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for which reason the loan made by the were to be wished they never were, the city of London to King Charles II. general rule of our constitution renders just before the beginning of the first it necessary to insert a clause of credit

, Dutch war, was never complained of, that is to say, a clause, enabling, or either by the people, or the parliament; rather giving leave to natives or foreignand the voluntary contributions raised ers to lend) in every money act now during the late rebellion, for the fup- passed in parliament, by which clause port of the government, were not then the highest rate of intereft to be allowed found fault with : though it must be con- is generally determined. fessed, that as the parliament was then We come now to give an account of fitting, it would have been proper to the most important of those bills brought have authorised the collecting of such in last session, which were found necescontributions by a short act of parlia. fary to be passed into laws. The first of ment ; for a dangerous practice may which was the bill for prohibiting the hereafter be founded upon that prece- exportation of corn, &c. We have al. dent, and it is to be doubted, whether ready mentioned how readily, and how all the collectors made a strict account of unanimously the order for the bringing what they collected.

in of this bill was agreed to (442.): But though no general law could ever and it was as speedily passed into a law; safely be made against the subjects ma- for it passed both houses so quickly, that king any loan, or giving any benevo. it received the royal assent, by commií. lence to the crown; yet, when the bank, fion, Dec. 18.; but as it is to continue in came to be established by act of parlia.' forceonly till next Christmas[xviii.583.), ment, it was justly apprehended, that it may perhaps be further continued by such an opulent fociety might be indu- a new bill next feffion. ced to lend so large a sum of money to But this was far from being all the rethe crown, as would at an emergency lief provided by parliament last session, be of the most dangerous consequence to For a committee was appointed, Dec. our constitution; and therefore, in the 16. to consider of proper provisions, for act 5° & 6° William and Mary, by which preventing the high price of corn and act the bank was established, there was bread for the future ; and, Jan. 12. Sir a clause inserted, by which it was ex. John Philipps, their chairman, reported, pressly enacted, That if the bank should as the opinion of the committee, 1. That at any time purchase any lands or reve the taking off the duty upon foreign nues belonging to the crown, or lend to corn to be imported into this kingdom, their Majesties, their heirs or successors, for a limited time, would be a proper any sum of money, by way of loan, or and speedy means of reducing the then anticipation, on any part of the reve. high price of corn and bread; and, 2. nue, then granted, or afterwards to be That the permitting such foreign meal, granted, other than such part only on bread, and biscuit, as had been, or which a credit of loan was or should be should be taken from the enemy, to be granted by parliament, the governor or landed and expended in this kingdom, members consenting to such purchase or duty-free, for a limited time, would be loan, and being thereof legally convict- another proper and speedy remedy for ed, should, for every such offence, for- reducing the then high price of corn and feit treble the value of such fum fo paid bread. Which report was referred to a or lent, one fifth to the informer, and committee of the whole house ; and the residue towards such public uses as next day, upon a report from that com. should be directed by parliament. mittee, the house resolved, 1. That the

This made it necessary to insert the duty then payable upon foreign corn and above-mentioned clause in the said act, flour imported, should be taken off for ior enabling his Majesty to raise one mil. a limited time; and, 2. That such fo. lion; and whift our government are un- reign corn, grain, meal, bread, biscuit, cer a neceility to anticipate, which it and four, as had been, or should be

taken

taken from the enemy, should be per a petition of several of the common mitted, for a limited time, to be landed brewers of London, Westminster, Southand expended in this kingdom, duty, wark, and parts adjacent, on behalf of free. Pursuant to which resolution, a themselves and the rest of the brewingbill was ordered to be brought in ; was trade; taking notice of the said bill bepresented next day, passed both houses ing ordered to be brought in, and alwithout opposition, and received the ledging, that, upon palling the said orroyal assent Feb. 15.. But as it was to der, the price of malt, before too high, continue in force only till Aug. 24. a was immediately so much advanced, that new bill was passed the same session for the petitioners found themselves utterly continuing it till Nov. 15.; which term incapable of carrying on their respective is also now paffed. (57.255.]

