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bigger than peale,' were dissolved tho- ving been immersed twenty-four hours, roughly, fome in one day, and the rest two grains of it only remained undiffolin two.

ved." This itone was not placed in the June 12. 1750. A stone weighing china bason, as the others were, but more than half an ounce, was placed in fuspended in a little loose woven net, the same manner as the former, and not that it inight more freely be washed by a grain of it remained on the fourth day. the water. Dr Lieberkuhn was at this At this time a clergyman who was in a time at Carlsbad; he was present at this course of these waters for gouty como experiment, and was witness of its truth, plaints, voided fix stones, which all were The net used in this experiment was codissolved in the same manner.

vered with a tophaceous cruft, from be, A nobleman who was afflicted with ing fteeped in the water. bloody urine, from calculi in the kid The next year, when Dr Lieberkuhn neys, came to Carlsbad' for the relief of returned to Carlibad, he brought with his complaints; and brought with him him, for experiment-lake, feveral cal. Some small calculi, which he had voided culi, fome of which were large ones, years

before. By Dr Lieberkubn's He made there many experiments, in advice, Dr Springsfeld divided these cal. which our author affilted. A large stone @uli into four equal parts, each of which was fawed into four pieces nearly equal. weighed six grains.". One part of these One of these, weighing ninety-nine was infused in the water of the source grains, was put into a little linen bag, called Brudel; the fecond, in the new and immersed in the source called Bru. spring; the third, in that near the mill. del; the second, in like manner, which In twelve hours the firft part had lost weighed ninety-lix grains, into that callfive grains; the second, four; and the ed the new Spring; the third, weighing third only one grain. The fourth por- ninety-three grains, into that near the tion was put upon a linen rag, which mill; the fourth was set apart for other was stretched over the bottom of a fun, trials. After four days immersion they nel. Into this funnel the nobleman were severally examined. The first had was directed to make water every day lost eighty-five grains; the second, thir, before dinner, after his having drank ty-three grains; the third, only fixteen his quantity of Carlsbad water. Upon grains. That it might be estimated in this, these calculi, after eight days, had what degree the folvent power of the lost two thirds of their weight, viz. Çarlsbad

water did exceed that of lime, four grains. It must be here remarked, water, the following experiment was that this nobleman, during the regimen, tried. Three pieces of calculi, each did void several small calculi, which he exactly thirty grains in weight, were had not done for some years. A larger put into separate phials. Upon one was quantity of bloody urine than usual at. poured some fresh egg-shell lime-water ; tended the parting with these stones; upon the second, some Carlsbad water; but this continued only two or three upon the third, some of the urine of a days, and afterwards went quite off; person daily drinking these waters for and this nobleman from that time was the recovery of his health. These phials relieved from his former complaints, has were all placed in one of the canals enjoyed, and does yet enjoy, the most which carries off the waste water from perfect health.

the baths. The degree of heat in this In the year 1754, our author became place was, by Fahrenheit's thermoinepossessed of a calculus, which was of a ter, 96, much the fame as the heat of Hinty hardness, and bore a bright po. human blood. The lime-water, the lish. It weighed a quarter of an ounce. Carlsbad water, and the urine, were He conjectured, that a much longer time changed every day, and the process conwould be necessary to dissolve this stone; tinued for fourteen days. Upon the but what was very remarkable, it dif- fifteenth, the remaining fragments of solved fooner than the rest ; for after hq, {tone were taken out of the phials, and


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weighed when dried. The piece ma- waters; upon the fourth, the urine of 'cerated in lime-water had lost one one perfectly in health, and who only grain; that in the Carlsbad water, six drank for his breakfast fome cups of tea.

grains; that in the urine, five grains. These phials were placed in the same According therefore to this experiment, manner with those before mentioned, the solvent power of the Carlsbad water and their heat kept constantly the fame. was fix times, that of the urine five Every day these calculi had fresh liquid times greater than that of the lime- poured upon them after the old was fewater.

parated. At the end of twenty days The solvent power of medicated urine these stones were dried and weighed. is of very great importance, and requires The fragment infused in oyster-shell more particular attention, as our great- lime-water was found to have lost al. est expectations in dissolving the stone in most three grains; that in Carlsbad wa'the bladder must arise from that. It ter eighteen grains; that in medicated was therefore very fit that our author urine fourteen grains ; but that infused 'fhould investigate, as far as was in his in the urine of the man in health had power, the solvent property of the urine increased three grains *. These experiof those who drank these waters. He ments therefore leave no room to doubt therefore fufpended to the end of a funnel a fufficiently hard and compact cal

