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minions to be in imminent danger, made Queen engaged to take no part in the requisition of the succours promised by differences between G. Britain and the Empress-Queen, he received a very rance concerning the limits of their unsatisfactory answer, of which the pu- respective poffeffions in America, in blic then knew nothing, but which mall which she said she was not concerned. be afterwards taken notice of. Mean Both parties respectively promised, that while we were informed, that plans for the one would not attack or invade any distresling G. Britain were proposed by dominion belonging to the other during France to the King of Prumia; which, the course of the war between G. Brio instead of promoting, he would not wink tain and France. The Empress-Queen at. It was probably that piece of ge- guarantied all the French King's donerosity, joined to the answer his Bri- minions in Europe, against all powers tannic Majesty received from the court whatsoever, and for ever, the case of the of Vienna, that made him labour with war just mentioned only excepted. His particular assiduity to make up matters Moit Christian Majesty also guarantied with his nephew the King of Prullia. all the Empress-Queen's dominions withThe consequence was, that the two mo- out exception, according to the order of narchs concluded a treaty about the the pragmatic sanction. It was further middle of January 1756, by which his ftipulated, that if either of the contractPruffian Majeity renewed his guaranty ing parties were attacked, the other of the succeßion of the house of Hano- should furnith 24,000 nien, or an equiver to the throne of G. Britain; enga- valent in money, if demanded by the ged to pay off the residue of the Silesia party intitled to make the requisition. loan, reserving only a certain fum, which Most of the powers of Europe, as Spain, some specified at 20,000 l. Sterling, for Sardinia, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Denthe claims of his subjects before men- mark, and the States-General, were in. tioned; and promised to oppose the en- vited to accede to this treaty. The Emtrance of any foreign troops into Ger- press-Queen declared, that, by entering many. The King of G. Britain, on his into it, me by no means intended to part, renounced all his rights and pre break those engageinents which fubfiited tenfions on East Friesland ; and renewed between her and his Britannic Majesty, his particular guaranty of all the domi- but that her. sole end was to prevent the nions which his Prussian Majesty acqui- flames of war from spreading to her dored by the cession of Silesia. Upon chis minions. How she was to fulfil those the public not suspecting what was after- engagements, without sending succours wards openly told, supposed, that, by his to G. Britain or Hanover, if either of Britannic Majesty's mediation, the nego- them should be invaded, we are at a tiations between the Empress-Queen and loss to know; and yet the sending of his Pruffian Majesty, which had been long them does not appear to have been deon the carpet, would soon be brought to figned. On the other hand, we are not a conclufion; and that a thorough re- certain in what light the King of Pruffia conciliation between the courts of Pe. considered his Moft Christian Majesty's tersburg and Berlin would be effected. guarantying all the dominions of the
It was well known, that this situation Empress-Queen without exception, acof affairs gave confiderable uneasiness to cording to the order of the pragmatic the French minitry; but it was not long fanction, as the courts of Versailles and before they began to tell us of their ha. Berlin have not yet come to public eving a treaty on foot with the court of claircissements on that subject; but as Vienna. Though an alliance of that Silesia made a part of the dominions, kind was looked upon to be so unnatu- which, by that sanction, were to remain ral, that at first few gave heed to what undivided, one would be apt to think, was thrown out about it, yet it was ac. that the French engaged to affit in rem tually brought to a conclusion at Ver- covering and preserving that territory sailles che ift of May, By is the Empress to the house of Austria.
