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ries 339.

C ở N T E N T S.
Politics Speeches on a motion for passing the empire 367. Military operations in Well.
a censure on the treaties with Russia and Heffe phalia 368. The acts of the council of Illi-
Cassel, by Q. Horatius Barbatus 329. and C. beris found 370. The Empress-Queen's and
Plinius Cecilius 333.

the British ministers recalled -371. The A character of K. CHARLES II. by the Duke British vice-conful ordered to depart out of Oof Buckingham 337.

stend ib. The grand American aloe of OETRY. On Echard's and Bp Burnet's histo Munting budded at Leyden 372.

A song 340. On study ib. To --Lord Loudon and Adm. Holburne joined Mrs A tof P

dib. A pastoral 360. 372. The British land-forces in North Ame. Upon a dish of tea ib. F. W. ot fourteen, to rica 373. A list of the British and French Miss A. C. nearly of the same age ib.

fquadrons there ib.

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Proceedings of the POLITICAL CLUB, continued from p. 291.
The debate on the treaties with Rufia and ly, for the sake of Hanover, the beft
Hele-Calel continued.

way certainly is, to consider what oc

cafion we should have had for them, The speech of Q. Horatius Barbatus, who if it had not been for the sake of HanoSpoke next.

And in this light, I believe, eMr Preludent,

very one must clearly see, that we could F the Noble Lord who fpoke last have had no occafion for either of these

had resolved to argue in the most treaties, nor for any treaty with any distinct, regular, and clear man- of the powers upon the continent of

ner, he might have brought all Europe ; for considering the nature of that could be faid upon the subject now our prefent disputes with France, if a before us, into a much narrower com war should be the consequence, it is epass. For in order to determine, whe- vident, that an alliance with any one of ther the treaties now under considera. the wild nations in North America, tion were entered into chiefly, and mere. would be of more service to us, than



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an alliance with the powerful empire of Hanover from such an invafion, unlefs Russia; and I believe we might have the other powers of Europe should gepurchased the alliance of every one of nerously and freely concur with us in the wild nations in North America, the great undertaking : for if their con. for less money than we are, by this currence most be purchased, it is not treaty, to pay to the Russians. Even in our power to make the purchase, the Abenakies themselves, the ancient without neglecting entirely the profe. enemies of our colony of New England, cution of the war by sea and in Amerimight, I believe, have been purchased ca; and should our trade and plantations for a very small sum of money : and be exposed to the ravages of the French, there are many Indian nations upon the a national bankruptcy would probably back of our colonies of Virginia, Ma. in a very few years ensue; which would ryland, Pensylvania, and New York, render us unable to continue the war whose friendship might have been fe. in Europe for the defence of Hanover, cured at a very easy rate ; because they or to prosecute the war by sea and in are naturally our friends, and never will America, or even to defend ourselves be our enemies, unless we make them here at home. fo, by neglect, or ill treatment.

Then, Sir, with regard to any oblitherefore farprised to find, that whilft gation we may be under from gratitude, we have been running about Europe in I mail grant, that if his Majesty were search of allies who can be of no fer. to defire us to engage in a war, upon the vice to us, we have not as yet taken a continent of Europe for the defence of ny proper measures for fecuring allies Hanover, and to purchase all the alliin America ; which is the only place ances that might be necessary for that at land where allies can be of service purpose, we frould, in gratitude to him, to us; because it is the only place where for his mild and just government, be the French can attack us, or we them, obliged to run any risk, to expose ouro at land; and at sea it is not fo much felves to any distress, rather than not as pretended that we have occasion for comply with his desire : but as the enany allies.

