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which we hear in our electrical experi- infallible aim by the inftrument, may, ments, when re-echoed from cloud to by only a touch of his hand, instantly cloud the extent of the firmament, makes discharge a whole tier of guns, or so that affrightening found of thunder. many as shall be thought proper, so as
From the same principle I infer, says certainly to hit the mark, notwithstand. the author, that if a non-electric cloud ing the object aimed at, and the ship fidischarges its contents upon any part of red from, are both in motion. the earth, when in a high electrified 4. How a bomb, or carcaffe, may be state, an earthquake must necessarily en. thrown pointblank at the rigging of an fue. The snap made upon the contact enemy's ship, so as to burst with incre of many miles compass of solid earth, is dible violence while it is over the deck. that horrible noise which we hear upon I am well aware, that the execution an earthquake; and the shock is the of these proposals will, at firft fight, apearthquake itself.
pear to be impoffible ; and yet I affirm, This hypothesis is supported, and the that they can be as clearly and as easily objections which might be brought a- demonstrated, as the moft fimple propogainst it are obviated, by a great variety sition in Euclid. of arguments, drawn from the meteoro It is well known, that the more quick logical phenomena that have generally the whole quantity of powder in a piece preceded, accompanied and followed kindles, the greater the explosive force earthquakes; for which the reader is re- will be. ferred to the original, which may be Although the explofion made by ganlooked upon as an useful repertory of all powder be exceeding quick upon any that has been written of earthquakes, particle of it being touched by fire, yet and their causes. Gent. Mag.
the firing large cannon may be impeded
by damp air, mealy prime, and other GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. unforeseen cayfes, all which take place
in proportion to the thickness of the me Mr URBAN
tal, or the depth of the touch-hole. S. I am utterly unacquainted with The powder, when fired at the touch
the manner of applying to the hole in the common way, expands it. great, and yet think I have discovered self chiefly upwards into the open air ; some things worthy their attention; I whereby the discharge of the piece is beg leave, by your means, to make not only retarded, but its explosive force known my pretensions, and folicit en is rather diminished than increased. couragement.
But experience hath taught me an ea. I propose, by various improvements fy, fimple, and infallible way to remedy in the art of gunnery, to render it more this inconveniency, let the couch-hole effectual for the annoyance of our ene- be ever so deep; for my contrivance mies at sea, under the following heads. will instantly and effectually convey the
1. To shew, by a new method, how whole force through the touch-hole into a whole tier of guns, when loaded, may the powder in the chamber; so that the be brought forward, in order to be fired, explofion will immediately follow, or and placed, without difficulty or loss of rather accampany, the first kindling of time, so that their lines of direction will the prime, whereby the explofive force be parallel ; and how the ship may be will be rather increased than diminished. easily brought to such a position, that In firing ordnance in the common the guns will all alike bear on the enemy. way, the gunner, after having taken
2. How to discover infallibly, by the aim, must have some time to place himuse of a new mathematical instrument, self out of danger from the recoil ; and when the guns all bear troly on the ob- it often happens, that the piece hangs ject designed to be hit.
fire a small time after being touched; 3. How, with the assistance of a small so that, supposing the aim to have been apparatus, the fame person that takes exactly true, an object in motion may
escape out of the line of direction before, charging or priming be rendered in the explofion takes place.
the least more difficult or tedious. On But the method before hinted at will the contrary, the whole will be performeffectually remove both these causes of ed with more speed, safety, and certain,
delay in discharging large pieces, and ty, than in the common way, and with they will also cause the whole quantity of very little additional expence.
powder in the chamber to be kindled I propose also to discover à new meand discharged, upon the first touch of thod to know when a piece of ordnance the prime, as suddenly as a pocket-pistol, is exaâly in an horizontal position, in
In order to prevent delay in kindling order to discharge it when within point, til the powder in the chamber, recourse has blank of the object, and how much a
been had to small tubes of tin filled with piece is elevated or depressed; also, how prime. But there is foine trouble in the to elevate or depress it to any number of use of these tubes, which are besides of degrees and minutes required, with the
very fhort duration ; neither do they at utmost dispatch and certainty. ki all direct the expansion of the prime As to art. 4. I must obferve, that
downwards, so as to increase either the some inconveniencies occur in throwing speed or the force.
