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on the other : the worst that can be said, sent, but that of itself fufficient, which amounting only to this, that the bene- our staple manufacture affords, and to volence of his disposition prevailed over which most of our young people have the rectitude of his judgment.
been accustomed ; or if not, may easily
learn it in a few days ; I mean spinEDINBURGH PAPERS, June 25.
ning. So easy and so saleable are the A polity for employing the poor. coarser kinds of this work, that even
governments, there are none more do a great deal towards gaining a liveeffential than those which concern the lihood. What deficiencies there will industry and subsistence of the people. be, we may affert, from the humanity An attention to the former generally ren of this country, which has Mewed itcures the lattar. There must then be some self remarkably at present, even though very remarkable defect in the police of ill directed, that they will be chearfully a country, when a number of its inhabi- made up by the public. tants willing to be industrious, cannot Suppose, then, that certain houses, viz. get work; or when they are industrious, poor-houses, hospitals, churches, &c. cannot maintain themselves and families were appointed, to which the poor might by the product of that industry. This refort, and there find fax, wheels, and is our situation at present in Scotland, persons to teach, and keep them busy. and calls loudly for redress. The greatest They might work from fix in the morn, number of poor who ask charity, de- ing to eight at night, and receive a cerclare, that they are able and willing to tain proportion of wholesome food. This work; and the whole commonalty de- would be the only material charge upon clare, that their industry is not able to the public, and their work would go a maintain them at present. It is not im, great way towards the discharging of it: posible but that our situation may be spinning-mistresses could be found amore deplorable for the two ensuing mongst themselves. This plan might months; and perhaps the subsistence to be to easily executed, that I can see no which our people are most used, may material objection to it. It would free fail altogether, as it has already done us effectually from all beggars, repress in some parts of the highlands. idleness, and promote industry: for
Amongst all the maxims of politics, which advantages any country may there seems none more certain, than think themselves happy to pay. that the public should find work for such As to the second article, of diet, our as are willing to work, and subsistence great business, in the present situation, for those who do. On what particular as we have no magazines, is to supply branch of the legislature of this country, and keep down the markets as much as and of our towns, lo necessary, so hu- possible, by introducing different kinds mane, and therefore fo agreeable a tak of grain, which are wholesome and lies; and who fould immediately fu- cheap. Amongst there, I know none perintend its police, is no very difficult that will serve the purpose better than question to determine. How to remedy rice. It costs indeed about a halt more is, is perhaps more difficult.
of original price than what oat-meal I must confess, it is not easy to find a does; but then it appears to compen. fpecies of labour for a promiscuous num. fate this difference, by the greater quanber of poor, collected from the streets tity of nourishment which it contains, and roads, by which they may be ena- and the ease with which the stomach bled to supply themselves, in part, or extracts it ; while the oat-meal not onin whole, with provisions. Had the ly contains less, but, being too strong present situation been thought of sooner, for the ftomachs of fedentary people, many different kinds might have been affords not all the nourishment which a. (itablihed, which would have served therwise it might do. That rice affords this purpose. One occurs to me at pre- more nourishment than other grains,
appears from the proportion of it used of bread with herring, falt fish, or any
inquiring into the merit of bis defence of creased in bulk five times; while barley,
Minorca. [28.] used in the same way, only increased [See our plan of St Philip's, vol. 18. p. 225.] betwixt three and four times. That we TN this letter a charge is brought amay know of a resource in case our
consisting grain fails; that we may keep down following articles. the markets by bringing it there ; that I. That instead of going his rounds those who can afford a variety may have at stated times, to visit the several works, a change; and that those whose fto- and see that every man was alert and in machs do not agree with oat-meal, may his post; or shewing himself in time of know how to supply its place at near- action at the batteries or ramparts; he ly an equal expence, I shall subjoin the kept himself fhut up during the whole method of preparing it, as published in time, in his own house, giving directions the city of Bristol ; for there, if what about things which he never went to has been said needs any further confir- fee, and relying for his knowledge of mation, the poor ar present are maintain- what was doing, or done, both within ed by distributions of rice ; being a and without the place, wholly upon the scheme of the Rev. Mr Tucker, a name intelligence of others, whom his exam. well known in trade, and in many po- ple might at once induce and encourage lities which concern the good of the to neglect their duty, or execute it by people. From him I had the following deputies. receipt.