[The lime-water used by Dr Springsfeld in 'culus, weighing about an ounce. This his experiments has certainly been extremely was contained in a linen rag, fo that effect upon the stones which were infused in is.

weak, otherwise it must have had a much greater the urine might readily pass over it; and The experiments of Drs Hales, Whyıt, and oa person who used the Carlsbad waters thers, thew, that lime-water diffolves urinary every morning, after having taken them, Atones much more quickly than happened in Dr constantly made water into that funnel; Springsfeld's trials; and very lately a piece of a from whence it came to pass, that on wenty-tbrce grains of its substance dissolved or

pretty hard calculus, weighing eighty grains, had the sixteenth day the stone was half dif- rotten, by being infused cwenty days in oyntetfolved, and the remaining part was be- thell lime-water. In this experiment the lime. come so porous and friable, that it al- water was renewed every day, and kept in a heat most fell to pieces. No one can sup- At the fame time a solution of half an ounce of

of about 1oo deg. of Fahrenheit's thermometer.pose, that the urine of a man perfectly the internal part of Spanish soap in nine ounces in health, would have the same folvent of water, reduced, in fourteen days, a piece of property ; left however that should hap- the fame calculus weighing thirty grains to twenpen, our author suspended a piece of a ty-six grains. In this experiment the folation of calculus, weighing two drachms, in the soap was only renewed once in three days, and

kept in a beat between 50 and 60 deg. same manner with the preceding, and

From these experiments, compared with Dr made water upon it himself many times Springsfțld's, it appears, that oyster-Nell lime-wa a-day ; but this piece of calculus, after ter dißolves the calculus faster than the Carlsbad twelve days, was so far from being lef- water; and that the lithontriptic power of a dolufened, that it had increased two grains tion of soap in a heat under 60 deg. is to that of the

Carllbad water in a heal of 26 deg. as 2 to weight.

Indeed the dissolving power of the Carlsbad waOur author, left he should be thought ters in Dr Springsfeld's first experiments, when to have depended too much upon one set the calculi were to placed, as that the water from of experiments, made others. Among the spring might constantly run over them, ap'feveral calculi which Dr Lieberkuhn had pears to be vastly greater than in his latter expecommunicated to him, there was one

riments, in which the water was only renewed

once a-day; for in the former a calculus of two exceedingly hard. This he cut into

ounces and a half was quite diffolved in six days. four parts, each weighing exactly eighty What may have been the reason of this prodigrains. Each of these was put into a gious difference, we shall not pretend to explain. feparatc phial. "Upon the first was pour- the gentle motion of the water along the surface ed fresh oyster-shell lime-water ; upon of the calculi. Was it then owing to some very the second, Carlsbad water; upon the volatile active part which the water quickly loses, third, the urine of one who drapk these after being taken from the fountain :)


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of, either the solvent power of the liance among the three great powers of Carlsbad water itself, or that of the u- Europe, as to the views of which they rine of those who drink these waters. had very early intelligence. According

Our author has a very curious remark to later advices, 184 janisaries, in the in relation to a person who laboured un- night between the 21st and 22d of June, der the stone, and who drank these wa wanted to begin a rebellion ; but noters for two months. He daily voided, tice of it being instantly given to the with his urine, a large quantity of white Killar Aga, and by him to the Grand viscid mucus; which, after filtration of Vizir, that prime minister caused the the aqueous parts from it, was found to ringleaders be immediately seized' and be a white earthy powder, rubbed off, executed, and sent the rest to work on as it were, from a fone. The quantity the fortifications, after which all was of this powder saved dụring the space of quiet; and the foreign ministers, it is a month amounted to more than three faid, received frelh assurances from the

If some of this powder was put Sultan, that he would not imbroil himinto the urine of one who drank Carlf- self, without just reason, with the courts bad water, it was immediately convert- of either Vienna or Petersburg. The ed into a pultaceous substance; but if regulations formerly made, by which into that of one who did not drink this the Jews and Armenian Greeks, living water, it fell quite undiffolved to the under the government of the Porte, bottom of the vessel.

vere injoined to wear only ordinary and Dr Springsfeld observes, that the dark-coloured stuffs, have just been reCarlsbad water has great power in die newed; and great care is taken to see solving the tophaceous cruit which fre- them literally executed, in order to give quently covers the teeth. During the the people a high opinion of the wisdom course of these waters, this crust most of the government, and so keep them generally separates from the teeth, and the more in awe. falls off.

