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racy between France, Auftria, and Ruf to give their affittance without some felf.
fea, than from a successful confederacy ifh view of their own.
between G. Britain, Auftria, and Ruflias : Beside this unlucky consequence of the
because in che former case be was pretty King of Pruflia's attack upon Saxony and
fure, that the French would at laft take Austria, that attack was attended with
all the care they could of him; therefore another consequence equally fatal to Eu-
the latter was by any means to be pre- rope, and equally beneficial to France;
vented : and the preventing of it might for it gave that crown not only a pre-
even be privately pleaded as a merit with tence, but the appearance of a right to
the court of France.

fend their numerous armies into Germain
But had we foreseen the consequences, ny, and to attack every prince of the
we muft at the same time bave foreseen, empire that Mould oppose the march of
that a greaty with Prusia could no way those armies, especially after the diet
anfwer che end for which it was intend- of the empire had declared in favour of
ed, and consequently we could have no the house of Austria.
season for entering into any such treaty. When these things are duly consider
As these consequences might easily have ed, I believe it will appear, that this
been forefeen, fo they very soon became nation owes no great obligation to Pruf-
apparent: for Ruffia presently refused fia, either for the treaty he last made
to accept of the subsidy we had promi- with us, or for the attack he has since
fed, and were ready to pay; and Au. made upon Saxony and Austria; and
fria, in four months time, entered into now I fall inquire, whether we are by
a treaty of alliance with France, to that treaty, or by any former treaty, ob-
which it was evident that Ruflia would liged to allift him in the present war.
very foon accede.

This treaty, how. Upon this occasion, I fall not enter in Ever, fo far as appeared, was an alli- to that nice distinction he has made beance merely defensive; and consequent- tween the first aggression and the firft oly could have produced no effect, if no pen act of hostility [xviii..493.]; for attack had been made in Europe upon this is a distinction which no party in a any of the allied powers: nay, it would defensive alliance is ever obliged to not have warranted France's making an make, otherwise it would always be in attack upon Hanover ; and I doubt much, the power of any one party in a defenjf either Auftria or Ruffia would have five alliance, to involve the rest in a war agreed to France's making any such at- whenever it pleased. The first open act tack, if the King of Pruffia had made no of hostility is what must always conftitute attack upon Saxony or Auftria. I shall the cafus fæderis ; and if any one of the not pretend to inquire into what right parties in a defenfive alliance commits the King of Prussia had, or what necessity the first open act of hostility, it frees the he was under, to attack Saxony or Au- rest from any obligation they are under, ftria;

this I will fay, that he could by that alliance, to aflit him, even not have done a kinder office to France, though he should be afterwards attackthan to attack them at the time and in ed in his own territory, by those whom the manner he did ; because it gave effi- he had first attacked. From whence we cacy to the alliance which that crown mutt conclude, that this nation is onder bad juft entered into with the courts of no obligation to aflift the King of PrusVienna and Petersburg, and laid the fia in the present war, either from the Queen of Hungary under a neceffity to last treaty we made with him, or from acall for the afliftance of France; and ny former treaty of alliance or guarante perhaps to make such concessions to that ty, provided we, upon this occafion, crown, as may hereafter appear to be gave him no countenance or encourageinconsistent with the interest of this na ment to begin the attack: which I hope tion in particular, as well as of Europe we were so far from doing, that we dein general ; for the French have feldom, clared positively againit it, as we cerif ever, appeared to be fo generous, as tainly ought to have done.

But

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But now let us examine, what we are dent's happening, or our being able to obliged to do from generosity, from make the proper advantage of it when friendship, and from our regard for the it does happen. From all which I must Protestant caufe in Germany. In all conclude, that our giving 200,000 I. for these respects, I thall most readily admit, either of these purposes, is so far from that we are under the highest obligation being necessary or prudent, that it may to prote& and support the King of Pruso be attended with consequences 'pernifia in defence of his juft rights, if it were cious to the true interest of this nation, in our power to do so. But can this be and to that of Europe in general, espe. fupposed to be in our power, confider- cially the electorate of Hanover, which ing the circumstances which Europe has' I heartily wish it were in our power to been thrown into, fisit by our treaty with protect from any insult or invasion." him, and next by his attack upon