trades, at the price malt then bore in the Jan. 13. upon a motion made by Mr markets, occasioned, as they conceived, Oswald, one of the commissioners of by an apprehension of the necessity the trade and plantations, it was ordered, distillers would be under, to make use of that leave Thould be given to bring in a the best pale malt, and to substitute the bill, to prohibit, for a time to be there. best barley in lieu of wheat; and that, in limited, the exportation of corn, in such case, the markets would not be grain, meal, malt, four, bread, biscuit, able to supply a sufficient quantity of

ftarch, beef, pork, and bacon, or other barley for the demands of both trades, ti victual, from any of his Majesty's colo. besides other necessary uses; and there

nies and plantations in America, unless fore praying, that in regard to the puto G. Britain or Ireland, or to some of blic revenue, to which the trade of the the said colonies and plantations. This petitioners so largely contributed, such bill was neceffary, not only for reducing measures might be taken for preventing the high price of corn here at home, the public loss, and at the same time rebut for preventing any supply of pro- lieving their particular distress, as to the visions being sent to our enemies in A. house should seem meet. merica; consequently we may suppose, Upon this petition an instruction was it pafled without any opposition. It re- presently ordered to the gentlemen apceived the royal affent Feb. 15. This pointed to prepare the bill, that they act is to remain in force during the con. Thould make provision therein, to retinuance of the present war; and by in- ftrain the distilling of barley, malt, and structions to the committee upon the all grain whatsoever, for a limited time. bill, a clause was added, for allowing And in pursuance of this order, a bill corn, &c. to be imported in foreign- was accordingly prepared, to prohibit, built fhips, and from any state in amity for a time to be limited, the making of with his Majesty, either into Britain or low wines and spirits from wheat, barIreland. [58.]

ley, malt, or any other fort of grain ; Jan. 18. Sir John Philipps reported which bill was presented Feb. 8. pafffrom the above-mentioned committee, ed both houses, and received the royal as their opinion, That the probibiting of affent March 11. (151.] wheat to be made use of in the difillery, But this bill, in its course, met with for a limited time, would be a means a good deal of opposition, both within to prevent the high price of wheat and doors and without; for several petitions bread for the future. The house went were presented, and the petitioners were into a committee, on this report, on the heard by their counsel against it. The 19th; and next day, on report, resolved, strongest argument against the bill was a That to prevent the high price of wheat fact which could not be denied, viz. and bread, no spirits thould be distilled That there always are very large quanfrom wheat, for a time to be limited, tities of wheat and barley in this kingIn pursuance of which, a bill was order. dom, which are either damaged, or of ed in. But before this bill was brought fo ordinary a kind, that they are unfit in, i, e. Feb. 4. there was presented, for any use but that of distilling; and

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that large quantities of the ordinary bar. fent it to you, with the author's remarks ley were made into malt, which was not upon it. fit for brewers, and could be made no The first column contains the Age of use of but by distillers ; consequently the the perion; and the second column conprohibiting of any such grain's being tains, the probable Duration of life, 1. a. distilled, might prove the roin of many the number of years and months during farmers, and would very much lessen the which a person of that age has an equal malting trade. But the present general chance to live. distress prevailed over this particular fu

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r. M r. r. M r. 2. M ling of any sort of grain had been al. lowed, it would have been impossible

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38 grain which might be made use of by the brewers, or for making bread.

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5 However, the disadvantage had so much

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63 weight, as to make the prohibition very

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65 short; for by this bill it was to continue only for two months from March 11.

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67 But as the scarcity still continued, the 10

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68 prohibition was, by a new bill passed the 39

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38 cember 11. with a proviso, impower. 14

72 5 ing his Majesty to put an end to it at a.

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73 ny time after May 11. if judged to be 16

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74 for the advantage of this kingdom.[255.] 1?

