man of doubtful character may be such event should take place.
admitted to fit in this court. The stress 5. Such a decision is peculiarly unsea-
laid in fcripture upon the positive reli- fonable at this time, when the decay of
gious character of church-officers, fuffi- religion is so great and visible. Is it
ciently warrants all this. In the office of possible to conceal or dissemble the great

deacons, an office inferior to that of el. progress of impiety and irreligion in 61 ders, the scripture infifts, that they Scotland these last thirty years, the re

fhould hold the mystery of faith in a markable desertion of the house and orpure conscience, and first be proved; dinances of God, and neglect of familyand being found blameless, admitted to religion, especially among those of highthat office. Whoever are not attested er rank? Is not the Lord's day openly in terms of act 9. assembly 1722, for a. profaned, by unnecessary travelling, idle ny thing legally known, may be persons vifits, and ill-timed amusements? And of riotous and disorderly lives, despisers is this a season to make the world imaof divine ordinances, and unwilling, a- gine from our conduct, that neglect of

fraid, or ashamed to worship God in the worfhip of God is a light crime, no thai their families. And shall a door be 0. way inconsistent with a religious cha.

pened to admit such to bear rule in the facter? If presbyteries cannot find gen-
church? Can the interest of religion re- tlemen whose characters they can safely
ceive a severer stroke? The man who is attest, shall the assembly but seem to
void of true piety, is but poorly quali- give any fanction to this depravation of
fied to be a civil judge. But here the manners, and thereby contribute to ac-
danger is vaftly greater. Civil laws may celerate that corruption, which is evi.
be thoroughly understood by a wicked dently ruining us both as a church and
man; and if he is poffefsed of a juft and as a nation:
sound judgment, he may see it for his 6. We apprehend, that by this vote
intereft

, at least in general, to act up the assembly have acted as much against rightly: but the laws of our Redeemer's the spirit of the law, as against the form.

Spiritual kingdom, his enemies, as they With respect to several of the commifde

do not love, so they cannot understand. fions received, it was not so much as Such may be expected to turn the edge pretended, that the defect was owing to of discipline the wrong way; to infia the miftake or forgetfulness. Why then did censures of Christ's church, not upon not the presbyteries attest the commis. those who despise his laws, but on those fions of these elders ? Was it from averwho obey them; and in all struggles be- fion, or want of respect? Their honourtween the interest of religion, and that of ing them with their choice is a demon. profanity, to add strength to the last. ftration of the contrary. Was it from Would they not give their votes and in. ignorance of, or inattention to the ne. Auence for filling vacancies with useless cessary forms ? The printed form which minifters ? would they not discourage all presbyteries have before them in attestattempts for censuring immorality, and ing commifions, makes this highly im

probable.

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probable. Had not the assembly then phrase introduced, of not faftaining the juft ground to fospect, that they were commiffions, but receiving the members receiving members, not only in the eye that bear them. An end is. put to the of the law, but in fact and reality, un- use of the committee for revising comqualified ; and that the presbyteries, miffions, and a door opened for filling however willing, did not, because they the assembly with men of the most ex. could not, attest them ?

ceptionable characters. If it be faid, that the gentlemen atteft- 8. This decision, in itself so contra. ed are good men, but restrained by mo- di&tory to order, must naturally be pro. desty from worshipping God in their fa- ductive of the greatest confusion. For inilies ; we admit, that, in some few as the commissions of all members bear, instances, a wise and good man may that they are to consult, vote, and dewant courage to pray before others ; but termine according to the acts and conthe elders of our church do not seem de- ftitutions of this church, as they will be ficient in speaking with all becoming answerable; what if presbyteries should boldness before numerous and venerable call their members to account, for thus courts, where one would think modesty voting directly in the face of a standing would operate as strongly as in their law? What more plausible accusation own houses. Befides, the station of some could they found upon that clause of the of them enables them to keep chaplains, commission ? and yet what confusion as their fathers did. After all, truly re- must be occafioned, if in different proligious and modest men should rather cesses any general assembly should be decline being members of assembly at called to determine the legality of votes. the expence of setting aside a rule so im- in that which preceded it ? portant, than, by claiming a seat in this