To prove the fact alledged in this are
ticle, an extract is made from his Lorda The East-India manner of dressing, rice;, ship's evidence on the trial of Adm. which is earnestly recommended to be used Byng, in which his Lordship declared, by the poor of this city and country, as one that " it is the duty of a governor to of the best and cheapest methods of Jupporto remain in one fixed place, to receive his ing themelves and families in this time of intelligence, and to give his orders; beuniversal diffress, and of making the cha- cause if he goes to the outworks, it is ritable donations which they now receive impossible to say how long it may be beto go the farthefi.
fore he is wanted." That this is not Take a pound of rice ; wash and pick the duty of a governor during a fiege, it clean from stones, chaff, and dust, if is proved from the most celebrated milia there be any in it ; add three chopins tary writers, who have given particular of water and a spoonful of salt; put it directions concerning his visiting the over the fire ; and when the rice is fo works, and inspecting all things with far boiled as to begin to be soft, take it his own eye; and by the examples of off, and strain it through a hair-fieve; the greatest commanders in similar cire then let the strained rice, being closely cumstances ; particularly, Marshal Bou. covered down, remain to soak over the flers, in the defence of Namur and Lille; fteam of the water for an hour or up. Charles III. in Barcelona; the Duke of wards. The rice, by that time, will Savoy, in Turin ; and the Prince of be greatly swelled, and will feel dryish, Hesse, in Gibraltar, who had more men and is fit to eaten directly. To make killed about his own person, than the it relish the better, and go the farther, garrison of Sc Philip loft during the it may be seasoned with pepper or o- whole siege; yet he held out, and killnion, mixed with milk, or eaten inftead ed the besiegers 10,000 men.
II. That so far from keeping a jour. these houses; and and all the mortarnal of the fiege, as the celebrated Fau batteries, which killed most of those that quier advises every governor to do, he were killed, were raised just behind did not take a single minute of any e them. They served for trenches, for a vent, as he publicly declared in court; lodgment within the works, for barracks from which it is inferred, that a journal and quarters of refrehments, for masks of the fiege would have shewed, what to the batteries of cannon, and a cover it was his Lordship's interest to conceal. to the mortars and bombardiers from all
III. That inftead of laying all the the fire of the fort. country open to the cannon of the ram.
IV. That instead of employing a proparts, which is a rule of war so well per number of peasants to destroy the known and established, that an attempt roads, to imbarrass the enemy in their to explain or defend it would be equally march, and prevent their bringing up abfurd, he suffered a number of houses their heavy artillery, the powder was to stand within 150 yards of his princi. left unfired under many parts of them pal outworks; which in this case was that had been undermined, and might the more inexcusable, as the soil about have been spoiled by the touch of a St Philip's is almoit a bare rock, in match ; and this very powder the Miwhich no trench could be sunk, and the norquins stole away, after the soldiers enemy therefore could have had no other had left the ground under which it was cover than these houses, which his Lord- deposited. fhip's courtesy left them; of which they V. That instead of driving the cattle were fo fensible, that they could not into the garrison, or otherwise putting forbear alking, after the capitulation, them out of the enemy's reach, the “ How came your governor to leave whole stock of the island was left to acthese houses standing for us?”. An at- commodate the enemy with food and tack upon the works of a fortified place draught, at the same time that the fol. can never succeed, except the assailants diers in garrison justly complained that are near ; the assailants were not near, they were in want of fresh provisions, nor could come near any work but the and could not procure so much as a mess Queen’s redoubt and the Argyle, which of broth for the sick, though there were they approached under favour of these places enough in the fort, where a stock houses; and when the general assault of sheep, at least, might conveniently was made quite round the place, all the have been kept. attacks but these failed, because they VI. That the garrison was suffered were made from a great distance; and to be without wine by the most unacthefe succeeded, because they were be- countable and inexcusable neglect and gun almost close to the works, and the improvidence. The houses of St Phienemy got over the palisadoes before lip's were deserted upon the first news of they were perceived. But if these hou. the enemy's landing, and the cellars fes had been destroyed, the attack of the