46

76 These were all the bills relating to

48

77 this affair that were last session passed in

78 to laws; and the reader will fee, that 21

79 they were all but temporary expedients : 22

16 but as the committee continued to fit, 23

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80 they came to some resolutions which

54

83 may be a foundation for more lasting 26 remedies, and which we shall hereafter 27 29 56

13 give an account of. In the mean time, 28 29 oll 57 12 we shall proceed with an account of some By this table, says the author, we may of the other important bills brought in see, that it may be reasonably hoped, last feffion, that were passed into laws, that is to say, we may lay or bet one to according to the order of time in which one, that a new-born infant will live : they were petitioned or moved for, years ; that a child of 1 year old, will [To be continued.]

live

33 years more ; that a child of full LONDON MA GA Z IN E.

2 years old, will live 38 years more;

that a man of 20 complete, will live 33 SIR,

Sept. 1752.

years and 5 months more ; that a man THE famous Mr de Buffon having of 30, will live 28 years more; and so

in his Natural History given us a of all the other ages. And he adds the table of the probabilities of the dura- following observations. 1. That the age tion of the life of man, calculated from at which the longest life is to be expectthe mortality bills of three large parishes ed, is the age of 7; because we may in the city of Paris, and twelve country. lay an equal wager, or one to one, that parishes in the neighbourhood of that a child of that age will live 42 years and city, the same must

, I think, be enter- 3 months longer. 2. That at the age taining to all, and may be useful to ma. of 12 or 13, we have lived a fourth part ny of your readers ; therefore I have of our life, because we cannot realon

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ably expect to live above 38 or 39 years

And from the fame table we may see, longer; that, in like manner, at the that those who insure lives at the rate of age of 28 or 29, we have lived one 51 per cent. per ann. ; that is to say, who half of our life, because we have but 28 have 5 1. paid them yearly for every years more to live; and, lastly, that be. hundred pounds they engage to pay upfore go, we have lived three fourths of on the death of any person: such insuour life, because we can hope but for rers, I say, we may see, must be great 16 or 17 years more. But, says he, these gainers, even at the present low rate of physical truths, however mortifying in interest, if the persons whose lives are themselves, may be alleviated by moral thus insured, be above 1,

and under 51 confiderations. For a man ought to years of age; because 5. 1. per ann. at consider the first 15 years of his life as 3 l. per cent, compound interest, supnothing. All that happened to him, all posing the money to be laid out at inthat pafled in that long interval of time, tereft half-yearly only, produces above is effaced out of his memory; or at least 100 1. in 16 years ; whereas it appears has so little relation to the views and the by this table, that all persons above 1. affairs which after that time take up his and under 51 years of age, have an ethoughts, that it gives him no concern. qual chance for living for above 16 years. It is no longer the same succession of i. Nay, as 5 l. per ann. at 3 l. per cent. deas, or, we may say, the fame life. compound interest, produces above 2001. We do not begin our moral life, until in 27 years, the insurers must be above after we have begun to regulate our cent. per cent, gainers upon the lives of thoughts, to direct them to a certain fu. all persons above i, and under 31 years ture. view, and to assume a sort of con- of age. sistency, a relation to what we ought to Then with regard to the purchase or be afterwards. By considering the dura. sale of annuities for life, we may from tion of life in this light, which is the this table, and the tables of compound true one, we shall find from the table, interest, easily see what a person of any that at the age

of 25 we have lived but age ought to pay for an annuity for life ; a fourth

part of our life, that at the age because in this table we may see what of 38 we have lived but a half of it, and number of years a person of any age has that we have net passed three fourths of an equal chance to live, and in the tables it until the 56th year of our age.

of compound interest we may see what These are the author's observations; is the present value of an annuity for that to which I shall add, with regard to in- number of years at the then common surances upon lives, that for ipsuring rate of intereft. Thus a person of 30 for 1 year the life of a child of 3 years has by this table an equal chance to live old, we ought to pay but 2; per. cent.; 28 years, and by the tables of compound for as it has

by this table an equal chance interest we may fee, that the present vafor living 40 years, it is 40 to one that lue of 1 l. per ann. for 28 years, reckon. it does not die in a year. In the same ing interest at 3 l. per cent. is a little manner we ought to pay but 3 per cent. above 181. 155. Therefore a person of for insuring for i year the life of a lad that age ought to pay, at the presene of 19. or 20; but 4 per cent, for insuring low rate of intereft, near 19 years purfor 1 year the life of a man of 35 ;'and chase for an annuity for life. Whereas, but 5 per cent. for insuring for 1 year if the common rate of interest were still the life of a man of 43 ; after which the at 5 l. per cent. he ought not to pay full insurance ought to rise above 5 per cent. 15 years purchase; and as there were alin proportion to the advance of the per. ways more sellers than buyers, the comson's age above 43; so that a man of 77 mon price was generally under this rate. ought to pay 25 per cent, and a man of 1 am, &C. 85, 333 per cent. for insuring his life for one year, ,

