« ZurückWeiter »
с O N T 'E N T S. History of the last session of PARLIAMENT. MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS. A locked jaw of the additional duties on news papers, &c. cured 578.
A worm bred in the liver ib. 561. and on coals exported 564. Of the Convulsion-fits cured by electrification 580. Dr new annuities ib. Of loans to the King 565:|| | Pye of a periodical blindness ib. M. Fournier Proceedings relating to the high price of corn of the hemeralopia 581. Of the virtues of the 566.
farsaparilla root ib. Buffon's table of the probabilities of the dura- | Anecdotes of Dean Swift and STELLA 585.
tion of the life of man 568. Of insurances on HISTORY. Schweidnitz taken by the Austrians lives 569.
590. Berlin insulted by them 591. Motions A character of the GLASGOW EDITION of of the Prussian and combined armies 592. Homer's Iliad 570.
Accounts of the battle of Rosbach, near Weif POETRY. Epigram upon four sisters 570. The sepfels 593, 4, 5. Motions of the Hanoveprogress of the lister-arts 571. Mr Cibber's
rians 598. ode for the King's birth-day ib. To Miss P. B. Further accounts of what happened at Fort
lis ib. Pastora and Thyrsis, a song William - Henry 598. A summary of our mi572. Dr Free's ode to the King of Prussia ib litary transactions in North America 601. A On seeing a butterfly light on a gaily-dressed dreadful earthquake in the Azores 602. young lady 590. Epigram ib.
-- Proceedings of the board of inquiry relating Discoveries at HERCULANEUM 573.
to the late expedition 603. The King's speech
against the Free MASONS 583. The form 610. Excerpt of a representation of the pref
Lists, TABLES, Lc. 612.-616.
The history of the last Seffion continued. [523.] againt these ducies, if it had not been
would, no doubt, have been presented O the remarks in our last, on for that rule of the house, which has the resolutions of the ways been most reasonably, and indeed necefand means committee, we farily established, Never to admit any
have to add these following. petitioners to be heard against a moneyThe resolutions of March 21. for lay- bill. However, some of the persons ing additional duties on news-papers, to be affected, took care to have their almanacks, and advertisements, occa. reasons against these duties, printed, and fioned some bustle, not only in London, delivered to the members; and their but also in many other parts of the king- reasons were so briefly and distinctly ftadom; as these duties not only affected ted, and so decently drawn up, that 'great numbers of people, but might they deserve to have a place in this hiprobably put an end to that fort of bufiftory. They were intitled, Confideraness by which many of them then sup. tions on the proposed additional duty on neusported themselves and their families. papers and advertisements ; and were as For this reason a multitude of petitions follows. ; VOL. XIX.
“ As a scheme has been proposed to
L. 15 11 6 the legislature for laying an additional Foreign papers, translator, domestic paduty of a halfpenny upon all news papers,
pers, collectors of news, and letters and also an additional duty of one billing Publishing
o 180 upon every advertisement inserted in
L. 16 17 6 them; and as there is great reason to be
By the sale of 4000 papers, at 8 s. per
o 176 be deemed impertinent to represent that
So that on the sale of this branch of trade in a true light, And, first, As to the additional duty and the proprietors have loft 175. 6 d.
government has gained 81. i s. 6d. on the paper. It is generally agreed,
And the truth of this calculation can that the money collected, by means of be proved, beyond contradiction, by the duty already fubfisting, has hitherto the experience of every day. It fol. exceeded the most fanguine expectations lows, therefore, that the profits of the of the government; and that increase proprietors arife folely from the adverhas arisen merely from the industry and tirements; which makes it necessary to application of people in the trade, who state that account likewise. have, with great labour and expence, Let it be supposed, that this paper has ftruck out, as it were, a new method
forty advertisements; and, excepting of raising money for his Majesty's sere
a few of those printed in London, half vice, reserving only a very small pit the papers published in England have tance for themselves; as will be proved not twenty ; and if the advertisements in the sequel.