gaging in such a war is fo contrary to It is therefore manifeft, Sir, that if it the interest of this nation, and so abfowere not for Hanover, we could have lutely inconfistent with its fafety, I am no occasion for any ally upon the con. fure his Majesty will never of himself tinent of Europe, much less should we defire any such thing; I am fure - he have occasion to purchafe fuch allies at would chufe to see Hanover exposed to the expence of large annual fubfidies ; a French invasion, rather than to fee therefore the next thing I am to inquire this nation involved in any

such danger, into is, Whether we are in honour, in or even in any difficulty. And as to gratitude, by alliance, or in common the electorate of Hanover itself, it is prudence, bound to engage in a war certain we owe it no gratitude ; for we upon the continent of Europe, for the never had any affistance from it, in any fake of protecting Hanover, or indeed of our wars, but what we paid the full any other state in Europe, against an price for ; nor has it ever contributed, invasion from the French? And, first, in any manner, to the increase of trade, with regard to what we may be in ho- commerce, riches, or revenue of this nour obliged to: As the electorate of nation. Hanover must be looked on as a state I come next to consider, Sir, what obin friendship with this nation, I shall ligation we may be under from alliance. grant, that if it were in our power, and And upon this subject I must observe, consistent with our safety, we should be that we have, for many years, been obliged to defend it. But in our pre- ftrangely infatuated with a love for treafent circumstances, I must insist upon it, ties of alliance, and treaties of guaranthat it is neither in our power, nor is it tee. As we are entirely separated from consistent with our fafety, to defend the continent, I never could see any oc

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casion we had for either. We can give have not now, so far as I know, any what aslistance we please, and when we treaty of alliance fubfifting? But if we please, to any power in Europe that had, no alliance could oblige us to ruin fhall stand in need of it, without any ourselves by alfisting our ally. For all treaty of alliance, or guarantee; and defensive treaties include, in their very no nation in Europe can give us any as- nature, two conditions ; one of which fistance, without exposing themselves to is, that the ally from whom the ftiputhe necessity of having a greater aflikt- lated succours are demanded, is not itance from us than they can give us. The self involved in war ; and the other conDutch, for example, whom we have dition is, that the ally who demands the been so long taught to look on as our ftipulated foccours, thall have provided most natural allies, could they give us fach a force as, in all human probabi. assistance against any state in Europe, lity, may, with those fuccours, be suffi. without thereby exposing themselves to cient to repel che invading enemy: for the danger of being obliged to ask a no nation is obliged to send its troops to greater assistance from us, than it is in the defence of an ally, when all it can their power to give us ? It is certain raise are become necessary for its own they could not. And for this reason, I defence ; nor is any nation, by virtue hope, that no demand will be made of of an alliance, obliged to send its troops the 6000 troops they are by treaty obli- to inevitable destruction. These thereged to furnish us with: at least, I hope fore are conditions inherent in the very that they will be wise enough to give a nature of all defenfive treaties; and both negacive to the demand, if it hould be may be pleaded as a full discharge from made by the advice of those who seem any obligation we can by alliance be to be doing all they can to involve us under, to engage in a war upon the in a land-war (123.] : for if no such continent, for the sake of protecting demand should be made, or if the Dutch Hanover against an invasion. fhould give a negative to the demand, Now, Sir, if we are not bound eithe French monarch could not have the ther in honour, or in gratitude, or by leaft pretence for attacking the Dutch alliance, to engage in a war upon the on account of a war with us ; and if he continent for fuch a purpose; can we be fhould threaten them, as the Noble Lord bound to do so by any rule of common was pleased to suggeft, every indepen. prudence ? Upon this head, Sir, I will dent nation in Europe would resent, and say, that it is contrary to every rule of would join in afsifting the Dutch to re common prudence, for this nation to pel such an insolent menace; in which give the least ground for propagating case we should have no occafion to bribe an opinion, either in France, or any any power in Europe to join with us in where else, that we will ever engage in the war against France, nor should we a war upon the continent, for the sake be obliged to take a greater share of the of protecting Hanover; because such an war at land chan might be consistent opinion will expose Hanover to be ato with our present circumstances, and our tacked upon every dispute with this navigorous prosecution of the war at sea. tion, and will make every prince whose