Sa To this is was answered in general, xony and Austria? If it was not in our That some of the other princes of Ger power, in conjunction with Russia and many might perhaps join with the King Austria, to protect Hanover against of Pruffia, or at least afist him privately France, it cannot surely be in our power with a large sum of money, which, with to protect either Hanover or Prosla a- the addition of this 200,000 I. might gainst France, Austria, and Russia. And enable him to prolong the war ; and in a faint and fruitless attempt to do so, the mean time some accident might hapwould be like throwing up a weak pen for diffolving the powerful alliance aound against a mighty inundation, now formed against him : and as the which only makes it rush in with great- grant of such a small fum could no way er impetuofity, and spread wider its de- affect the prosecution of our war by sea vastation,

and in America, we ought to make him .. What then are we to do in the present such a small compliment, even though unfortunate conjuncture ? Certainly, to we were under no obligation by treaty give ourselves no concern, much less to to alift him. put ourselves to any expence, about the The first resolution of March 10. present war upon the continent of Ea- art. 5. was occasioned by the vote of sope; but to pursue, with the utmost vi. credit, as it is called, agreed to the pregour, our own just and necessary war a. ceding seffion; and Mews how much his gainst France, at sea and in America ; Majelty deserves such confidence from and to wait till some future accident gives his parliament : for though that vote of a turn to the present system of affairs in credit was for a million [xviii, 437.), Europe : for every one must allow, that yet, by this resolution, it appears, that the present system is far from being na- his Majesty raised but 700,000 l. upon cusal, and therefore it is not probable that credit ; and of what was so raised that it will long continue. The three and employed, an exact account was laid great powers now in alliance may pro- before parliament in this feflion, every bably fall out among themselves, either article of which appeared to be so juk about the conduct of the war, or the and necessary, that no objection was terms of

any future treaty of peace; and made to any of them. any such accident, which we ought di And this prevented any opposition ligendy to watch for, may furnih us being made to the firft resolution of with an opportunity to interpose again, May 19. art. 32. which was founded upin the afairs of Europe, with advantage on the King's message presented May 17. so ourselves, as well as to the common [255, 6.]. - A like message was at cause: but our putting ourselves to any the same time sent to the Lords. Their expence, either about forming an army Lordships voted a most loyal address to of observation, (which I am afraid will the King upon the occasion, and agreed be made an army of vain opposition), to this article, when it came before them or about a filling the King of Piuilia, by way of a clause of appropriation, will only tend io prevent any such acci- without any oppofitione

With regard to the resolutions of the to the subscribers ; and a subscriber upe ways and means committee, we have on the fifth class, had he lived till he occafion to make remarks only on two was 85, might have had such a princeof them, those of Jan. 24. and March 14. ly revenue coming in yearly, during the

That of Jan. 24. art. 3. met with rest of his life, that I wonder the chance little or no opposition within doors, be- did not tempt numbers to subscribe into cause of the necefűty we were under: that class. A man of so years of

age but by many without doors' it was has not, it is true, an equal chance to thought one of the worst ways we could live above 17 years; but if a million had take for raising of money ; because e. been subscribed into that class, and one very sort of lottery must give to every only of the subscribers had lived till he one who is able to purchase a ticket, had been 85, though he was not perthe hopes of adding to his fortune with haps a subscriber for above 1oo l. yet, out either industry or frugality, and con- from that time, he would have had an Sequently must diminish the industry of annuity of 50,000 l. coming in yearly, those who incline to be idle, and increase during the rest of his life ; and if five of the luxury of those who incline to be them had arrived at that age, they would extravagant; and as such inclinations have had each an annuity of 10,000 l. are but too general among the people coming in yearly during the rest of their of every society, no wise government respective lives. will ever voluntarily promote any scheme

[To be continued.] that may furnish the people, especially those of the poorer fort, with any ground Anecdotes concerning Marechal Keitb. for entertaining such hopes. This Taken from a letter, dated Sept. 24. 1757, from * was the objection made to the lottery it gentleman in the country to his friend at Edieself; and when the scheme of the lot. burgh, first publifined in the Edinburgh Magazine. tery appeared in public, a multitude of

