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minions to be in imminent danger, made Queen engaged to take no part in the requisition of the fuccours promised by differences between G. Britain and the Empress-Queen, he received a very France concerning the limits of their unsatisfactory aniwer, of which the pu- respective poffeffions in America, in blic then knew nothing, but which fall which she said she was not concerned.

be afterwards taken notice of. Mean Both parties respectively promised, that · while we were informed, that plans for the one would not attack or invade any

diftrefling G. Britain were proposed by dominion belonging to the other during France to the King of Prulia; which, the course of the war between G. Briinstead of promoting, he would not wink tain and France. The Empress. Queen at. It was probably that piece of ge- guarantied all the French King's donerosity, joined to the answer his Bri- minions in Europe, against all powers tannic Majesty received from the court whatsoever, and for ever, the case of the of Vienna, that made him labour with war just mentioned only excepted. His particular affiduity to make up matters Moit Christian Majesty also guarantied with his nephew the King of Prullia. all the Empress-Queen's dominions withThe consequence was, that the two mo- out exception, according to the order of narchs concluded a treaty about the the pragmatic sanction. It was further middle of January 1756, by which his ftipulated, that if either of the contractPruffian Majeity renewed his guaranty ing parties were attacked, the other of the succeßion of the house of Hano- should furnith 24,000 mien, or an equiver to the throne of G. Britain; enga- valent in money, if demanded by the ged to pay off the residue of the Silesia party intitled to make the requisition. loan, reserving only a certain fum, which Most of the powers of Europe, as Spain, some specified at 20,000 1. Sterling, for Sardinia, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Denthe claims of his fubje&s before men- mark, and the States-General, were in. tioned; and promised to oppose the en- vited to accede to this treaty. The Entrance of any foreign troops into Ger- press-Queen declared, that, by entering many. The King of G. Britain, on his into it, the by no means intended to part, renounced all his rights and pre- break those engagements which subsisted tensions on East Friesland ; and renewed between her and his Britannic Majesty, his particular guaranty of all the domi. but that her. sole end was to prevent the nions which his Pruffian Majesty acqui- flames of war from spreading to her do. red by the cession of Silesia. Upon this minions. How she was to fulfil those the public not suspecting what was after- engagements, without sending succours wards openly told, supposed, that, by his to G. Britain or Hanover, if either of Britannic Majesty's mediation, the nego. them should be invaded, we are at a tiations between the Empress-Queen and loss to know; and yet the fending of his Pruffian Majesty, which had been long them does not appear to have been de. on the carpet, would soon be brought to figned. On the other hand, we are not a conclufion; and that a thorough re- certain in what light the King of Pruffia conciliation between the courts of Pe. considered his Moft Christian Majesty's tersburg and Berlin would be effected. guarantying all the dominions of the

It was well known, that this situation Empress-Queen without exception, acof affairs gave considerable uneasiness to cording to the order of the pragmatic the French ministry; but it was not long fanction, as the courts of Verlailles and before they began to tell us of their ha. Berlin have not yet come to public eving a treaty on foot with the court of claircissements on that subject; but as Vienna. Though an alliance of that Silesia made a part of the dominions, kind was looked upon to be so unnatu- which, by that sanction, were to remain ral, that at first few gave heed to what undivided, one would be apt to think, was thrown out about it, yet it was ac. that the French engaged to affift in rem tually brought to a conclufion at Ver- covering and preserving that territory failles che ilt of May, By it the Empress to the house of Autria.