The following letter from Warsaw, The author afterwards tells us, that dated August 8. gives considerable light the customary dose of Carlsbad water is into the present Itate of affairs in Pos not less than fix, seven, or eight pints, LAND. “ It is difficult to conceive the taken every morning; and he adds an anxiety the greater part of our nobility experiment, from whence he concludes, are under, on account of the approach with great probability, that this water, of the Rullians; the natural antipathy by means of its alcaline lixivium, dif- they bear to the Saxons inaking them solves the gluten by which the terrestrial look on the present situation of that vnparts of the human calculus are held to- happy electorate, as circumstances only gether, after which diffolution, these due to its luxury and pride. For this terrestrial parts fall asunder, and pass reason no stone is left unturned, or chi. off by urine. Quare. If some fort canery unpractifed, to excite the whole of alcaline lixivium may not be made body of nobility to oppose the march of by art, that would have the same ef- foreign troops into the dominions of the feet?

republic. Perhaps also a more sufficient reafon for such an opposition is, the little

prospect that ruined Saxony has of reimH I S T O R 7. bursing the Czarina her expénces in afAte accounts from CONSTANTINO, fording it aslistance, and the little fe

Ple bore, that the French faétion curity they bave of her Imperial Maje. at the Porte appeared to be declining; ity's being disinterested in the affair. In that it was said the Grand Vizir had which cale it is obvious who must bear made fome overtures to a certain mini- the burden, as former experience hath ster, in the nature of preliminaries, for wofully teftified. These sentiments have a general peace; and that the Turks gained also so much ground among the yerę by no means pleased with the al public, that the populace have grown fo


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infolent that they have affronted fre Preparations have been still continued quently the servants of his Majesty: and for transporting Swedish troops into on the 26th past, the French ambassa. Pomerania. The following extract of dor, who is difiked on the same score, fome letters written by a foreign mini. coming to court on occasion of the ho- fter at Stockholm will help to sew the liday of St Anne, his coach was stopt, reasons for taking this step, and illuand preceded by that of the primate; strate other particulars.-- "They flatand the accustomed privilege the French 'ter themfelves here, that the success of ambaffador has of being drawn up to the allies of the court of Vienna will ful. the door of the castle, as well as the ly establish the present government of nuncio and the primate, was forcibly Sweden ; which some were afraid would denied him; so that he was obliged to be overturned, should his Prullian Marank with the other foreign ministers. jesty gain the ascendency. The state of This, and several other affronts which that prince's affairs is, it is faiờ, the polihis Majesty and the court have met with tical barometer of this kingdom ; on since their residence at Warsaw, it is which depends the success of the ensuing faid, has determined his Majesty to go diet. It should seem that the resolution to refide at Dantzick, till the face of to enter into the measures of Russia is affairs is changed."

repugnant to the whole nation; and According to our former accounts of that in particular it occasions a great the Russians having taken Memel, ferment among the court-party. It is there remained some uncertainty as to even said, that there are some members the fate of the citadel and the garrison. of the regency who disliked it, but yieldIt has since appeared that the terms of ed to the times, and to the majority, in capitulation were, that the garrison hopes of making a proper advantage of fhould inarch out with all the honours it afterwards; which time will discoof war, but should not serve against the ver.-It is alledged, that the removal Empress of Rullia or any of her allies of 17,000 men (the number proposed to for the space of one year. An ordi- be sent to Pomerania) from such a coun, nance was soon published, in order to try as this, will be attended with bad recal the inhabitants of that place and consequences in many respects. It is district, who through a panic had taken further said, that it will be impossible refuge elsewhere, by assuring them that to maintain all the changes that were they should be entirely at liberty with made in the last diet. Some persons i. respect to both their religion and trade. magine that the troops which are to be In the mean time letters from Berlin, transported will keep on the defensive; dated August 2. say, that the garrison but others are persuaded of the contrawas still detained notwithstanding the ry, because, according to them, the capitulation. Afiur the surrender of King of Prussia will endeavour to hinder Memel ihe Russian fleet sailed southward, even their debarkation : though indeed with design, as was thought, to bom- that prince has a multiplicity of affairs on bard Pillau ; but instead of that, went his hands; and will probably, about the into the road of Dantzick, where their time of their landing, have many more; fick, being a good many in number, unless some unforeseen event happen, or were landed. On the 19th of August the chance of war tavour him in an exthey put again to sea ; and it was said traordinary manner; of which there is that their admiral was not to open his little probability. The Prusian envoy, orders till he should arrive at a certain after demanding of the Swedish minilatitude. According to late advices, sters an explanation of the intent of their the Russian and Prullian armies were so warlike preparations, decid, That very near one another, and both of the King his maiter them so near Konigsberg, that it was this step as an act c.. I would fupposed there would soon be the news anticipaie it. U.