are reckoned at 2 s. 6 d.each, which is
as much as ought to be reckoned, as It is a truth universally acknowled
many of them pay only 2 s. the aged, and capable of the clearest demon
mount will be
I s. each
And the loss on the sale of the ny benefit to themselves, but to the go
paper as above mentioned vernment only; and if they chance to Making
2 17.6 fucceed, (which does not always hap. And there remains a balance in favour of pen), it would surely be unreasonable
the proprietors of
2 26 to deprive them of the fruits of their la. bour, without adding any thing to the
Now, if only 2 l. 2 s. 6 d. (making public revenue.
no allowance for losses by accidents or But, in the first place, it is neceffary bad debts) remains as a profit on this to few, that the prefent profit of these account; it follows, that the proposed people will not enable them to pay such additional duty of 81. 1 s. 6 d. and 2!. a tax.
making in the whole sol. 1 s. 6 d. can. Let it be fupposed, that a paper fells not be paid. To pay it for the sale of 4000 ; and half the papers that are the paper, is impossible: for fuppofing published do not sell 2000; but we
the purchaser will agree to give a halfchuse to make our calculation upon penny more for the paper, it will bring 4000, because the greater the number in no more to the proprietos; so that printed is, the less in proportion is the the loss on the sale of the paper will be
fill the same. Neither can it be paid expence :
from the advertisements; for as many The duty of these 4000 papers, paid at the stamp-ofice, before the papers can
who gave three halfpence for the paper, be printed, is
L. 8 16
* It will appear, by comparing the commisioners Four reams of paper for ditto, at 18 s.
account of the money received from the duty on adper ream, though many of the print
vertisements, with the number of papers printed, ers pay more Printing thc 4000 papers
that the number of advertisements here allowed is
3180 confiderably more ihan are really inferted, Cassied forward
L: 15 II
will not pay two pence, so likewise ma There are, in town and country, a. ny of those who used to advertise in it, bove fifty news-papers printed; and it is will, on that account, withdraw their well known, that far the greatest part advertisements. The
muft there. of them do but little more than pay exfore be dropt, as being no longer worth pences; those therefore muft inevitably the proprietor's confideration, and the fall, whereby many families will be regovernment will lose 10l. 1 s. 6 d. which duced to extreme indigence, and his it received on the publication of every Majesty deprived of the duty they paid paper. Not to mention the cruelty of when these papers exifted. depriving people of the long.expected It must also be confidered, that the fruit of their labour; or the public, e. mischief which will be done by this specially the trading part of it, of the scheme to news-papers, especially those emolument it might receive by that me- in the country, will be irretrieveable. thod of intelligence.
If they are once loft, they are lost for It ought likewise to be observed, that ever : for as the raising one of these paBe the value of advertisements in every pa. pers is attended with many years labour
per, is estimated by the number of pa- and very great expence, few will be inpers that are sold. For as the business clined to adventore a second time, after of advertising is to make some want or having once found, that a compensation some commodity known, the more any cannot be secured for their trouble ; nor paper sells, the more effectually is that will they indeed be able, when the peopurpose answered. And as increafing ple they employed are disbanded, and the price of the paper will undoubtedly their little fortunes thus shipwrecked. affect the sale, so will it also lessen the Add to all this, that reducing the number of advertisements : for no man number of news-papers, muft sensibly
will so often be at the expence of adver- affect the revenue arising from the duty 1 tifing in a paper, when it fells only two on paper manufactured in this kingdom.
thousand, as when it fold three; and Upon the whole, if this scheme is innot at all, perhaps, when, notwith tended to increase the revenue, it will, standing this disadvantage, he is to pay if reconsidered, appear to be altogether a shilling extraordinary for each advere unfit for the purpofe ; and the very extisement.
