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loss is rather an honour than a disgrace confiderations, after the disappearance to the commander. Besides, every pre- of Mr Byng, prevailed on Lord Blake. caution was in this case particularly pro. ney to accept of terms of capitulation, per, as the garrison at firft was not half to preserve the remains of his brave gar. che number necessary for the defence of rison, and a considerable number of the fort. Against a force so unequal as both sexes who were in the castle ; and that of the besiegers, the garrisor could the terms of the capitulation are declamake no fallies; but the batteries of red by M. Richlieu, in his account of cannon and mortars were well served, the fiege, to be granted in consideration and did great execution : and though as of the brave defence which had been much use as possible was made of the made by the governor and the garrison. fubterraneans to preserve the men, by Such justice.was done by a generous causing the guards to parade in them, enemy to Lord Blakeney, whose

milita. and to mārch through them to and from ry character, built on a service of three. the posts ; yet the men were not hidden score years, has been invidiously and when any service made it neceffary for falsely traduced by a nameless writer ; them to appear. They repulsed the at. who, says the author of this reply, has tack upon Charles fort; and the Queen's dared openly to fly in the face of his redoubt, the Anftruther, and the Ar. sovereign, by endeavouring to defame gyle, were defended with great obstina, a man whom he has honoured for his cy; the Argyle was blown up, and three loyalty, and for his brave and faithful companies of French grenadiers were services. Gent. Mag. destroyed by three mines fprung about the Queen's redoubt. And though the

To the K--g's Moft Excellent M.----y. lofs of the garrison was small, they de. The humble petition of P** E. of C***, stroyed 5000 of the enemy; 1200 of Knight of the mol noble order of the Garter, which fell on the night of the storm.

Sbewerb,
Hat .

ed than the nameless author of the charge, efficient, as most of his cotemporaries pronounced it to be no longer tenible. are by nature, hopes in common with

When the parley was beat by the them to share your Majesty's royal fa. French to bury their dead, the garrison vour and bounty, whereby he may be consisted only of 2500 men; and they enabled to save or to spend, as he may were fo haraffed and worn out with inces- think proper, a great deal more than he fant duty and watchings, that they could possibly can at present. not stand a few minutes to their arms, That your petitioner having had the even in the midst of all the roar of ar- honour to serve your Majesty in several tillery, fired incessantly from the fort very lucrative employments, seems there. and camp, without nodding: the enemy by intitled to a lucrative retreat from bu. was in poffeffion of all the fubterraneans finess, and to enjoy otium cum diguitate; under the castle ; the officers of the ar- that is, leisure and a large penfion. tillery declared the works were in a shat Your petitioner humbly apprehends, tered ruinous condition, and irreparable that he has a juftifiable claim to a confiin the present state of the garrison; the derable pension, as he neither wants nor body of the castle was also greatly shat deserves, but only defires, and (pardon, tered, many of the guns were dismount- Dread Sir, an expression you are pretty ed, the embrasures beaten down, and much used to) insists upon it. the palisadoes broken to pieces; a coun. Your petitioner is little apt, and al. cil of war declared for a capitulation, ways unwilling, to speak advantageousas well as the officers of artillery and th ly of himself; but as some degree of ju. captains, who all agreed that the gar. ftice is due to one's self as well as to o. rison could not fuftain another general thers, he begs leave to represent, that attack, and figned their opinion. These his loyalty to your Majesty has always

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been unshaken,' even in the worst of No, Sir! he confesses his weakness times: That, particularly, in the late un- Honour alone 'is' his object, Honour is natural rebellion, when the young pre- his passion--that Honour, which is sa

tender bad advanced as far as Derby, cred to him as a peer, and tender to him 32

at the head of an army of at least three as a gentleman ; that Honour, in short, thoufand men, composed of the lower lo which he has sacrificed all other conof the Scotch nobility and gentry, who fiderations. It is upon this single prine had virtue enough to avow, and courage ciple, that your petitioner solicits an Hoc enough to venture their lives in support nour, which at present in to extraordiof their real principles ; your petitioner nary a manner adorns the British peers did not join him, as unquestionably he age, and which, in the most shining pemight have done, had he been so in- riods of ancient Greece, diftinguithed clined; but, on the contrary, raised, at the greatest men, who were fed in the the public expence, 16 companies of Prytaneum at the expence of the public, 100 men each, in defence of your Ma. Upon this Honour, far dearer to your jefty's undoubted right to the imperial petitioner than his life, he begs leave, in crown of these realms ; which fervice re- che most solemn manner, to assure your mains to this hour onrewarded.