toid, of a battle, or of the former being ma. That the ki?

liberty Aers of that capital.


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to act as he pleased; and that it was land by the magistrates of that unfortuthought proper to send troops to Poine. nate city. rania, without judging it necessary to The cannonading began on the assign any other reason for it, than that 23d of July, at eleven in the morning, it was done by virtue of the declaration and lasted till five in the evening. In made at Ratisbon, and of the guarauty this interval 4000 basis were fired. The ftipulated by the peace of Westphalia.” buildings laid in alhes are 547 houses, ~ It is said in the letters froin which including 104. brewhouses ; all the steethe preceding extract is made, that the ples, except that of Bautzen ; the two King of Sweden did not acquiesce in cathedrals of St John and St James ; the resolution to send troops into Pome. the orphan-house ; eight parfonage-hourania, till he had employed every argu- fes, and eight schools; the town-house, ment against it ; till the senator Count with every thing contained in it; the Eikelblat, and the other deputies, had public weigh-house; the prison; the arJaid before him, at an audience for that chives, with all the other documents of purpose, all the motives that led the fe, the town-council; the plate, and other nate to it; and till he found that the things of value, presented to the town, present fituation of affairs would not from time to time, by emperors, kings, permit him to refuse his consent. and other princes and noblemen. There

According to our last the AUSTRIAN are left standing only 138 houses, with and PRUSSIAN armies in Bohemia were the council-library, the Cloister church, at no great distance from one another. the Bohemian church, and the salt The latter had its right extended from work. Ninety persons have been dug Lowositz to Ausig for covering the out of the ruins. Dr Stroumelius's wimountainous part of Saxony, and its dow, with her whole family, consisting left from Leitineritz to Bomisch Leypa, of fourteen persons, and fixty-fix others,

in order to preserve a communication were found dead in their houses, and fors with Lusatia and Silesia. Instead of ad- ty are still missing.". As Zittau is a

vancing to attack his Prullian Majesty town belonging to Saxony, the Queen thus fituated, the Austrian generals fent of Poland fainted away when she read off detachments to their right, with or this account. And yet, notwithstandders to enter Silesia and Lusatia by the ing all the sufferings here represented, defiles of the mountains. These detach- those magistrates had not thought it ments seized Hirschberg and Landshut, prudent to tell the whole truth. When in which they found 694 bushels of oats, the Austrians entered the town, the in7080 portions of hay, and some thou. habitants imagined they had nothing fand rations of bread. Another detach- further to fear, and that those their ment, under the command of Gen. friends would allist them to extinguish Macguire, after an obstinate resistance, the flames, and save the place as much took the important post of Gabel, where as poslible: but in this they were mile. about 3500 Pruffians were made prison- rably dilappointed; the Pandours and ers of war, and ten pieces of cannon Sclavonians, who'rushed in with the rewith great quantities of provisions and guiar troops, made no distinction bebaggage were found. Upon this the tween the Prussians and the inhabitants Prince of Prussia was sent off by his Pruf- of Zittau; instead of aslifting to quench fian Majesty to march for Zittau in Lusatia the flames, they began to plunder the with a part of his army. The Austrians warehouses which the fire had not reachhaving numbers in that quarter much ed, so that all the valuable goods they fuperior to those of the Prince, they contained, particularly linens, were took Zittau, after a furious cannona carried off. ding and bombardment, part of the gar The Austrians made the following arison escaping, and the relt being inade pology for their treatment of it, which prisoners. The following account of is extracted from the Vienna and Impethe affair was sent to the Queen of Po- rial journals.

16 Gen. Schmettau and VOL. XIX.

3 P


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