periment may do what the government f
It is also very evident, that the large will wish to have undone, viz. it may profit accruing to the government from destroy a great many news-papers, ruin. the duty on advertisements, arises from many families, and most fenfibly affect the great number of them that are pu- his Majesty's revenue,"Thus end blished ; consequently all measares that the Confiderations, tend to inhance the price of them, But, in our present circumftances, it must leffen their number, and of course was abfolotely necessary to borrow a the amount of the duty. This may be large fum of money for the public ferdemonstrated, by referring to the stamp-vice, and it was equally necessary to office for an account of the duty on ad. contrive fome new or additional tax, as vertisements for any number of years be a fund for answering the growing interfore and after the year 1731, when they est of that money, and such a fund too began to be reduced to the present low as might be satisfactory to those who price; from which time it will appear, had the money to lend; and though that the great increase of advertisements great numbers of our people are supporttook place.
ed by the printing and bookselling bufiThis duty may likewise be considered ness, yet as it is a trade which does not as a tax upon learning and ingenuity; here, as it does in Holland, increase for booksellers will not be so ready to our exports, and bring money into the purchafe works of learning and genius, kingdom, it was thought more advisewhen they find this additional diffi. able to chuse a tax, by which that trade culty and expence in making them pu- might be in fome degree affected, than
to be forced to have recourse to a tax, by tax that can be thought of, for supply. which some trade or manufacture might ing the current service. It is true, we be affected, which increases our exports, are to pay but 31. per cent. intereft; but and brings money into the kingdom. then we are by this resolution to give, by Though it must be acknowledged, that way of premium to every subscriber, or if we were free from the taxes upon pa. lender, an annuity of il. 2 s. 6 d. per ann. per, & c. and all taxes upon the necef- for every 1001. he shall lend, and for faries of life, even the trade of printing the life of any such person as he should and bookselling might be extended fo afterwards name. Now, we may fupas to add a very considerable increase to pose, that almost every lender will name our exports, and thereby bring a very some healthful child of about seven years large fum yearly into the kingdom. But old, and generally one that has had the this is, like many others, a thing quod op- small pox, from whence we may come tandum eft, fed non expectandum. pute the value of this annuity : for a
As to the resolution for laying an ad. child of that age, by the latest calcula. ditional duty on coals exported, it was tions made at Paris (568.), has an e. so far from being opposed or objected qual chance to live 42 years and three to, that it gave great satisfaction to eve- months; consequently an annuity upon ry man who has any notion of trade or the life of a child of that age, is equal manufactures. It is indeed surprising, 'to an annuity for 42 years and 3 months that we should ever have allowed oure certain. But then we are to confider, selves to be driven, by any necessity, to that thele calculations were made opon make our own people, in any part of mankind in general, including the weak the British dominions, pay any tax upon and fickly, as well as the frong and coals; a commodity fo absolutely ne. healthful; therefore we may reckon, 1 cessary for the industrious poor, and for that the children to be chosen by these many sorts of manufacture: but it is lenders as their nominees, will general. much more surprising, that we should, for ly be such as have an equal chance to so many years, have allowed our foreign live 45 years, and that every one of rivals in trade and manufacture, to have these annuities will, for the most part, our coals upon paying a tax of only 6 s. be equal to an annuity for 45 years cera chalder, whilft our own people in and tain ; and from Mr Smart's tables we about London were paying taxes upon may easily compute, that, when money coals to the amount very near of gs. a is at 31. per cent. per ann. intereft, the chalder. Therefore the impofing of present value of an annuity of 1 1. 2 s. this new tax upon coals exported to fo- 6d. for 45 years certain, amounts to reign nations, muft shew the attention 271. 11 s. 8 d. the whole of which we of the gentlemen now at the helm, to the must look on as a premium, paid by the true interest of their country; and it is public to these subscribers or lenders, on to be hoped, that the same attention ver and above a yearly interest of 31. will induce them to make several other per cent, until the principal be repaid. improvements in the art of taxation, What may be faid of these money. which has been hitherto so little under. lenders to the public, we do not know, lood, or rather so egregiously mistaken, but we know very well what would be in a country that depends so much upon faid of a money-lender in private life, trade and manufactures.