bombs at sea, by the methods hitherto But the apparatus I shall offer will be used, which render their effects extremedurable, and always fixed, so as to cause ly uncertain. neither trouble nor delay; and will ef For although it be very easy to throw fectually increase both the quickness of a ball or bomb so as to hit an object at & the firing and the force of the explosion. tolerable distance that stands perpendi
It sometimes happens, that the smoke cular to the horizon, or at an elevation of the guns that are first fired, prevents so as to come within the compass of a the gunners from securing their aim in fhip’s rigging; yet a bomb that is to be discharging the rest. But the person that kindled by a fuzee when thrown pointą takes aim by the instrument mentioned blank, will be of no more effect than a art. 2. may take the advantage of the common ball, there being no chance of windward part of the ship : for the ob. its breaking over the deck while it is fervation which secures the aim, may be passing the rigging, but the utmost protaken either from the poop, quarter- bability that it will pass through, and deck, forecastle, or any other part that lose itself in the sea. is most free from smoke, or other obstruc And as the distance of two ships at sea tions to the light; and it may from eicannot be truly and speedily determined, ther of those places be obferved truly there can be no probability of throwing when a whole broadside bears upon the a bomb at an elevation so as to fall withenemy.
in so small a compass as a ship's deck. By the help of one of these inftru But by the methods I shall offer, a ments, the person at the helm may, bomb, carcasse, or granada, may be without any directions, easily see which thrown with certainty pointblank at the way to bear, in order to cause all the rigging of an enemy's ship, so as to cause guns to point exactly at the enemy's the whole body of the powder to kindle Thip; and may also see how to keep the within the fhell, and burit the bomb fhip in that position till the whole broad with incredible violence the instant it fide is discharged.
approaches any part of the rigging. Whoever takes an observation by this These and many other improvements inftrument, may discharge all the guns I am ready to disclose and demonftrate, himself, or give the signal, upon which if properly called upon fo to do. it may instantly be done.
I am, &c.
A. B. The apparatus proposed will be fo very small, that it will not at all be in ** Any letter for A. B. that shall be left at commodious, either during the action, St John's Gate, will be forwarded by the direction er at any other time; neither will the the gentlemen has given us for that purpose.
A PA SI ORA L.
Be cautious, fair-one, how you taste its juice; 'Tis moderation justifies its use.
The draught is pleasing, was its virtue fo,
poison lurks conceal'd below.
See Lady Harriot, in her nineteenth year, Where Nature deck'd in all her richest dye, That life of frolic, and that all that's dear, With pleasing landscapes holds the ling’ring eyer With pallid cheeks, where roses usd to blow; Permit the muse to chant a rural fong;
With livid lips, where cherries lov'd to grow. For rural strains to rural scenes belong
“ Restore me, Doctor, to myself,” The cries, A shepherd youth beneath a beechen shade « Revive that light’ning which has fled my eyes. Thus song his griefs, as on his pipe he play'd. E'en Lady Charlotte plumes at my difgrace; Alack-a-day! why heaves my bcating heart That awkward thing, with bloated milkmaid face For one who scorns to cure its am'rous smart, My power usurp'd, the reigns at every ball, Who gives for love returns of cold difuain, Shines at the play, and sparkles in the mall. and adds not joy to joy, but pain to pain? Oh! could my beauty but renew its grace, What tho’in plants and herbs unmatch'd my skill, That beauty, fatal to her rival face, I know whate'er will cure my sheep, or kill? I'd have my lords, and beaux, as well as fhe; That boots me little, lince, alas! I find Instead of her, they then would die for me." No herb that grows can cure a love-lick mind. Her case describ'd, the doctor play'd his part, When I from love's corroding cares was free, And found her cure superior to his art. By turns I swam the brook, or climb’d the tree: A streak of bloom would sometimes paint her face, The first in ev'ry rurai sport was I,
But rebel paleness foon ufurp'd its place. And rare did fate the victor's prize deny: His phylic battled, other arts he tries; No swain like me could deftly turn the rhyme, Tea he forbids, or else lis patient dies. Hor dancing keep so true the measur'd time. Tea she gives up, since ev'ry med'cine fails, But now, alas! to no gay sport inclin’d, And health returns, as abstinence prevails. I load with sighs alone the passing wind; Alas! too soon her resolution falls, Alone I sit inactive all the day,
The Syren cup her eager with recalls: Nor tune the pipe, nor chant the sprightly lay. Spite of relaple, the long'd-for potion quaffs, Ah! would the maid I love no more deny Lords, beaux, and beauty, vanish at her draughts. The tender joy for which alone I ligh! (pear, Now view the roses faded in their bud,
Look round, my love, how gay the fields ap- Her nerves all trembling, and her stagnate blood; What blooming flow'rs adorn the rising year; Her eager hopes the fatal cup destroys, Yet ere 'tis long these Aow'rs will all decay, And sterner minifters grim Death employs. These fields appear as if they ne'er were gay: Forewarn’d, avoid the wretched Harriot's caso, Then by the forelock catch insidious Time; Left the same end attend your blooming face. The winter comes, enjoy these .hours of prime. Too large a potion is a dangerous thing, Scorn not a shepherd, vor bis rural sports; Just lip, or taste not that Circean spring; There's more content in cottages than courts. There potent draughts corrode the vital part, Tell me what bribe will gain thy wishful heart; But moderate cups exhilarate the heart. With all my fock to gain that bribe I'd part; Windsor. My brindled heifers and my milk-white kine, Pd freely give, could I but call thee mine.
