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** For many ages, it has now been is the philosophy which runs through the fixed in private fucceffions, that repre- whole of it. This has enabled the wri. fentation in the collateral line fhall take ter to please us, by exciting our attenplace; and although of 'late in Europe, tion to the various revolutions of laws, there has been little dispute in public and maxims of law, from general causes fucceflions, to give room for either prin- common to mankind, or common to ciple to prevail, yet the example of that part of them governed by one sy. thofe private fucceffions, and the now ftem; and also to observe their different rivetted notions of mankind, in favour of fates, from particular exigencies and fiteprefentation, will probably prevent it tuations. Moxthly Review. from being ever made again the subject to the author of the Scots Magazine, of a dispute. • Thefe notions in favour of repre
Perthshire, Sept. 22. 1757. fentation, both in the descending and 'R Dalrymple's late book on the collateral lines, are now so strong, that history of feudal property, made we are apt to term rebels and ufurpers, me look into the dispute concerning thofe who ever called them in question. Bruce and Baliol, in your Magazines for History and law will convince as of our 1746, 7, 8. I once imagined that rea error; there will exhibit to us thousands presentation was indisputably founded of our anceftors dying in the field, in a in the law of nature, and I fent you prison, or on a scaffold, for rights which my thoughts on that fubject, which you once were, though we, meafuring eve. was pleased to insert [ix: 527.]. But jy thing by our present notions, super. Mr Dalrymple, and the author of the keially imagine they could never exift." essays concerning British antiquities
This is fufficient to give the reader an [x. 66.], have convinced me, that repre. idea of this performance; in which it fentation had not taken place in Scotappears to us, that our author's learning land“ when the competition between and sagacity have enabled him to throw Bruce and Baliol happened, and that many new lights upon the subjects of therefore Bruce had the preferable right, which he treats, while his judgment as Mr Ruddiman ftrenuously contended and good fenfe have preserved him from [ix. 369. X. 339.). I fhould be glad to all trifling and false refinement. know if the authors of the two pieces,
Critical Review. intitled, The right of the house of Stewart Two of the greatest names * in the confidered [viii. 120, ix. 462.), and A learned world
are mentioned, whose in review of the dispute concerning Bruce and spection of this work must greatly re
Baliol [x. 61. 519.), who were of the commend it to the public, and do ho. fame opinion with me, be likewise connour to the author.
It is with plea
vinced of their mistake. -Bor thoogh sure we can observe, upon the whole of representation did not take place in an. this performance, that it well deserves cient times, it may, notwithstanding, the attention of the public. The au
be founded in nature. It may be one thor bas expressed his ideas in language of the later discoveries made by learned that conveys them fully and easily to the men, of which there are many in the reader. The method he has pursued is moral or political, as well as in the naas good as his style is elegant. In ac tural world. The question, Whether counting for the rise, progress, and va. representation is or is not agreeable to siations of the laws and customs obtain the law of nature? is curious, and much ing in the feudal system, he is always disputed ; Mr Dalrymple, and the learn. ingenious, and betrays no want of judg. ed author of the aforementioned effays, ment; and what renders this essay ex.
seem to think that it is not: I would tremely entertaining, as well as useful, therefore beg leave to recommend, as * The President Montesquieu, and Lord
of weight in the determination, to inKaims; to the latter of whom this work is de quire, what was the role of succestion in dicated.
the Jewith high-priesthood; or if this is
I am, &c.
done already, to point out where : for failing to Tripoli he concluded a peace it can scarcely be doubted that cases did with that nation; then returning to occur in that succession, in which repre. Tunis, he found nothing but submiðion: sentation did take or might have taken and such indeed was his reputation, that place, both in the descendent and col- he met with no further opposition, but lateral lines ; and the rules of succession collected a kind of tribute from the in a priesthood instituted by the author princes of those countries, his business of nature, may be prefumed agreeable being to demand reparation for all the to the law of nacurę.
injuries offered to the English during the
He exacted from the Dake
by Cromwell into the Mediterranean effects which he had received from se.