Not long after the signing of this manic body such a system as appeared treaty, we were told, that the Prussian most conducive to its safety ; that in conmonarch had wormed some secrets out sequence of those principles, he had of the secretary of the Imperial embafiy neglected nothing which might most ef. at Berlin, who upon that disappeared. fečtually support the house of Austria, It was soon evident, that his Majefty even to the being ready to facrifice al had conceived a strong jealousy of the that was in his power ; that the differenhouse of Austria, in confequence of ces which had arisen between G. Britain which he ordered all his regiments to be and France, about their poffeffions in A. made complete. In effect the court of merica, having given birth to a design Vienna ordered a camp of above 50,000 in the latter power to attack the electo. men to be formed near Colin in Bohe. ral dominions of the house of Brunswick. mia, to be commanded by General Lunenburg, his Britannic Majesty could Count Brown; and another in Mora- neither obtain of the Empress. Queen the via, of 40,000, under Prince Piccolomi- succours ftipulated by treaties, nor en. ni. The King of Prussia dispatched in- gage her to employ her good offices tostructions to his minister at Vienna, to wards altering dispositions of such states require the Empress Queen to defift from of the empire, as through indifference her military preparations making in seemed in some measure to favour that those countries, which, in a time of pro- invasion; that his Britannic Majesty found peace, he could not but look up- thus found himself under a necessity of on as an open declaration of her hoftile concluding an alliance with the King of intentions, and said, that in case of a Pruflia, for the security of their respecrefusal to defift, he was determined to tive dominions, preserving peace and march directly to the frontiers, so as his tranquillity in the empire, and defending enemies might gain nothing by an ill- the rights and privileges of the members timed delay. The Empress-Queen an. of the Germanic body, without prejufwered, That, in the present juncture, dice to either of the religions exercised she had found it necessary to make ar- in the empire ; that while matters stood maments, as well for her own defence, thus, the world was surprised with an as for that of her allies, and which did unexpected treaty of alliance which the not tend to the prejudice of any body. Empress-Queen had been pleased to conBoth sides carried on their preparations, clude with a power, which, for above and at the same time reciprocally char. two centuries past, had dismembered the ged one another with being the first that most considerable provinces of the em; gave orders for putting troops in mo. pire, had attacked and invaded her arch: tion. The Empress-Queen, to justify ducal house, had fomented troubles anc her proceedings, published a rescript, in divisions in Germany, and made fuck which, among other things, the repre- means subservient to its own ambitious sented the treaty between the King of views, by ufurping whatever lay conve. G. Britain and his Prussian Majesty as nient for it; that the inconveniencies calculated to raise the Protestant at the and dangers which this new treaty muk expence of the Roman-Catholic religion. necessarily be productive of, would, in In answer to that rescript, his Britannic time, be made manifeft; and that as Majesty, as Elector of Hanover, caused the thing was not of such a nature as to a declaration be delivered to the diet at require being any longer made a mystery Ratisbon, importing, that he had heard of, his Britannic Majesty had explained with great surprise, that the treaty juft himself clearly on this subject, in order mentioned had been represented as a to dissipate the prejudices which might matter in which the state of religion was have been created by contrary ideas or concerned; that the whole empire knew suggestions. From this it is easy to judge, he had made it a rule, to support the what must have been his Britannic Ma. rights of each state, without distinction, jesty's sentiments concerning the Emand to contribute to keep up in the Ger- press-Queen's gratitude, and the finceri
ty of her declarations, that she did not King his master, not satisfied with the ad intend to break her engagements with Empress-Queen's declaracions before
him. The King of Prusia afterwards mentioned, and not chusing to dissemble, ia. advanced a very remarkable circum- could not avoid informing her, that he all stance, as attending the refusal of fuc- had received undoubted intelligence,
cours for defending Hanover made by that, in the beginning of last year, the the court of Vienna, namely, that the entered into an offensive alliance with Empress-Queen would not hear of grant- the court of Russia against him, in which ing'any, unless G. Britain would enter it was stipulated, that the two Empresses into a plot which she had formed a. should unexpectedly attack him, the gainst his Prussian Majesty's dominions Empress of Russia with 120,000 men,
and possessions; and that his Britannic and the Empress-Queen with 80,000 ; hel Majesty, whose sentiments were too no- that this project, which was to have
ble to adopt schemes incompatible with been carried into execution in May last his good faith, rejected all the proposals year, had been deferred till next spring, which were made to him. Had this only because the troops of Russia wanted been publicly known from the time it is recruits, the fleet sailors, and Livonia said to have happened, people would not corn to maintain them; that his Prussian have been so much furprised at the a- Majesty, advised from all quarters of larm which the court of Vienna was said such measures being taken and taking ato take at the King of G. Britain's ha- gainst him by the Empress-Queen as if ving renewed his guaranty of Silesia. he were at open war with her, thought Nothing can be more easy, than for a himself intitled to require from her a prince to give further security for what formal and categorical declaration, that he is fully resolved to perform ; nor for she had no intention to attack bis domia court calmly to see bars thrown in it$ nions, either last year or this ; and that way against obtaining what it has no de- if an uncertain and inconclusive answer sign upon. But if a scheme is formed were given, her Imperial Majesty would for grasping at an object judged to be have herself to reproach for the consevaluable, the riper it is thought for exe- quences of that reserved behaviour, and ution, the greater vexation will any obu would confirm the intelligence of the