F. W. a young gentleman of fourteen, to Miss Alas! fond boy, thy gifts the fair disdains,
A.C. of B-, a young lady nearly of the fame age, In vain the giver of his love complains;
infant strains permit me, faireft maid,
T.F. I feel more than the transport of a friend;
Whene'er I hear your name, my heart beats highs
Whence all these thrillings of my infant heart!
Whence all the joy you give! Oh! whence the Ail! fou'reign leaf, whose virtue can dif
Whence but from Love?-And yet all men agrec, To matrons modelty, to maidens sense; Childhood and age are from his empire fiec. U hole liquid eflence every climate charms, Thus Reason bids me what I feel disclaim, Whose balm enlivens, and whose spirit warms, And makes me change (tho' not the thing) the Green is by most admir'd, the female tea; I feel 'tis love! but must that pame suppress, [name. Some fill prefer the makuline bohea.
And only term it friendship in excess. From China's vase of variegated hue
Yet tho' our years admit a longer stay, [play. 'You gently lip the sweet nectareous dew: My heart forebodes 'tis more than childrens More humble Delf contents the rustic dame, Our riper years the smiling god may please; With glossy white, or brown of antique framę. The seeds are fown, and will with years increase; All , all unite in high and low degree,
O smile, thou fairest, and these trains approve, I has nothing was, or will be like to tea. And what is Friendship pow may soon be Love.
H I STORY.
T is fufficiently known, that the King HE following letter from Peters of Prussia, after the example of his THE
BURG Shews in what manner the glorious ancestors, has, ever since his French have begun their new correspon- accesion to the crown, laid it down as dence with the court of Russia. "Ma. a maxim, to gain the friendship of the ny were surprised at the departure of the Imperial court of Ruflia, and cultivate Empress and the Imperial family for it by every method. His Prussian MaCzaoskarzeloh, without first giving a jesty hath had the satisfaction to live, public audience to the Marquis de l'Ho. for several successive years, in the striapital, the French ambassador. The est harmony with the reigning Empress; reason was this. The ambassador ha. and this happy union would be still subving by his extroardinary politeness fifting, if evil-minded potentates had gained the good will of the principal not broke it by their secret machinations, ministers of fate, after being splendidly and carried things to fuch a height, that entertained on the 16th of June by the the ministers on both sides have been Counts of Bestuchef and Woranzofi, he recalled, and the correspondence brodemanded to be admitted to
ken off, dience of the young Prince, Paul Petro.
However melancholy these circumwitz, (who will be three years old on stances might be for the King, his Mathe ift of Odober next), as well as to jesty was nevertheless most attentive to that of their Imperial Highnesses ; prevent every thing that might increase which the ministers took time to confi? the alienation of the Ruslian court. He der of: and next day, the 17th, they hath been particularly careful, during told him, that they were ordered by the the disturbances of the war that now unEmpress to inform him, that if his Ex- happily rages, to fhun whatever might cellency pleased to content himself with involve him in a difference with that the established form of ceremonial at au- court, though he had just grievances to diences, and not insist upon being ad. alledge against them, and though it was mitted to the young Prince, who was publicly known that the court of Vienbut an infant, he might have his au
na had at last drawn that of Russia into dience of her Imperial Majesty and their their destructive views against the King, Imperial Highnesses whenever he should and made them an instrument for fadefire it. On the 18th, the ambalfa- vouring their dangerous schemes. dor dispatched an express to Paris; and His Majesty hath given the whole as he had not yet got an answer, the world incontestable proofs, that he was court are gone to their summer-castle, under an indispensable necessity of haand the ambassador will be forced to ving recourse to the measures he hath wait their return before he can have his taken against the courts of Vienna and audience.”