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Not long after the signing of this manic body such a system as appeared treaty, we were told, that the Prussian most conducive to its safety ; that in conmonarch had wormed some secrets out sequence of those principles, he had of the secretary of the Imperial embassy neglected nothing which might most efat Berlin, who upon that disappeared. fectually support the house of Austria It was soon evident, that his Majesty even to the being ready to sacrifice al had conceived a strong jealousy of the that was in his power ; that the differen. house of Austria, in consequence of ces which had arisen between G. Britain which he ordered all his regiments to be and France, about their possessions in A. made complete. In effect the court of merica, having given birth to a design Vienna ordered a camp of above 50,000 in the latter power to attack the electo. men to be formed near Colin in Bohe. ral dominions of the house of Brunswick. mia, to be commanded by General Lunenburg, his Britannic Majesty could Count Brown; and another in Mora- neither obtain of the Empress.Queen the via, of 40,000, under Prince Piccolomi. fuccours ftipulated by treaties, nor en. ni. The King of Pruffia dispatched in- gage her to employ her good offices tostructions to his minister at Vienna, to wards altering dispositions of such states require the Empress. Queen to defift from of the empire, as through indifference her military preparations making in seemed in some measure to favour that those countries, which, in a time of pro- invasion; that his Britannic Majesty found peace, he could not but look up- thus found himself under a necessity of on as an open declaration of her hostile concluding an alliance with the King of intentions ; and said, that in case of a Prussia, for the security of their respecrefusal to defift, he was determined to tive dominions, preserving peace and march directly to the frontiers, so as his tranquillity in the empire, and defending enemies might gain nothing by an ill- the rights and privileges of the members timed delay. The Empress-Queen an. of the Germanic body, without prejuswered, That, in the present juncture, dice to either of the religions exercised She had found it necessary to make ar- in the empire ; that while matters stood maments, as well for her own defence, thus, the world was surprised with an as for that of her allies, and which did unexpected treaty of alliance which the not tend to the prejudice of any body. Empress-Queen had been pleased to conBoth sides carried on their preparations, clude with a power, which, for above and at the same time reciprocally char. two centuries paft, had dismembered the ged one another with being the first that most considerable provinces of the em; gave orders for putting troops in mo. pire, had attacked and invaded her arch: tion. The Empress-Queen, to justify ducal house, had fomented troubles anc her proceedings, published a rescript, in divisions in Germany, and made fuck which, among other things, the repre- means subservient to its own ambitious sented the treaty between the King of views, by usurping whatever lay conve. G. Britain and his Prussian Majesty as nient for it; that the inconveniencies calculated to raise the Protestant at the and dangers which this new treaty muf expence of the Roman Catholic religion. neceffarily be productive of, would, in In answer to that rescript, his Britannic time, be made manifest; and that as Majesty, as Elector of Hanover, caused the thing was not of such a nature as to a declaration be delivered to the diet at require being any longer made a mystery Ratisbon, importing, that he had heard of, his Britannic Majesty had explained with great surprise, that the treaty juft himself clearly on this subject, in order mentioned had been represented as a to diffipate the prejudices which might matter in which the state of religion was have been created by contrary ideas or concerned; that the whole empire knew fuggestions. From this it is easy to judge, he had made it a rule, to support the what must have been his Britannic Marights of each fate, without distinction, jesty's sentiments concerning the Emand to contribute to keep up in the Ger- press-Queen's gratitude, and the finceri


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ty of her declarations, that she did not King his master, not satisfied with the intend to break her engagements with Empress-Queen's declarations before him. The King of Prusia afterwards mentioned, and not chusing to dissemble,

advanced a very remarkable circum- could not avoid informing her, that he all stance, as attending the refusal of fuc- had received undoubted intelligence,

cours for defending Hanover made by that, in the beginning of last year, the the court of Vienna, namely, that the entered into an offensive alliance with Empress-Queen would not hear of grant. the court of Russia against him, in which ing any, unless G. Britain would enter it was stipulated, that the two Empresses

into a plot which she had formed a. should unexpectedly attack him, the ka

gainst his Pruffian Majesty's dominions Empress of Russia with 120,000 men, ud)

and poffeffions; and that his Britannic and the Empress-Queen with 80,000 ; be

Majesty, whose sentiments were too no- that this project, which was to have ble to adopt schemes incompatible with been carried into execution in May last his good faith, rejected all the proposals year, had been deferred till next spring, which were made to him. Had this only because the troops of Russia wanted been publicly known from the time it is recruits, the fleet sailors, and Livonia said to have happened, people would not corn to maintain them; that his Prussian have been so much furprised at the a- Majesty, advised from all quarters of larm which the court of Vienna was said such measures being taken and taking ato take at the King of G. Britain's ha- gainst him by the Empress-Queen as if ving renewed his guaranty of Silesia. he were at open war with her, thought Nothing can be more easy, than for a himself intitled to require from her 2 prince to give further security for what formal and categorical declaration, that he is fully resolved to perform ; nor for she had no intention to attack his domia court calmly to fee bars thrown in its nions, either last year or this, and that way against obtaining what it has no de- if an uncertain and inconclusive answer sign upon. But if a scheme is formed were given, her Imperial Majesty would for grasping at an object judged to be have herself to reproach for the consevaluable, the riper it is thought for exe- quences of that reserved behaviour, and cution, the greater vexation will any obu would confirm the intelligence of the Atacle give.