dangerous projects which she had formed As, on the one hand, it had been re- with Russia against him. The court of presented that the treaty between his Vienna absolutely denied that there did
Britannic Majesty and the King of Prus- exist, or ever had exifted, any offensive nd
sia tended to the prejudice of the Roman- treaty between her and Russia against Catholic religion; so, on the other, it his Prussian Majefty; and again afferted, was faid, that the alliance entered into that the military dispositions she had or
between the Empress-Queen and his dered were folely in confideration of Ger
Most Christian Majesty contained cer- those of that monarch ;' but declined tain secret articles; calculated for the faying any thing as to her intentions of total suppression of Protestantism, some attacking him laft year or this now care refpe&ting the Prince of Hesse-Cassel's rent. About this time his Pruffian Ma. change of religion, besides arrangements jesty caused a piece be delivered to the
prejudicial to the empire, in favour of Imperial ministry, in which he said ic ed
the Archduke Joseph's being elected was notorious, that the court of Vienna le
King of the Romans. All this the court began her armaments in Bohemia and chi
of Vienna denied ; and complained, that Moravia in the beginning of June, soon upon these foundations a proposal had after she had contracted new engagebeen made to the Proteftant courts, in ments with France, and at a time when order to draw them into a league againft neither the Empress-Queen, nor any of the house of Austria.
her allies, had the smallest grounds to On the 18th of August, the Prufian apprehend a surprise; that he had the minister at Vienna declared, 'That the greater realon to attend to these disposiVOL. XIX,
tions, as he received advice at the same otherwise ; and that the informations time of the march of a considerable bo- which his Pruffian Majesty had received, dy of Ruflians towards Courland, which of an offensive alliance, against him, bedetermined him to cause a few regiments tween her and the Empress of Russia, advance into Pomerania, but that he or were absolutely false and invented. dered them to halt so soon as he heard By that time the court of Vienna, the Ruflians bad marched back; that the with proper aslistance, had got differenmarch of those regiments towards Po. ces between the courts of Petersburg and merania ought naturally to give the court Versailles entirely accommodated; and, of Vienna no more umbrage, than the with the same affistance, induced the march of some Austrian regiments to. Empress of Russia to sew as great coldwards Tuscany would give him; and nefs to his Britannic Majesty's interests that, notwithstanding the great prepara- as herself had done, by refusing to retions made by the Empress-Queen, heceive from him the first moiety of the had made no motion towards her terri- subsidy he had engaged to pay her in tories. He challenged the court of Vi. confideration of succours she was to fur-enna to point out any other object of his nifh for the defence of his dominions. armaments, than the defence of his own A formal treaty had been concluded bedominions; and said, that if her Impe- tween the Empress of Russia and his rial Majesty's intentions were as pure and Most Christian Majesty, by which the sincere as she in all places assured them latter guarantied to the former all her to be, he needed only give his minifter conquests made upon Sweden, in such a clear, precise declaration, free from manner as never to support any claims all ambiguity and equivocation, which to be made to them; and both parties would effectually restore the public tran- engaged to labour for securing the indiquillity. He expressed his willingness visbility of the house of Austria's estate to believe, on the Empress-Queen's as. as fettled by the pragmatic sanction, for surances, that her treaty with France maintaining a good understanding with contained no other articles than what the Ottoman Porte, and for encouraging had been published, and that the would the Grand Signior in his pacific fentiagree to no project which might be con- ments. trary to Proteftantism; but observed, This also appeared unfavourable to that she could not take it amiss, if the the King of Prussia; and he supposed Protestant princes should be on their that his only chance for safety lay in a guard in such a critical conjuncture, vigorous exertion of his whole force. when the validity of the act of security Accordingly his troops began their given by the hereditary Prince of Hesse- march towards Bohemia on the 28th of Caffel, for maintaining the established Auguft. That same day his minister at religion in his country, was openly at- Dresden demanded a passage for them tacked, and a discovery had been made through Saxony; declaring, that they of the secret intrigues of the Emperor's should observe the strictest discipline, and minister and Baron Hurtzrock, to carry that all care should be taken of the counoff that prince, and take him from un- try which circumstances would permit; der the authority of the Landgrave his that his Polish Majesty and the royal fafather ; who had publicly complained of mily might depend on being in perfect the affair, but obtained no satisfaction. safety, and having the greatest respect 'The Empress Queen's answer was in paid them; and that his Prussian Majesubstance, That the critical state of pu. ity desired nothing so much as the reblic affairs made her look upon the mea. establishment of peace, in order to give sures she was taking, as necessary for her him the happy opportunity of restoring safety and that of her allies, without pre- the King of Poland to the quiet poflefjudice to any one ; that her ner de- fion of his dominions, against which he claration was so clear, that she could ne- had not, in other respects, formed any ver have imagined it could be thought dangerous designs. The King of Po
land made answer in writing next day, themselves with the utmost diligence, to that relying on the declarations made prevent the discovery of a secret which
him, he granted the passage defired; and has brought vaft sums of money into alia declared his intention, not to take any Saxony.