Saxony, who forced him, by their conThe Russian fleets from Cronstadt duct, to take up arms for his defence. and Revel having joined one another, Yet, even fince things have been brought the whole was said to consist of thirty- to this length, the King hath offered to one fhips, with 9000 land-forces on lay down his
proper securities board, all intended to act against the hould be granted to him. King of Prusia. For about fix months
His Majesty hath not neglected to the Russian land-army destined for the expose the artifices by which the Impesame purpose made very little progress; rial court of Russia hath been drawn inbut lately they began to quicken their to measures so opposite to the Empress's motions, and to inew that they were in sentiments, and which would excite the earnest. Upon this Marshal Lehwald, utmost indignation of that great princess, who commands in Brandenburgian Prus. if the truth could be placed before her fia, published the following declaration, without disguise. The King hath done on the 4th of July, in name of the King more.
He hath suggested to her Impebis master.
rial Majelty fufficient reasons, either to VOL. XIX.
excuse her taking no part in the present as his own territories shall be treated. war, or to avoid, upon the justest As to the rest, the King will soon pugrounds, the execution of those engager blish to the whole world the futility of ments which the court of Vienna claim: the reasons alledged by the Imperial ed by a manifest abuse of obligations, court of Russia to justify their aggreflion: which they employed to palliate their and as his Majelty is forced upon maanlawful views.
king his defence, he has room to hope It wholly depended upon the Empress with confidence, that the God of hosts of Ruflia to extinguish the flames of will bless his righteous arms, that he war, without un sheathing the sword, by will disappoint the unjust enterprises of pursuing the measures suggested by the his enemies, and grant him his powerKing. This conduct would have im. ful asistance to enable him to make mortalized her reign throughout all Eu- head against them. rope. It would have gained her more About 28,000 Russians, who marchlalling glory, than can be acquired by ed through Sanogitia, under the comthe greatelt triumphs.
mand of the Generals Brown and Fer. The King finds with regret, that all mond, at length invested Meinel, which his precaution and care, to maintain is the first town of Profiia on that fide, peace with the Rufian empire, are fruit- fituated on the north of the mouth of less, and that the intrigues of his ene the river Memel or Niemen; while a mies have prevailed. His Majesty fees part of the Russian fleet blocked it up all the confiderations of friendship and by fea. The place being but weakly good neighbourhood set aside by the fortified and garrisoned, and being briskImperial court of Russia, as well as the ly bombarded both by sea and land from observance of their engagements with the zoth of Jane to the 5th of July, it his Majesty. He sees that court march, then capitulated. Some say that the ing its troops through the territories of garrison were allowed to march off with a foreign power, against the inclination their arms. Others tell us, that the car, of that power, and contrary to the tenor pitulation was only for the town, and of treaties, in order to attack the King that the garrison retired into the cita, in his dominions, and take part in a del, where they hoped to make a fand war in which his enemies thus involve till Marshal Lehwald could come to the Rullian empire.
their relief. According to advices from · In such circumstances, the King hath Konigsberg, dated July 7. M. Lehwald no other part to take, but to employ the remained incamped near Infterburg, to power which God hath intrusted to him, watch the army under Marshal Apraxin, in defending himself, protecting his sube which was ftill in Lithuania, within a jects, and repelling every unjutt attack. few miles of the frontiers of Prussia;
His Majesty will never lose sight of and he had detached Gen. Kaunitz with the rules which are observed, even in
a body of troops towards Memel. In the midst of war, among civilized na. the mean time the inhabitants of the tions. If, contrary to all hope and ex. country had sent off their most valuable pectation, these rules should be violated effects. by the troops of Rusia ; if they com. By letters from STOCKHOLM we are mit in the King's territories disorders informed, that on the 6th of June an and excesses disallowed by the laws of ordinance was published there, and sent arms, his Majesty most not be blamed into all the provinces of Sweden, im. if he make reprisals in Saxony, and if, porting, that for the future there shall instead of thai good order and rigorous be in every parish of the kingdom a ma. discipline which have hitherto been ob- gazine of corn, suficient not only to served by his army, he finds himself fublift the poor in time of dearth, but forced, contrary to his inclination, to also to supply the inhabitants with what íuffer the provinces and subjects of Sa- grain they may want to fow their lands. xony to be treated in the same manner Great warlike preparations are making