When he lay before Malaga, in : In March 1656, having forced Al. a time of peace with Spain, some of his giers to fubmiffion, he entered the har- sailors went ahore, and meeting a probour of Tunis, and demanded repara- cession of the host, not only refused to tion for the robberies practised upon the pay any respect to it, but laughed at English by the pirates of that place, and those that did. The people, being put infifted that the captives of his nation by one of the priests upon resenting should be set at liberty. The Governor this indignity, fell upon them, and beat having planted batteries along the shore, them severely. When they returned to and drawn up his fhips under the castles, their fhip, they complained of their ill fent Blake an haughty and infolent an. treatment; upon which Blake sent to swer, " There are our castles of Go. demand the priest who had procured it. letta and Porto Ferino,” said he, “up. The Viceroy answered, That, having on which you may do your worst;" add. no authority over the priest
, he could ing other menaces and insults, and not send him. To which Blake replied, mentioning in terms of ridicule the in “ That he did not inquire into the exequality of a fight between ships and tent of the Viceroy's authority, but that caftles. Blake had likewise demanded if the priest were not fent within three leave to take in water, which was re- hours, he would burn the town." The fused him. Fired with this inhuman Viceroy then sent the priest to him ; and insolent treatment, he curled his who pleaded the provocation given by whiskers, as was his custom when he the feamen. Blake bravely and rationwas angry, and entering Porto Ferino ally answered, That if he had complainwith his great ships, discharged his shot ed to him, he would have punished them so fast upon the batteries and castles, severely, for he would not have his men that in two hours the guns were dif- affront the established religion of any mounted, and the works forsaken, place; but that he was angry that the though he was at first exposed to the Spaniards should assume that power; fire of fixty cannon. He then ordered for he would have all the world know, his officers to send out their longboats " that an Englishman was only to be well manned, to seize nine of the pira- punished by an Englishman." So ha. tical ships lying in the road, himself ving used the priest civilly, he sent him continuing to fire upon the castle. This back, being satisfied that he was in his was so bravely executed, that with the power. This conduct so much pleased loss of only twenty-five men killed, and Cromwell, that he read the letter in forty-eight wounded, all the ships were council with great satisfaction, and said, fired in the fight of Tunis. Thence "he hoped to make the name of an
Englishman as great as ever that of a who knew the place, wondered that a. Roman had been."
ny fober man, with what courage fo. In 1656, the Protector having de. ever endued, would ever have underta. clared war against Spain, dispatched ken it, and they could hardly persuade Blake with twenty-five men of war to themselves to believe what they had infeft their coafts, and intercept their done; while the Spaniards comforted shipping. In pursuance of these orders themselves with the belief, that they he cruifed all winter about the streights, were devils and not men who had de and then lay at the mouth of the har. stroyed them in such a manner. So bour of Cadiz, where he received in- much a strong resolution of bold and telligence that the Spanish plate-fleet courageous men can bring to pass, that Jay at anchor in the bay of Santa Cruz no refittance, or advantage of ground, in the island of Teneriffe. On the 13th can disappoint them. And it can hardof April 1657, he departed from Ča. ly be imagined how small a lofs the Engdiz, and on the zoth arrived at Santa lish sustained in this unparallelled action, Cruz, where he found fixteen Spanish not one ship being left behind, and the vessels. The bay was defended on the killed and wounded not exceeding 200 north fide by a castle well mounted with men; when the flaughter on board the cannon, and in other parts with seven Spanish fhips and on fhore was incre. forts with cannon proportioned to the dible. The Admiral cruised for fome bigness, all united by a line of commu. time afterwards with his victorious fleet nication manned with musqueteers. The at the mouth of Cadiz to intercept the Spanish admiral drew up his small ships Spanish shipping ; but finding his conunder the cannon of the castle, and sta- ftitution broken by the fatigue of the tioned fix great galleons with their last three years, determined to return broadfides to the sea : An advantageous home, and died before he came to land. and prudent difpofition ; but of little His body was imbalmed, and haeffect against the English commander; ving lain some time in ftate at Greenwho determining to attack them, or. wich kouse, was buried in Henry VIII's dered Stayner to enter the bay with his chapel, with all the funeral folemnity &quadron, then posting fome of his lar. due to the remains of a man fo famed geit fhips to play upon the fortifications, for his bravery, and fo fpotless in his himself attacked the galleons; which integrity. Nor is it without regret that after a gallant refiftance were at length lam obliged to relate the treatment his abandoned by the Spaniards, though body met a year after the restoration, the least of them was bigger than the when it was taken up by express com. biggest of Blake's ihips. The forts and mand, and buried in a pit in St Marga. Imaller vefiels being now shattered and ret's church-yard. Had he been guilty forsaken, the whole fleet was set on fire, of the murder of Charles I. to infolt his the galleons by Blake, and the aller body had been a mean revenge ; but as vessels by Stayner, the English vessels he was innocent, it was, at least, inhubeing too much shattered in the fight to manity, and perhaps ingratitude.