part in the differences which had arisen His Pruffian Majesty in person took between his Prussian Majesty and the possession of Dresden on the 8th of SepEmpress-Queen.
tember ; where, as we were assured, he ans
The Praslian troops, to the number of treated the Queen of Poland, and the about 60,000 men, entered Saxony by rest of the royal family there, with the three different routes. One body of greatest politenefs.
them having advanced to Leipfic, the Even after the King of Prussia had enreb
fame day they entered that city a decla. tered Saxony, he caused his minister at OTO
ration was published by the general who Vienna once more ask the Empresso. commanded them, notifying, that as his Queen, whether the would engage not
Pruffian Majesty intended to consider and to attack him either that year or the curfor
defend the subjects of that electorate as rent one ; promising to recall his troops ion
if they were his own, he had given the on receiving a precise and fatisfactory i bo most precise orders to cause his troops answer. The answer was, That the
parobserve the strictest discipline; but that ties were at peace; that to contract an
at the same time provisions must be re- engagement of this nature, was to con1 he
gularly furnished them. Notice was al- vert the peace into a truce; and that the fuas
to given, that all taxes and customs were Empress found the condition too inconain
to be paid to his Prussian Majefty; and fiftent with treaties to accept of it. His treit his officers took poffeffion of the custom- Pruffian Majesty had formerly represent
house and excise-office, while the maga. ed, that the court of Vienna, by her reta zines of corn and meal were ordered to fusal to give him those positive affuran=, fr be opened for the use of his troops. The ces which he thought every one at peace
like declarations were made, and the, with his neighbours had a right to deging like conduct observed, in other places. mand, by continual artifices, and haugh
It would seem that his Polish Majesty. tiness, proposed to drive him into a war,
had well foreseen chę march of the Prur- in order to have a pretext for reclaiming e # fians, and resolved on the measures he the assistance of her allies; and also obole
was to pursue. For he had just before served, that though he should be obliged inta assembled the whole troops of his electo. to begin hostilities, he would not be the
rate at Pirna, which is a craggy rock, aggreffor, the aggression being justly, imChei
joined on one hand by the fortress of putable to that party alone which had hi
Sonnestein, and on the other by that of stirred up enemies against, or formed dem
itein runs the Elbe, amidst rough and other. Being fully convinced by this he
inaccessible rocks. On the other side, last answer, that nothing was to be efand in the places especially of most easy fected by further representations, his miaccess, the Saxons had laid great num- nister retired from Vienna the 16th of
bers of vast pine-trees, which they had September, without taking leave; and Ifa.
felled upon the spot. To this trong soon after, the Imperial minister left fed
camp the King of Poland, with his two Berlin in the same manner. Dec
fons, repaired on the 3d of September ; By that time the Pruffians had invest. eje the rest of the royal family still remain- ed the Saxons at Pirna on every fide.
ing at Dresden, capital of Saxony. The Several messages had passed between the Five
principal archives and most valuable ef. King of Poland and his Pruffian Maje. ing fects of the family had been carried to fty, the former of whom still offered to
the fortress of Konigstein ; with all the observe an exact neutrality; but the lat. hi
tools and materials made use of in the ter infifted, that in order to render this
porcelane manufactory at Meissen; the more certain, it was proper the Saxon Po
workmen at the same time dispersing troops should return to their former quars.