Montha

MONTHLY Review, October 1757. a difference in the accenting: but we H TOT OMHPOT IAIAE, Folio, 2 vols. are of opinion, that in this particular

Printed at Glasgow, [by Mej. Robert the former has the preference, though and Andrew Foulis, printers to the uni. Hederick and Patrick appear in juftifi. versity.] Price 11. 11 s. 6 d. large par cation of the learned Doctor's method. per, and il. 1 s. the small, in sheets.

In this Glasgow edition the words are

all printed at full length. This likewise [The Edinburgh society's medal, for the best printed Greek book, was adjudged to Mell. makes it preferable to the Doctor's, which Foulis for this book. Thefe gentlemen have abounding with abbreviations, appears gained all the prizes yet given by this society for more confused, and sooner tires the eye. book-printing. [50. xviii. 195.)

The learned and indefatigable profesT is with pleasure we observe, that fors, Meff. Moor and Muirhead, have,

this moft elegant edition of Homer's in their preface, done justice to the meIliad is inscribed to the Prince of Wales, rit of Mr Alexander Wilson, the very by his Royal Highness's permission. We ingenious letter-founder of North Briflatter ourselves, from the early testimo. tain. And from their account of their nies which this royal youth has given of own extreme care and labour in correcthis genius and judgment, that he willing the proofs, which they affure us unnot only read Homer as a poet, but derwent no less than fix different revisals, confider him as a politician: and though and in comparing them with prior edihis juvenile ardor will no doubt lead tions, we need not be surprised at that him to admire the animated valour and accuracy, for which the learned world heroic atchievements of Achilles, yet is so highly indebted to them. we hope that he will likewise find charms If this impression had no other merit in the characters of Nestor and Ulysses. to recommend it than the improvement

This edition, published from the u. made in typography, that alone would niversity-press of Glasgow, is printed, be sufficient to intitle it to the patronage as appears by the preface, at the ex. of the public; but we are sorry to obpence of the professors of that univerfi. ferve, that the little encouragement gity, We are told, that it is only intend- ven to the cultivation of arts and sciened as a trial, and that the gentlemen ces, is not the least instance of the corpropose to publish all the Greek and ruption and degeneracy of modern times. Latin claslics with the same elegance If there was the smallest spark of naand accuracy: it is therefore to be with. tional spirit among us, the liberal arts ed, that this specimen may meet with would not be so destitute of patrons as to such a favourable and generous recep- fly abroad for protection. They who tion, as may induce them to pursue their bave no taste to relish them, would, if design with spirit ; and that no lover of they loved their country, patronize them letters, whose circumstances will allow from political principles. him to encourage the merit he admires, The higher perfection the arts attain will fail to adorn his library with this in any country, the greater will be the fplendid impression of the Iliad. demand for its particular productions.

As to the matter, they profess to have The nation that outrivals its neighbours, followed Dr Clarke's quarto edition, will become the mart of commerce: the published in 1729; but as to the form ingenious and industrious will procure a and manner, to have imitated the mag. comfortable subsistence; the inhabitants nificent one of Henry Stephens. We will multiply; and the kingdom increase need not, however, hesitate to declare, in riches, and, consequently, in power, that in the beauty of the paper and the type, and in the correctness of the work, they have surpassed all which have hi

EPIGRAM upon FOUR SISTERS. therto appeared.

N former times, as we are told,

: The curious reader, by comparing The lovely H ns behold; this edition with Dr Clarke's, will find Henceforth their number four shall be.

The

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