9. As our public acts and constituvenerable court, introduce such as want tions have the sanction of the civil law, other appearances of religion, as well and as many of the decifions of the fuas family.worship: for let it be obser- preme court have an effect on civil pro. ded, that family-worship is not the only perty : such a dispensing power affumed religious qualification which presbyte- in making up the court itself, may prosies are straitened to atteft. And there. voke parties who suppose themselves agfore the argument of modesty, however grieved by the determination of any quemuch regard we pay to it, is far from Ition, to protest that the court has been being conclusive.

illegally conftituted, and therefore the 7. We think we have the greater rea. whole proceedings absolutely void and son to complain of such a decision, as it null. Thus they may refuse to obtem. seems to be the conclusion of a gradual per sentences, till the civil courts shall progress that has been made by differ- again decide and confirm them. Many ent assemblies in this matter. It was al- less plausible pleas have occasioned proledged in the reasoning, that the church cesses carried even to the court of parwas resolved to suffer this rule to go in- liament. And as we have often to do to desuetude. And in fact we find, that with bodies of men in the settlement of though, no longer ago than assembly parishes, if they should learn this way 1744, all informal commissions were re- of bringing on a new trial, or at least jected, and a special act made to pre. expreffing their resentment by protract. vent the like for the future, yet since ing the execution, how troublesome and that time several have been received. how unhappy would be the confequences! In 1753 informalities were overlooked ;

Jo. WITHERSPOON, (of Beith.] but it was declared it should not be a

Tho. WALKER, [of Dundonald.] precedent: but now commissions want

ARCH. WALKER, [of Temple.) ing the attestation in terms of act 1722,

THOMAS RANDALL, (of Inchture.] are received without any such proviso. A

John ERSKINE, (of Culrofs.]

GEO. DICKSON, (of Bedrule.] period therefore seems to be put to all

DAV. BLAIR, (of Brechin.] questions upon this subject, and a new : JA, WALKER, (of Leuchars.]

METEO

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METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL3 of the WEATHER. (196.]
In Ludgate street, London, by fa. Ayscough.

Near Carlisle in Cumberland.
Baro

Baro
meter Wind. WEATHER.

meter Wind. WEATHER.
F.
2129,2346 S m. fair, clo. & sm. r. a. 21 29,60 49 S w m. showery, fair day
2230,24 48 52 SW m. cloudy, funih. afi. 22|29,4545 S W m. Imall rain, fair day.
2330,4

88
51 SW

2329,2047 SW m. fair, rain aft. & night.
24 29,854851 SW m. sunsh. fin. r. a. 24|29,40 451 SW some small Towers
2529,7449 51 SW m. clo. fm. rain a. 25|28,90 40 SW rain till 8 m. fair day
26 29,95 47 51 SW

m. sunsh. rainy day 2629,4240 SW thowery all day 2730,40 40 43 NW fair day

27 29,98 34 N W m. shower of Inow, fair day 28 30,5237 43 SW m. cloudy, rain aft. 28 29,70 46 s W morn. rainy, aft. fair M

M 1/30, 35 40 50 SW

129,90143

w fair all day
230,45 47 54 SW
ditto

2 29,80145 SW ditto
329,78 42 8 SW
ditto

329,45|42 s W hail and rain even.
430,2 3943

m. fair, hail & rain a. 429,80 30 N m. frost, snow even.
530,3234/36 | NW m. frost, fair day 530,5 134 N W hard frost all day
630,333436 N m. frost, Neet & clo. a. 630,1524 NW ditto
7|30,4 35137 | NW m. fm. rain, hail aft.

44 N la shower at 8 morn.
8130,1435 38 SW

8 29,3035

S

Irain from 8 mora. 9129,43|3742

SE rainy day, fair ev. 929,6 1421 SW m. fair, rain aft. 1029,803537 SE m. snow, snow & r. a.