were left full of wine, which the soldiers Queen's redoubt and the Argyle would were ordered to throw away, merely have failed like the others, for the same that they might fill the casks that conreason. The success of the attack on tained it with earth, and use them for these works was therefore owing to the blinds and traverses. houses; and the loss of the works was, VII. That the enemy, after they had at least in his Lordfhip's apprehension, taken the Queen's redoubt, were left in the loss of the place; for the next day the quiet possession of it, though by a he beat a parley, and surrendered. The vigorous and timely effort they might neglecting to destroy these houses was easily have been driven out. therefore the cause of the lofs of the VIII. The enemy was suffered, unplace. It is also remarked, that all the der pretence of burying their dead, to batteries of cannon which did real hurt pour in, through the palisadoes, double to the besieged, were placed among the number that had at first entered,
June 1757. An abstraft of the stamp and wine-licencè ait. 301
IX. That one whole regiment was suffered to stand still, ready drawn up,
An abstract of some parts of the act triand waiting for orders, during the two
césimo Georgii II. inuitled, An act for molt important hours of the attack, for granting to his Majesty leveral rates and want of an officer to command them.
duties upon indentures, leuses, bonds, and
other deeds ; and upon news-papers, adX. That the place was at lait surrendered, after the loss of only one out.
vertisements, and almanacks; and upon work, and less than one hundred men,
licences for retailing wine ; and upon coals. when the garrison confilted of 2760 men,
exported to foreign parts, &c. before a single cannon had been mount
Mos Gracious Sovereign, ed to batter the place in breach, while E your Majesty's molt dutiful and the counterscarp was in possession of the loyal subjects the Commons of besieged, and consequently the besiegers G. Britain in parliament assembled, tocould not approach the ditch, which, wards raising, by the most easy means; as well as the whole citadel, was mined the necessary supplies to defray your and countermined better than any o- Majesty's public expences, have freely ther except those of Turin and Tour. and voluntarily resolved to give and nay *. [xviii. 22.]
grant unto your Majesty the several K. William shot the governor of Dix. rates and duties, and sums of money, mund for surrendering five battalions, after mentioned; and do moft humbly without a breach or lodgment on the coun. beseech your Majesty that it may be terscap; and both friends and enemies enacted ; and be it enacted, approved the execution. The governor That from and after the 5th of July of Old Brisac was also beheaded for the 1757, there shall be levied and paid, fame reason in 1703. But the governor throughout G. Britain, for the use of of St Philip's, who lost the only work his Majesty, that was taken, by a manifeft neglect of For every piece of vellum, parchduty, and then surrendered the placement, or paper, upon which mall.be before the enemy had approached near written or printed any indenture or 0enough to be annoyed by a single mine, ther deed for which a stamp-duty of 6 d. among
many that were constructed is payable, an additional duty of is. for its defence; who having loft only [i.e. 1 s. 6 d. in whole.] 100 men out of 2860, marched out with For every news-paper contained in almost complete battalions, through the half a sheet or less, or not exceeding one gates, without a breach, and with full whole sheet, an additional duty of one bellies, has been honoured with a halfpenny. [i. e. in whole id. for a peerage, complimented with the free. half. fneet news-paper.] dom of cities, toasted at every table in
every advertisement in the Lonthe kingdom, followed from one public don Gazette, or any other printed paper, place to another with clamorous acclama- published weekly or oftener, an addi. tions, and recommended as a pattern of tional duty of 1 s. [i. e. 2 s. in whole.] military skill and personal bravery, to For every advertisement contained in every officer in the service.
or published with any paper or pamphled We should be extremely glad to whatsoever, published yearly, monthly, receive an answer to this charge; which, or at any other interval of time exceede houer er plausible, may probably be falla- ing one week, a duty of 2 s. cious; as it is not easy to concei'z'e, horu
every almanack for one year, or mismanagement so gross and notorious for any time less, printed on one side should have so long escaped the public no. only of one sheet or piece of paper, an tice.. Gent. Mag.
additional duty of id. [i. 6. 2d. in • The fubterranean galleries afford quarters and
whole.] Shelter to the garrison, impenetrable to shot or For every other printed almanack for Thells, and not to be come ai but by cutting a way one year, an additional duty of 2d, to them through the living rock. Armfirong. [i.r. 4 d. in whole.]