[The memoirs of this great man which ous objections were presently made to it, readers have in their hands [405.), were writica which it would be too tedious to give an by Andrew Henderson, A. M. sometime a proaccount of : but in general it may be bationer in the presbytery of Edinburgh, who in observed, that if our lotteries could be 1746 wrote what he called The history of the re

bellion. He went foon after to London, and has drawn at a less expence to the public, a written several pieces there, probably for breado much better scheme might certainly be As we made some corrections in the mecontrived; for the reason of having so moirs, in which we are jultified by the gente many classes, and all of them to be de. man who writes this letter, and expressed an aptermined by the drawing of one, was to by persons who knew all the facts

, we now rez

prehension that more corrections might be made leffen the public expence, by shorten. dily insert these anecdotes, by which some more ing the time of drawing; whereas it mistakes are corrected, and some defékts are might, it is thought, be leffened by lef. fupplied.] sening the number of commissioners: That the Velt Mareschal and but this we shall leave to those who have his brother (says this gentleman) were now the conduct of our public affairs, for some time, in their childhood, onand who seem resolved to carry them on, der the care of Mr Thomas Ruddiman, not only with vigour, but with as niuch is true; but the praise of their educaparfimony as is consistent with that vi. tion, or even of their learning the La. gour.

tin tongue, must not be ascribed to him, As to the resolution of March 14. Bp Keith, a blood-relation of tke fa[515.), it is surprising there was not a mily, was cutor to the Earl from his bemuch greater sum subscribed upon it, ginning the grammar, and read with considering how soon the subscription him the history of Titus Livius from beproposed by the resolution of April 28. ginning to end. The Velt-Mareschal was filled: for every one of the clasies was three years younger; he having for life - annuities with survivorships, been born June 14. 1696, 0. S. and therein proposed, was very advantageous the Earl, April 2. 1693. His educa

tion

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tion was but going on apace when the the family of Stewart, the Earl and his
Earl's was finished ; and the carrying it brother cordially imbarked ia their caufe:
on, and completing it, fell to the Phare The Earl was attainted, and thereby for-
of Mr William Meston, afterwards one feited his estate and honours: and his
of the regents of the Marischal college brother, though there was no fentence
of Aberdeen; a man well known for his of proscription againft him, thought it
wit and humour, particularly displayed prudent to attend the Earl's fortune, and
in his Knight, and several other poems entered into a voluntary exile.
in the Hadibrastic style.

However, though at a diftance from
Under his care, the Countess of Ma: his native country, and without hopes
sischal fent her younger son to Edin- of ever feeing it, and though employed
burgh to study the law. Mr Meston in the most important stations, thefe did
foon discovered the bent of his pupil's not so far ingrofs his mind, but that he
genius, and that he had more delight in often caft a wishful regard to his natal
the exercise of the broad sword, than {pot, and, by a frequent epiftolary in-
in thumbing the corpus juris. This he tercourse, maintained those conneáions
thought it his duty to communicate to of friendship which he had contracted in
the Countess; and modestly hinted, in the earlier part of life, and which were
a letter to her, that Mr Keith's inclina. all that in his native country he could
tions seemed to point more to the war. call his own. In his letters an interest
like than the studious life. In return ing benevolence shows the sincere friend,
the Countess thanked Mr Meston for while an easy and familiar condesces
this intimation ; and as it was never herfion, mixed with a becoming dignity,
intention to force her son upon any bu. points out the truly great man, and a
finess contrary to his wish, she therefore politeness of expression displays the fine
desired that there might be a meeting gentleman.
between him and his best friends at E. Sometime in the year 1730, Mr Mew
dinburgh, in order to have a declaration on wrote a letter of congratulation to
of his inclinations from his own mouth. his pupil upon his promotion in the Russ
At this meeting, Mr Keith, being ask. fian service. The General did not fail
ed how he liked the study of the law, to honour him with a kind and obliging
answered in the following words: “I return: “ I am a true Scotsman indeed,
have begun to study the law in com- fays he, wise bebind the band ; for
pliance with the desires of the Countess had I been more careful to imbibe the
of Marischal: it must take up some time excellent instructions I received under
before I finish my studies, and pass tri- your inspection, I had still made a bet-
als as a lawyer; and when I have pat ter figure in the world." His opinion
on the gown, I may attend a confider- of Mr Meston's abilities was well ground.
able time at the bar, before I gain the ed : for besides a thorough knowledge
worth of it. After spending twelve or in the learned languages, he was a good
fourteen years, and perhaps much more, philosopher, an excellent mathemati-
at the bar, what is to be got? The high- cian, and had a molt engaging method
eft preferment is the place of a Lord of of communicating any part of literature
Session ; poor sool. a.year! But com to his pupils, insomuch that he was faid
mend nie, Gentlemen, to stand before to laugh his scholars into science.
the mouth of a cannon for a few mi. The wound which the General recei,
nutes: this either makes a man in an in. ved at Oczakow, had almost proved fa.
ftant, or he dies gloriously in the field of tal to him. The physicians in Russia
honour !" An early presage of that run had condemned his leg to be cut off;.
of martial glory after which he panted and the General readily agreed to the
so eagerly, and which, agreeable to his operation. But the Earl Marischal, who
wish, has hitherto attended the prowess had gone to visit him in his diffress;
and conduct of this great man. would not consent to it: “ I hope," said
Zealoully attached to the interests of he," James has yet more to do with