“ Let bring them away. Thus was the whole no man,” says the oriental proverb, plate-feet deftroyed, and the Spaniards, “pull a dead lion by the beard.” according to Rapin's remark, “ fuf But that regard which was denied his tained a great loss of ships, money, body, has been paid to his better re. men, and merchandise, while the Eng. mains, his name and his memory. Nor Jith gained nothing but glory:" as if he has any writer dared to deny him the that increases the military reputation of praise of intrepidity, honesty, cona people did not increale their power, tempt of wealth, and love of his counand he that weakens his enemy in effect cry." He was the first man," says Clatiengthen himself.
rendon, “ that declined the old track, The whole a&tion," says Claren- and made it apparent that the sciences don, " was so incredible, that all men might be attained in less time than was
imagined. He was the first man that racter may be properly concluded with brought fhips to contemn castles on one incident of his life, by which it apfore, which had ever been thought pears how much the spirit of Blake was very formidable, but were discovered fuperior to all private views. His brow by him to make a noise only, and to ther, in the last action with the Spafright chose who could rarely be hurt by niards, having not done his duty, was, them. He was the first that infused at Blake's desire, discarded, and the that proportion of courage into feamen, ship was given to another. Yet was he by making them fee, by experience, not less regardful of him as a brother; what mighty things they could do if for when he died, he left him his estate; they were resolved, and caught them to knowing him well qualified to adorn or fight in fire as well as upon the water ; enjoy a private fortune, though he had and though he has been very well imi.. found him unfit to serve his country in a tated and followed, was the first that public character, and had therefore noe gave the example of that kind of naval suffered him to rob it. Gent. Mag. courage, and bold and resolute atchievem ments."
Some account of a book lately published, in. To this attestation of his military ex titled, Medical observations and in. cellence, it may be proper to subjoin quiries, by a society of physicians in an account of his moral character from London, vol. 1. the author of lives English and foreign. Taken mostly from the Gentleman's Magazine, " He was jealous.” says that writer,
and corrected by the book. " of the liberty of the subject, and the
use Few years ago some physicians in of no mean artifices to raise himself to London the highest command at sea, so he need- for their mutual improvement. It was ed no interef but his merit to support proposed that their topics of conversahim in it. He scorned nothing more tion should be, the reigning diseases of than money, which as fast as it came the season, and the methods of cure that in, was laid out by him in the service experience had shewn to be most effecof the state, and to thew that he was a. tual, and such new discoveries in physic nimated by that brave public spirit, as should happen to be made either by which has fince been reckoned rather themselves or others. The members of somantic than heroic. And he was so this society either had the care of hospidisinterested, that though no man had tals, or were of some eminence in their more opportunities to enrich himself than profession; and when a difficult case oche, who had taken so many millions curred to any of them, the rest were con. from the enemies of England, yet he sulted, the method of cure that was threw it all into the public treasury, thought most likely to succeed was tried, and did not die 500 1. richer than his and the event communicated. father left him ; which the author a When these meetings had continued a vers from his perfonal knowledge of his considerable time, the members became family and their circumstances, having desirous of communicating the observabeen bred up in it, and often heard bis tions and discoveries that thould be made brother give this account of him. He by such an association to the public; was religious according to the pretend- and therefore, together with other phyed purity of those times, but would fre. ficians, formed themselves into a fociety quently allow himself to be merry with for collecting and publijking medical objer, his officers; and by his tenderness and vations and inquiries. generosity to the leamen, had fo en The first volume of this work is now deared himself to them, that when he before us. It is executed in the Hipdied, they lamented his loss as that of pocratic method, recommended by Lord 2 common facher.”