dangerous projects which she had formed · As, on the one hand, it had been re- with Russia against him. The court of presented that the treaty between his Vienna absolutely denied that there did Britannic Majesty and the King of Prus- exist, or ever had exifted, any offensive

fia tended to the prejudice of the Roman. treaty between her and Russia against ch

Catholic religion ; so, on the other, it his Prussian Majesty; and again asserted, was said, that the alliance entered into that the military dispositions she had orbetween the Empress-Queen and his dered were solely in consideration of Moft Christian Majesty contained cer- those of that monarch ;' but declined tain fecret articles; calculated for the saying any thing as to her intentions of total suppression of Protestantism, some attacking him last year or this now currespecting the Prince of Hesse-Caffel's rent. About this time his Prussian Ma. change of religion, besides arrangements jesty caused a piece be delivered to the prejudicial to the empire, in favour of Imperial ministry, in which he said it the Archduke Joseph's being elected was notorious, that the court of Vienna

King of the Romans. All this the court began her armaments in Bohemia and be

of Vienna denied ; and complained, that Moravia in the beginning of June, soon upon these foundations a proposal had after the had contracted new engagebeen made to the Proteftant courts, in ments with France, and at a time when order to draw them into a league against neither the Empress-Queen, nor any of the house of Austria.

her allies, had the smallest grounds to On the 18th of August, the Profian apprehend a surprise ; that he had the minifter at Vienna declared, 'That the greater reason to attend to these disposis VOL. XIX,



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tions, as he received advice at the same otherwise; and that the informations time of the march of a considerable bo- which his Prussian Majesty had received, dy of Russians towards Courland, which of an offensive alliance, against him, bedetermined him to cause a few regiments tween her and the Empress of Russia, advance into Pomerania, but that he or. were absolutely false and invented. dered them to halt so soon as he heard By that time the court of Vienna, the Russians bad marched back; that the with proper assistance, had got differenmarch of those regiments towards Po. ces between the courts of Petersburg and merania ought naturally to give the court Versailles entirely accommodated ; and, of Vienna no more umbrage, than the with the same affistance, induced the march of some Austrian regiments to. Empress of Rollia to thew as great coldwards Tuscany would give him ; and ness to his Britannic Majesty's interests that, notwithstanding the great prepara. as herself had done, by refusing to retions made by the Emprefs-Queen, he ceive from him the first moiety of the had made no motion towards her terri. fubfidy he had engaged to pay her in tories. He challenged the court of Vie confideration of succours she was to furenna to point out any other object of his nifh for the defence of his dominions, armaments, than the defence of his own A formal treaty had been concluded bedominions; and said, that if her Impe- tween the Empress of Russia and his rial Majesty's intentions were as pure and Most Christian Majesty, by which the fincere as she in all places assured them latter guarantied to the former all her to be, she needed only give his minister conquests made upon Sweden, in such a clear, precise declaration, free from manner as never to support any claims all ambiguity and equivocation, which to be made to them; and both parties would effectually restore the public tran- engaged to labour for securing the indiquillity. He expressed his willingness visibility of the house of Austria's estate to believe, on the Empress-Queen's af- as settled by the pragmatic sanction, for furances, that her treaty with France maintaining a good understanding with contained no other articles than what the Ottoman Porte, and for encouraging had been published, and that the would the Grand Signior in his pacific sentiagree to no project which might be con- ments. trary to Proteftantism; but observed, This also appeared unfavourable to that she could not take it amiss, if the the King of Prussia; and he supposed Proteftant princes should be on their that his only chance for safety lay in a guard in such a critical conjuncture, vigorous exertion of his whole force. when the validity of the act of security Accordingly his troops began their given by the hereditary Prince of Hesse- march towards Bohemia on the 28th of Caffel, for maintaining the established Auguft. That same day his minister at religion in his country, was openly at- Dresden demanded a passage for them tacked, and a discovery had been made through Saxony; declaring, that they of the secret intrigues of the Emperor's should observe the stricteft discipline, and minister and Baron Hurtzrock, to carry that all care should be taken of the counoff that prince, and take him from un- try which circumstances would permit; der the authority of the Landgrave his that his Polish Majesty and the royal fafather ; who had publicly complained of mily might depend on being in perfect the affair, but obtained no fatisfaction. safety, and having the greatest respect The Empress Queen's answer was in paid them; and that his Prussian Majesubstance, That the critical state of pu- fty desired nothing so much as the reblic affairs made her look upon the mea. establishment of peace, in order to give sures fhe was taking, as necessary for her him the happy opportunity of restoring safety and that of her allies, without pre- the King of Poland to the quiet poffefjudice to any one ; that her former de- fion of his dominions, against which he claration was so clear, that she could ne had not, in other respects, formed any ver have imagined it could be thought dangerous designs. The King of Po