that

3 that leg, and I will not part with it fo ask the succession to the estate of Kin

easily; at least not till I have the best tore, his request would be granted ;

advice in Europe.” He therefore tranf- but that he answered, with a conscious & ported him to Paris, in a machine (which dignity, " That if the favour was refu. NA

the Earl] contrived for that purpose. fed to his royal mistress, it did not beBut the wound baffled the skill of the come him to ask it." He had before French phyficians, as it had before done this time given fignal proofs of his skill that of the Russians. However, by and conduct, and deserved to be ranktheir advice, he went to drink the wa. ed among the first generals in Europe ; ters of Barege, by the help of which his no man is less under the influence of cure was happily completed *.

riches, which he esteems only to give I wish I could with certainty satisfy away; and therefore to obtain them, your curiosity about the Turkish lady would not submit to what he reckoned you mention. It is said she was dug out derogatory to his own merit, or to ask

of the rains of her father's house at Oc. what had been refused the Czarina. til zakow, being the only surviving person He is now engaged in one of the most

of the whole family ; but with what difficult and dangerous enterprises that can truth, I cannot tell. However, it is perhaps ever fell to his lot; where he en certain, that she was then a child of not will probably have occasion to exert all

above fix or seven years of age; a ciró those military talents which his natural el cumftance that bids defiance to the ftrength of genius, improved by a long

loosest imagination to have the least in- course of experience, has rendered hinz decent thought upon that subject. The master of: and it is not to be doubted, first appearance of the young innocent but that, whateyer be his fate, he will

pleaded for protection ; and the Gene. endeavour to acquit himself, fo as not W ral resolved to afford it. But he was

But he was to disappoint the expectations and conof perplexed how to dispose of her, so as fidence of his royal malter, nor deroWill to procure her an education suitable to gate from the renown acquired by his

her high birth : for her father was a former atchievements. Turkish grandee of eminence and power.

At length he resolved to put her into the Translation of a letter writ by the King of i hands of his brother; who has been

Prusia to the Earl Marischal after the e careful to give her the best education,

battle of the 18th of June lafi. india and has all along treated her as his own My LORD, the daughter. As such she does the ho. HE Imperial grenadiers are ada indien nours of his table, and demeans herself

mirable troops ;

one hundred Kahit like a dutiful child to a tender and af. companies defended a rising ground lelet fe&tionate parent.

thať my best infantry could not carry. The author of the memoirs says, Ferdinand, who commanded them, reThat he offered his service as a fol. turned seven times to the charge, but chelde dier in the British army, provided he to no purpose. At first he mastered a

might be allowed to enjoy the eftate and battery, but could not hold it. The ehonours of his coofin the Earl of Kin- nemy had the advantage of a numerous

tore.” I have been assured the contrary and well-served artillery. It did honour tên was true; and that it was suggested to to Lichtenstein, who had the direction ; lo him by those in power, that if he would the Pruffian alone can dispute it with

[We are informed by the gentleman who fa him. My infantry were too few. All diy youred us with the corrections which we made in my cavalry were present, and idle spec

the meinoirs, that the French physicians caused tators, except one bold push by my lay open the General's knee, which it would seem household troops and some dragoons. those of Russia had neglected to do, and found Ferdinand attacked without powder ; fome of the lining of his coat in the wound; the enemy, in return, were not sparing that they cleaned the wound, and then completed

of theirs. the cure; that it was to recover his strength he

They had the advantage of went to drink the waters; and that they had the 2 rising ground, of intrenchments, and dcfired effcet.

VOL. XIX,

of

TH

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