Bacon, containing narratives of partiInttead of more teftimonies, his cha. cular cases, in which the nature of the VOL. XIX.
disease, the manner of treating it, and fit up, pulled ber back upon the pillows the consequences are specified,
she was kept continually waking by the There is great reason to hope that the pain, and her light, hearing, and art of healing will be much improved by mory were impaired. On the third day this undertaking; and as che work will she was ordered twenty drops of the tin, be useful in proportion as it is known, Eura thebaica every fix hours, in a julep. we shall from time to time give an ac. On the fourth day the symptoms were count of some of the articles of which it at a stand, the dole was increased ta consists, with such an epitome of each thirty drops. On the fifth day the was as will sheiv the principle it is intended better, and the dose was increased to to establish, either in theory or practice; forty drops. On the fixth the flept half and rather raise than extinguish curiosity an hour at three different times, and the to see the particular circumstances from spasms, though not less violent, were which it is deduced.
lefs frequent; upon which three grains
of the extraéti were ordered three times Article I. An account of the cure of a lock- a-day. On the seventh day. He was fot
od jaw, occasioned by the laceration of prisingly better, and the quantity of O. the
tendon of a finger. By Dr J. Syl- pium was lefsened from three grains to vefter, F.R.S.
two. But on the eighth day the had THE
HE patient was a stout woman, a- got no ground; the dose was then in.
bout twenty-three years of age. creased again to eight grains in a day, The first joint of the fourth finger of her two in the morning, two in the afterright hand was so broken and lacerated noon, and four at night. , On the tenth by a fall as to render it useless, and pro- day the evening-dose was increased to fix duced extreme pain ; it was therefore grains; and on the thirteenth day, as the taken off at the London hospital the spasms appeared to be rather kept under fame night, and the patient grew more ea- than cured, the whole finger was taken fy. But the second joint being also laid: off. The first night was worse than any bare and lacerated by the fall, the pain in the last week ; but the next day the foon returned, and increased every day ; began to mend, and her convallions and the kin andflesh, initead of covering gradually left her; the doses of opium the joint, were drawn farther and farther were gradually lessened at the rate of back; the whole hand swelled, and see one grain a day., and about a month af, veral abfceffes were formed in the palm, ter che last amputation, she was discharso that having been an outpatient fix. ged.perfectly córed. teen days, he was then received into This disease all aochors, with Hippo. the house. The day on which she was crates, have pronounced to be mortal. received she was blooded, and the same evening was feized with a convulsive Art. V., An account of a singular recover contraction of the muscles that raised ry from a fever. By Gouen Knight, the lower jaw. The next morning the
M.B. F.R.S. could take no nourishment but what was The patient was Dr Knighe's sister, poured down with a tea spoon; and this about thirty; who catching cold after rewould have been impossible without covering from a fever by which she had breaking her teeth, if her under jaw had been mach: weakened, luffered so much not nacorally projected beyond the up from the strangury, and wind in her stoper. For this fymptom she was blister. mach and bowels, that she got no sleep. ed on her back, round, her throat, and when thefe complaints were removed, behind each ear, and some alexipharmic she lept but little, and her short sleeps and volatile medicines were frequently were not refrefhing. About the fifth administered in large doies during two day a subsultas tendinum came on, and days. But the patient grew worse. She fre was so weak as to faint when raised had violent and frequent spasms along in bed : her pulse was fmall and quick, the spine, which, when the attempted to and the could not be kept up without