Majefty, that in case you shall be pleaYour petitioner is well aware, that fed to grant this his moft modeft request, your Majesty's civil lift muft necessarily he will honourably fupport and promote, be in a very weak and languid condi. to the utmost of his abilities, the very tion, after the various and profuse eva- worst measures that the very worst micuations it has undergone, but at the nifters can fuggest ; but at the same time, fame time he humbly hopes, that an fhould he unfortunately and in a fingular argoment which does not seem to have manner be branded by a refufal, he been urged against any other person thinks himselt obliged in Honour to dea whatsoever, will not in a fingular man- clare, that he will, with the utmost acri. ner be urged against him, especially as mony, oppose the very best meafures

he has fome reasons to believe, that the which your Majesty yourself hall ever di deficiencies of the pension-fund will by propose or promote. no means be the last to be made good

And your petitioner, &e, by parliament.

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. Your petitioner begs leave to observe, ai thát a small pension is disgraceful, as it

Mr URBAN,

Jan. 1756. intimates opprobrious indigence on the Comets having of late been a preof the receiver, and a degrading

vailing topic of moft private as fort of dole or charity on the part of the well as public conversations, and so ma

giver ; but that a great one implies dig. ny idle conjectures having been thrown en nity and affluence on the one fide; on out, either by foolish fear or pious fraud, ment the other, efteem and consideration; concerning the impending consequences

which doubtlefs your Majetty must enters of that foretold by Dr Halley lo return ad tain in the highest degree for those great about the year 1958, ! have thought it

personages whose reputable names glare expedient, for the quieting of uneasy and in capitals upon your eleemosynary lift. minds, to collect from the writings of

Yoor petitioner humbly fatters him- those moft excellent astronomers, Dr * felf, that, upon this principle, less than Halley and Sir Isaac Newton, whatever Ed three thousand pounds a-year will not be relates to the periodic return of coi proposed to him; and if made gold, the mets, and their near appulse to the earth; more agreeable.

that being all exhibited at one view, it Your petitioner perfuades himself, that may be more generally known. your Majesty will not impute this his Yours, Gr.

CANDIDUS. humble application to any mean intereft R Halley, in the first edition of his

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the utmott abhorrence.

VOL. XIX.

jays, “There are many things which

make me believe, that the comet which ther comet appeared in the west, of Appian observed in 1531, was the same which Malela, perhaps an eye witness

, with that wbich Kepler and Longomonta. relates, that it was piyas palepós, a great nus more accurately described in 1607, and fearful far; that it appeared in the and which I myself have seen return, and weit, and emitted upwards from it a observed in 1682. All the elements a long white beam; and was seen for gree, and nothing seems to contradié twenty days. It were to be wished that this my opinion, besides the inequality historians had told as what time of the of the periodical revolutions ; which in year it was seen ; but it is however equality is not so great neither, as that plain, that the interval between this and it may not be owing to physical causes that of 1106, is nearly equal to that be. For the motion of Saturn is so disturbed tween 1106 and 1680-81, to wit, about by the rest of the planets, especially Ju. 575 years. And if we reckon backwards piter, that the periodic time of that pla- such another period, we shall come to net is oncertain for some whole days to. the 44th year before Christ, in which gether. How much more therefore will Julius Cæfar was murdered, and in which a comet be subject to such like errors, there appeared a very remarkable cowhich rises almost four times higher met, mentioned by almost all the histo. than Saturn, and whose velocity, though rians of those times, and by Pliny in his increased but a very little, would be Natural History, libull. c. 24. who sofficient to change its orbit from an el. recites the words of Auguftus Cæfar on liptical to a parabolical one? And I am this occafion, which leads us to the ve. the more confirmed in my opinion of its ry time of its appearance, and its fitubeing the same, for that in 1456, in the ation in the heavens. In ipfis ludorum fummer time, a comet was feen paling meorum diebus, fidus crinitum per feptem setrograde between the earth and the sun, dies, in regione cæli que sub septentrioni

1 much after the same manner; which, bus, est conspectum. Id oriebatur circa un. though no body made observations upon decimam horam diei, clarumque et omnibus it, yet from its period, and the manner terris confpicuum fuit. Now, these ludi of its transit, I cannot think different were dedicated Veneri genetrici (for from from those I have just now mentioned. Venus the Cæfars would be thought to And since, looking over the histories of be descended), and began with the birth. comets, I find, at an equal interval of day of Auguftus, to wit, Sept. 23. and time, a comet to have been seen about continued seven days, during which the Easter in 1305, which is another double comet appeared. Nor are we to fup. period of 151 years before the former. pose it was seen only those seven days ; Hence I think I may venture to fore- nor should we interpret the words fub tell, that it will return again in the year feptentrionibus as if the comet had ap1758.