Thus, Sir, it must appear, that no aslistance may be neceffary for its de. alliance we have with any power upon fence, rise in his demands for what are the continent, no not even that we have fistance he is able and willing to give ; with the Dutch, can oblige us to en to which I must add, that it will make gage in a land-war, as long as we re- the Emperor and empire refuse to fulfil main without aslistance from any of our the obligation they are under to protect allies. And if this be the case with re- the electorate of Hanover, unless they gard to those with whom we have trea are hired at a very dear rate by this na.. ties of alliance now fubfifting, how much tion to do so. I say, Sir, the obligastronger muft it be with regard to the e- tion they are under ; for by their constilectorate of Hanover, with which we tution they are obliged to prote& every


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member of the empire who is unjustly pose ourselves to any expence, to any attacked ; and no quarrel or war with danger, rather than allow the electorate this nation can ever be a just cause for to be over-run by an invading enemy: attacking Hanover, as long as it pre- nay, that we will run the risk of absoferves a neutrality in the war.

lute ruin; for this will be the conse: These, Sir, will be the fatal effects quence, if our public revenue should of oar giving any ground for entertain. now be exhausted, and our public credit ing an opinion, that we will engage in annihilated, by supporting a war upon a war upon the continent, for the pro. the continent for the defence of the etection of Hanover, as often as it shall lectorate. And this gives me the greatbe attacked upon what may be called er concern, as there was not at present our account: and the certain conse. the lealt occasion for laying a founda

of this will be, that every prince tion for such an opinion ; because both in Europe who can attack Hanover, e. the King of Prussia, and the court of Vi. specially the monarch of France, will enna, had laid an interdiction upon a. endeavour, at every turn, to extort conny foreign troops entering Germany: cessions from this kingdom, by threaten- and after such an interdi&tion we could ing to attack Hanover; because they all not suppose, that the French would, in know, how expensive and inconvenient defiance of both these powers, attempt it has always been for this nation to sup- to invade the electorate of Hanover; or port a war upon the continent, and that that they could ever have reached that it will then be more expensive than it e- electorate, which lies in the middle of ver was heretofore.

Whereas, if we Germany, had they been mad enough once shew, that no attack upon Hano- to make the attempt. ver can give us so much concern as to By this interdiction, Sir, the electoengage us in a war upon the continent, rate was, without our interposition, and or divert us from prosecuting any war without our putting ourselves to any of our own in that manner which is expence, so effe&tually guarantied amoft convenient for us, neither the gainst any invasion, that I am afraid it French King, nor any other prince in will be suspected, by some of the neighEurope, will ever think of attacking Ha- bouring powers to Hanover, especially nover upon our account: and if any of the King of Prusia, that we were at the them hould, we must trust to the em- expence of these two treaties, not with pire, and the princes thereof, for ta a defensive, but an offensive view; for king care, that the French shall nevor with such a view treaties are often ennestle in the north of Germany, as well tered into, which from the terms in as for taking care, that no neighbouring which they are conceived seem to be on. prince shall make a conqueit of the e- ly defensive; and this treaty with Russia lectorate of Hanover; for their jealoufy points fo directly against the King of of the French will always prevent the Prusia, that I am surprised the Noble .former, and their mutual jealousy will Lord could suppose its being designed aprevent the latter.

gainst Sweden. If there had been any After having thus shewn the effects design against, or, any jealousy of that and the consequences of the opinion that kingdom, formerly deemed the most na· may be propagated in Europe, from our tural and convenient ally of this, the conduct upon this occasion with regard Ruflian troops ftipulated by the treaty, .to Hanover, I must observe, Sir, that, would thereby have been appointed to upon this account, the treaties now un. have been held in readinefs upon the der confideration give me infinite con- frontiers of Rufian Finland, instead of

They will certainly convince e- the frontiers of Livonia next to Lithua. very court in Europe, that this nation nia ; and the 7th article is almost a plain will always be ready to engage in a war declaration of their being designed aupon the continent for the sake of pro- gainst Prussia, which is the only country tecting flanover; and that we will ex- where it could be fuppofed that these



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