who should take advantage of the diHaving already given the reason why ftress of the borrower, and exact a prethe resolution of March 14. was waved, mium of 26 guineas, besides common and the first resolution of April 28. agreed intereft, for every hundred pounds he to and adopted in its stead (516, 17.). lent, upon what might be justly called we hall, upon the resolution of A- a good security. pril 28. observe what a disadvantage it We know it may be said, that the is to this nation to be forced to antici- natural interest of the money was then pate, and to borrow money upon every above 3 l. per cent, as all our three per
cent. funds fold below par, and the an or mechanics, ought never to be submuities could not be sold at near the jected to any tax, no not even upon the price we have stated. This, it is true, conveniencies of life, so far, as is proper was a loss to the subscribers who were for people in their condition ; for such obliged to sell, but it was no advantage taxes muft necessarily increase the comto the public; and it was occasioned by mon rate of wages, and consequently the necessity the public was under to inhance the price of our produce and borrow, and the great quantity of an- manufactures at all foreign markets. nuities then brought to market to be The other resolutions of this commita fold: for when there is an extraordinary tee need no further explanation; nor demand for money at interest, it must was any of them objected to, either raise the natural rate of interest, and within doors or without, as the applicaconsequently lower the price of all our tion of the finking fund to the current public funds; and when there is a glut service, in time of war, now seems to of any commodity at market, it must of be a measure submitted to by the whole course lower the price of that commodi. nation i therefore we fall only add, ty. But as soon as the war is over, or that in the last money-bill, viz. that for should the government be able to carry applying the produce of the said fund, it on without borrowing any more mo the usual clause of appropriation was inney, things would soon return to their serted, by an order of the Commons of natural course: this new fund, as well May 27. no article of which was objectas all our public funds, would sell at, ed to in the other house; consequently or above par; and the annuities would the bill passed both houses without any be worth, and would fell at, or above opposition. what we have stated them at, as the We must likewise add a remark upon natural interest of money upon public that claufe of the act for enabling his securities is not above 31. per cent. per Majesty to raise the sum of one million, ann.; consequently every subscriber who &c. which impowers the bank to lend could advance and hold the whole sum that sum; because it relates to a branch he had subscribed, would have 1271. of our constitution that ought never to 11 s. 8d for every hundred pounds he be broke through. Before the revoluhad subscribed. And hence we may tion, or rather before the restoration, it see, how necessary it is to think of some was usual for our kings, when they extraordinary method for paying off the wanted money, and had no mind to apnational debt, and for raising afterwards, ply to parliament for it, to demand a yearly, as much money as may be ne. loan or benevolence from the subject, cessary for the current service of the without any authority from parliament. year, in time of war, as well as ir time But this was always deemed a breach of of peace. For that such a method might our constitution in the lender or giver, be contrived, is far from being impof. as well as in the borrower or receiver, sible, if we would give up our seifilh as it had a tendency towards enabling provincial prejudices, and resolve, that our sovereign to govern without a parevery man in the British dominions, a. liament. Therefore it has been most bove the rank of a day-labourer, should juftly complained of, when it appeared, contribute yearly to the public revenue, that such loan or benevolence was set on as near as possible, in proportion to the foot on purpose to prevent the king's beprofits he makes yearly by means of the ing under a necessity to call or assemble public protection ; for this is what eve. his parliament. But as a sum of money ry man is in justice bound to do, and may, during the recess of parliament, what every government ought to take be immediately wanted upon some sudthe most effectual possible methods to in. den and unforeseen emergency, it has force. We say, above the rank of a never been thought proper to prohibit day-labourer ; because day-labourers, the making of any such loan or benevowhether in agriculture, manufactures, lence by an express and penal ftatate; VOL. XIX,