And if it should then so return, peared in the north, but that it was seen we have no reason to doubt but the rest under the Septem triones, or brighter ftats may return also.”

of Ursa Major. And as to its rising bora Again, “ As far as probability from undecima diei, it can no wise be underthe equality of periods and fimilar ap. ftood, unless the word diei be left out, pearances of comets, may be urged as as it is in Suetonius. For it must have an argument, the late wondrous comet been very far from the sun, either to of 1680-81, seems to have been the rise at five in the afternoon, or at eleven fame which was seen in the time of our at right; in which cases it must have K. Henry I. anno 1106, which began appeared for a long time, and its tail to appear in the west about the middle have been so little remarkable, that it of February, and continued for many could by no means be called clarum et days after, with such a tail as was seen omnibus terris conspicuum fidus. But fupin that of 1680-81. And again, in the posing this comes to have traced the same conlulate of Lompadius and Orelles, a. path with that of 1680, the ascending bout the year of Christ 53', such ano part of the orbit will exactly represent

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all that Auguftus hath said concerning however excentric, instead of the para. it ; and is yet an additional argument to bolic orbic of the comec in 1682, as in. that drawn from the equality of the pe. serted in my list of comets, I undertook riod. Thus it is not improbable but this fo to adapt the position of an elliptic one comet may have four times visited us, given in magnitude and species, with at intervals of about 575 years; whence the sun in its focus, to the plane of the the transverse diameter of its elliptic or- ecliptic, and the earth moving therein, bit will be found ✓ 3575X575 times as to represent the several exact obsergreater than the annual crbit; or. 138 vations which Mr Flamsteed made of times greater than the mean distance of this comet at Greenwich, thereby subthe sun.. One thing more : Perhaps it micting my theory to the most rigid exmay not be improper or unpleasant to amination. advertise the aitronomical reader, that Now, it is manifeft, that this comet fome of these comets have their nodes completes two periods in 151 years very fo. very near the annual orbit of the nearly, and those alternately longer and earth, that if it shall so happen, that the shorter, to wit, of 76 and 75 years. earth be found in the parts of her orbit Taking therefore 751 years for a mean Rext the node of such a comet, whilst period, (by prop. 15. of book 1. of Sir the comet passes by; as the apparent Ifaac Newton's Principles), the greater semotion of the comet will be incredibly mi-axe of its orbit will be to the sun's fwift, fo-its parallax will become very mean distance from the earth, as 17,8635 sensible. Now, the comet of 14.72 had tor; and the perihelial distance having a parallax above twenty times greater been by observation found to be 0,5825 than the sun's. And if the comet of of such parts, the excentricity of the or1618 had come down about the middle bit comes out 17,2810, whence the ler.. of March to his descending node, or if ser semi-axe 4,5246. The plane of this. that of 1684 had arrived a little sooner ellipse I find to be inclined to the plane: at its afcending pode, they would have of the ecliptic in an angle of 17 d. 42 m. been yet much nearer the earth, and and that its ascending node was in consequently have had more notable pa. 20 d. 48 m. and the retrograde comets rallaxes, But hitherto none has threat. perihelion in this plane, mi do 36 m. ened the earth with a nearer appulse or 109 d. 12 m. after the ascending node;. than that of 1680. For by calculation and that the mean time of the periheI find, that, November 11 d. 1 h. 6 m. lion was September 4 d. 21 h. 22 m. p. m. the comet was not above the se. midiameter of the sun to the northward

its mean diornal motion being of the way of the earth; at which time, of the sun's mean diurnal motion, or 47 had the earth been there, the comet feconds very nearly.” would have had a parallax equal to that And further, “Kepler's observations, of the moon, as I take it. This is {po- in his book of comets, printed at Aufken to astronomers; but what might be burg in 1619, do evidently prove, that the consequences of fo near an appulse, the comet of 1607 and that of 1682, or of a contact, or lastly, of a shock of were one and the fame; for boch were all the celestial bodies, (which is by no retrograde, as was the species of the ormeans imposible to come to pass), I bis in both, with scarcely a greater disa leave to be discufied by the studious of ference in the places of their perihelion physical matters."