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land made answer in writing next day, themselves with the utmost diligence, to that relying on the declarations made prevent the discovery of a secret which him, he granted the passage desired ; and has brought vaft sums of money into declared his intention, not to take any Saxony. part in the differences which had arisen His Prussian Majesty in person took between his Prussian Majesty and the possession of Dresden on the 8th of SepEmpress-Queen.

tember; where, as we were assured, he The Prussian troops, to the number of treated the Queen of Poland, and the about 60,000 men, entered Saxony by rest of the royal family there, with the three different routes. One body of greatest politeness. them having advanced to Leipfic, the Even after the King of Prussia had enfame day they entered that city'a decla. tered Saxony, he caused his minister at ration was published by the general who Vienna once more ask the Empresse. commanded them, notifying, that as his Queen, whether the would engage not Pruflian Majesty intended to consider and to attack him either that year or the curdefend the subjects of that electorate as rent one ; promising to recall his troops if they were his own, he had given the on receiving a precise and satisfactory most precise orders to cause his troops answer. The answer was, That the parobserve the stricteft discipline; but that ties were at peace; that to contract an at the same time provisions must be re- engagement of this nature, was to congularly furnished them. Notice was al. vert the peace into a truce ; and that the lo given, that all taxes and customs were Empress found the condition too inconto be paid to his Pruffian Majefty; and fistent with treaties to accept of it. His his officers took possession of the custom- Prussian Majesty had formerly representhouse and excise-office, while the magam ed, that the court of Vienna, by her rezines of corn and meal were ordered to fusal to give him those positive assuranbe opened for the use of his troops. The ces which he thought every one at peace like declarations were made, and the with his neighbours had a right to delike conduct observed, in other places. mand, by continual artifices, and haugh

It would seem that his Polith Majesty tiness, proposed to drive him into a war, bad well foreseen the march of the Prus- in order to have a pretext for reclaiming fians, and resolved on the measures he. the assistance of her allies; and also obwas to purfue. For he had just before served, that though he should be obliged assembled the whole troops of his electo-. to begin hostilities, he would not be the rate at Pirna, which is a craggy rock, aggreffor, the aggression being juftly imjoined on one hand by the fortress of putable to that party alone which had Sonnestein, and on the other by that of stirred up enemies against, or formed dea Konigstein. Behind Pirna and Sonne. figns of invading the dominions of the itein runs the Elbe, amidst rough and other. Being fully convinced by this inaccessible rocks. On the other side, last answer, that nothing was to be efand in the places especially of moft easy fected by further representations, his miaccess, the Saxons had laid great num- nister retired from Vienna the 16th of bers of vaft pine-trees, which they had September, without taking leave; and felled upon the spot. To this trong soon after, the Imperial minister left camp the King of Poland, with his two Berlin in the same manner. fons, repaired on the 3d of September; By that time the Pruffians had invest. the rest of the royal family still remain. ed the Saxons at Pirna on every fide. ing at Dresden, capital of Saxony. The Several messages had passed between the ! principal archives and most valuable ef. King of Poland and his Prussian Maje. fects of the family had been carried to fty, the former of whom still offered to the fortress of Konigstein ; with all the observe an exact neutrality ; but the lattools and materials made use of in the ter infifted, that in order to render this porcelane manufactory at Meissen; the more certain, it was proper the Saxon workmen at the same time dispersing troops should return to their former quars.

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