10 29,4230 W gentle froit, snow in ev. 1130,7 33 37 NW m. frost, fair day 1129,60411 W gentle frost, fair all day I 229,893542 SW morn. fair, rain aft. 12 29,3237) sW rainy all day 13|29,784448 sw cloudy day

13/29,33 47 sw ditto 1429,7043 46 s W m. clo. & r. fair after. 14129,12401 W rain till 9 m. fair day 15129,3 43 40 | NW m. rain, r. & wind a. 1528,65351 W rain & snow till 2 ev. 1029,8638 41 SW m. fair, r. & wind aft. 1629,7536 N gentle frost, snowy all day 17 30,233842 N

sunshine, clo. aft.

17|29,8531 w m.

m. hard frost, fair all day 1830,22 37 47 SW ditto

1828,6048 sw mower of small rain m. 1930,8 45151 SW m. cloudy, fair aft. 1929,45 52 sw a shower at noon 2030,4 4444 SW m. r. & Neet, fair aft.

2029,55137 W m. snow, hail at noon 2130,1 47 52 | SW

21|29,15144 SW rain from ji in the morn. 2230,17 46 49 SW m. cloudy, fair aft. 22 29,45 36 s W m. fair, rainy aft. 2329,62 47 48SW m. fair, r. & wind aft. 2328,75 43 S w m. wind & rain, fair aft. 24|29,99 48 52 SW m. fair, rain aft. 24|29,20 37 sw thowers at 11, 4, and 6 25 29,70 47 50 SW m. cloudy, rain aft.

2529,5 34

W feet and snow most of day 2630,27 44 48 SW fair all day

26129,6544 S w gentle frost, snow on gro. 27|29,80 47 51|SW ditto

27/29,1040 SW Ja shower at 7 and 8 ey. 28 29,66 50 54 SW ditto

28/29,5 142 SW showery all day 29129,47 46 48 SW ditto

138 S W m. showery, hail at s ev. 30129,634952 S W rainy day

30129,131471

S rain till 10 m. fair day 31129,794852 SW m. cloudy, sm. rain a. 31:28,85

W a fhower at 6 m.& 3 aft. A. 1 29,214951 SW ditto

1129,5 131

E m. fair, rain aft. 2129,53 41 45 m. cloudy, much r. a. 229,5 43 S W gentle frost, fair all day 329,894445 NW m. rain & hail, fair aft. 329,50 371 N W hail & snow m. hail ev. 430,37|4852 SW fair all day

429,88147 W clear frost, fair all day
530,4649152 SW ditto

529,95140 SW fair all day
630,35145150
SW ditto

6|29,7042 S W m. showery, and at 6 ev. 7:30,25|4855 | SW ditto

729,6748 SW small rain all day 8 30,3319 55 ] SW ditto

829,80 541

S

Imorn. rainy, aft. fair 929,9251158SW ditto

929,30 451 SW m. sm. rain from 7 to 1o 1029,52 30153

SW

m. sm. rain, fair aft. 10 28,9342 SW in. gr. rain, ev. showery II29,1617151 SW m. fair, hail & rain a. 11 28,70 39 W thowers of hail & rain m 1229,88 42/45 | NW

m. cloudy, r. & clo. a. 12,28,3041 NW m. rain, funíh. aft. 13!29,34|41|47 W

1328,9534

S m. gentle frost, rain even. 1429,6714347 NW m. cloudy, [m. rain aft. 1429,2040 N m. fair, rain & hail af. 1529,77|41|47 NW hail, thunder, light. a.

1529,3034

W

fair all day 16 29,58 40 46 NE m. cloudy, fm. rain a.

fair day

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1629,25145

S m. gentle frost, rain ev. 1729,43 46147 W m. sm. rain, clo. day

17 29,2238 E m. Frost, rain n. & night. 18/29,88 49 53 S fair all day

18, 29,4248 SW rainy all day 19129,79 50 58 SE ditto

1929,231601 S rainy all day 3029,8550 55 SE ditto

S rain fr. 11 m. till 4 ev.

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1

2029,8 1411

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