For every almanack made to serve And whereas the duties on such lifor several years, the said several addi. cences are subjected to the payment of tional duties for every such year. [The a yearly fum, as an equivalent for a reold duties are payable for every such venue vefted in the crown by an act of year by the old acts )
the parliament of England made before For every piece of vellum, parch- the union; and whereas it was agreed, ment, or paper, on which shall be writ. by the 14th article of the union, that ten or printed any licence for retailing the kingdom of Scotland ihould not of wine,-if granted to a person who be charged with any duties laid on shall not take out a licence for retailing by the parliament of England before either spirituous or exciseable liquors, an the union, except those consented to additional duty of 51.; — if to a per- by that treaty; and ought not to be son who shall take out a licence for re. subject to any part of the duties granttailing exciteable, but not fpirituous li. ed by this act, applicable as an equivaquors, an additional duty of 41.; lent to the said former revenue, or in and if to a person who shall take out a consequence thereof, but only to such a licence for retailing spirituous liquors, proportion of these duties as is appli. an additional duty of 40 s.
cable to the public fusvice; be it enactThat from and after the 5th of July ed, That in the respective cases where 1757, no person whatsoever, unless au a duty of 5 1. of 4 1. or of 21. is before thorised in the manner after prescribed, directed to be paid on a licence for reIhall sell by, retail, i.e. in any less tailing wine, the duty for licences to requantity than the measure of the cask or tail wine in Scotland shall be as follows, vessel in which the same fall have viz. where 5 l. is directed to be paid, been or may lawfully be imported, any only 31. 6 s. 8 d.; where 4 1., only 21. wine, or any liquor called or reputed 135. 4 d.; and where 2 l., only 1 1. 6.s. wine, on pain of forfeiting 100 l. for 8d. - (N. B. Notice was given, by every such offence, one moiety to the an advertisement published in the newscrown, and the other to the informer.
papers, and on the cover of the ma. That from and after the said 5th of gazine, dated, Stamp-ofice, Edinburgh, July, any two or more of the commif- June 13. 1757, and ligned, By order of fioners of the stamp-duties, and no o- the Commissioners, John Campbell, bead colther person whatsoever, shall grant such lector for North Britain, That the duty licences, under their hands and seals, to on licences for retailing wine in Scotsuch persons as they shall think fit, to re- lar.d, is as follows, viz, to those who tail wine in any place within G. Britain, sell only wine, 31. 6 s. 8d.; to those for one year from the date of such li- who produce a licence to retail ale and
other exciseable liquors, 21. 135. 4 d.; Provided, That licences granted be and to those who produce licences to refore the said 5th of July, by former com- tail both exciseable and spirituous limissioners, shall be good for the term quors, ul. 6s. 8 d.: That retailers of for which they were granted.
wine in Scotland, upon lodging their Enacted, That all such retailers shall, proposals, within the time limited, with as long as they continue so to retail wine, the head collector of the stamp-duties at take out a fresh licence for every year, Edinburgh, or his deputy, or with any the licence for the subsequent year ten of the sub-collectors of the stamp-duties days at the least before the expiration of in the country, and paying the duty, the current year, paying down the re- for which receipts will be granted by fpective sums due for such licences. the respective collectors, proper licences
That upon application made by, or in will be obtained for them respectively, behalf of any person not residing in and transmitted to the collectors to whom the weekly bills of mortality, for such they shall have paid the duty : and, licence, the commissioners shall deliver That all persons who shall retail wine or cause it to be delivered, upon pay. without being posielfed of licences, or ment of the duty;