and nodes, than we find in those of the Dr Halley, in the last edition of his planets after an interval of so many years. Synopsis, printed with his astronomical Though some may perhaps object, tables, retains most of what I have reci- that the difference of the inclinations ted above, and adds what follows. and periods is much greater than has

Having fallen on a method for ea. been observed in revolutions of the fame. fily and accurately computing the mo. planet ; since one period exceeds the otion of a comet in an elliptic orbit, ther by a whole year, and the inclina..

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tion of the comet of 1682 is no less than or the beginning of the enfuing yeat. 22 deg. more than that of 1607: yet I But this is faid conjectorally, and left to would refer the reader's confideration to be confirmed or disproved by the event." what I have said at the end of my tables And again, “It is manifest now, that of Saturn, namely, that one period of in these three phenomena' (of 1531, that planet has been fometimes found to 1607, and 1682), there is an agreebe full 13 days longer than another, oc- ment as to all the elements; which muft cafioned by the force of gravity tend be accounted a miracle if they were three Ing towards the centre of Jupiter ; and different comets ; or indeed if they were tales may happen, wherein, on the o not so many accesses of one and the ther hand, his period may be accelera- fame comet towards the fan and earth ted by a much greater quantity. How in an ellipfis. Wherefore, if, agreeable Imuch more liable then is this comet to to my prediction, it shall retorn again such fort of errors, which arises almost about the year 1758, impartial pofterity four times as high at Saturn, and whose will not scruple to ascribe this invention velocity being increased by no less than to an Englishman. a izoth part, might have its elliptic tra " This then we may call the Mercury jectory altered to a parabolical one? of the comets, as surrounding the fun

Now, in the summer of the year with a shorter period and a leffer orb 1681, the comet which appeared the than the rest, which expatiate to imyear following in its descent towards the mense distances, and take up one or fun, was so near Jupiter, and kept so more centuries in coming round again, for some months, that during that whole so as for a Mort season only to be visible time it was urged towards the centre of to human eyes. that planet with about one fiftieth part Lastly, * The comet of 1680, in of the whole force with which it was ur. that part of its orbit where it defcended ged towards the sun ; whence, according towards the fun, came fo near the orto the theory of gravity, the elliptic arc bits of all the planets, that if any of which this comet would have described, them had happened to have met with it had Jupiter been absent, must have been in its passage, it must bave produced very Father of the hyperbolic kind, with a sensible effects, and the motion of the considerable alteration both of its velo. comet would have been greatly difturbo city and direction.

ed thereby. So that the species of its Upon the same principles may the ellipse would have been much altered, as variation of its inclination be accounted well as its plane and periodical time, efor. In this tranfit Jupiter was to the specially in the case of a concourse with north, nearly perpendicular to the co-Jupiter. In its lait descent, this comet met's path, which moft incurvate that left the orbits of Saturn and Jupiter buc part of the orbit towards itself, and so a small matter below it to the south. To Increase the inclination of its plane to the orbits of Venus and Mercury it apthat of the ecliptic. Moreover, the co. proached yet much nearer, but nearer met, through this long continuance in ftill to that of Mars. And in paffing the the neighbourhood of Jupiter, when, plane of the ecliptic, at its fouth node, being pretty remote from the son, it a. its access to the earth's orbit was such, scended but slowly, its acquired veloci- that had it happened one and thirty days ty from the joint force of both the cen. later, it would have left the earth hard. tres, must have been more than it could ly a femidiameter of the sun to the N.; lose in its recess from Jupiter, under a and doubtless by its centripetal force, (wifter motion, and in less time. Where: (which with the great Newton we will fore the proper velocity of the comet fuppose to be proportional to its quantity having been augmented by this ex. of inatter), it would have effected some cess, it is probable, that its return may alteration in the position and species of not be till after a period of 76 years, the earth's orbit, as well as in the length or even more about the end of 1758, of the year,"Thus far Dr Halley

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