« ZurückWeiter »
In case, by the blessing of God upon by his Majesty's instructions, judge of our arms, you shall make yourself ma. the practicability of the service, on the fter of any place on the coast of France, spot, according as contingent events, our will and pleasure is, That you do not and particular circumstances, may rekeep poffeffion thereof; but that, after quire; the King judging it highly predemolishing and destroying, as far as judicial to the good of his service, to may be, all works, defences, magazines, give particular orders and directions with arsenals, shipping, and naval stores, you regard to posible contingent cases that do proceed, successively, on the ulterior may arise." operations of this expedition, according as any of them shall be judged adviseable, Extract of a letter from Sir Edward Hawke
to Mr Secretary Pitt, dated, Ramilies, and may be performed within such time as shall be consistent with your return,
in Basque road, Sept. 30. 1757. with the troops under your command, It having been thought necefso as to be in England at, or about, as fary, in order to secore a safe landing for Dear as may be the end of September, the troops, to found and reconnoitre the unless the circumstances of our forces shore of the main; as soon as the fort and fleet shall necessarily require their re. [Aix] bad surrendered, I directed Rearturn sooner ; and you are to land the Adm. Broderick, with Çapt Denis, troops at Portsmouth, or such other of Douglas, and Buckle, to perform that our ports as the exigency of the case service, and make their report to me. may suggeft.
It was the afternoon of the 24th before Aag. 11. 1757. Sir John Mordaunt dering the report, I was of opinion they
they returned. · After maturely confiwrote to Mr Pitt from the isle of Wight might land; on which Sir John Mor. as follows.
Having, fince rival here, conversed with Sir Edward affernbled to consider of it. There it was
daunt desired a council of war might be Hawke, and Vice-Admiral Knowles, granted by every body, that the landing both seem of opinion that it is possible, could be effected. In confidence of their Rochefort, the fleet may be detained, judgment, and knowledge of their own Rochefort, the fleet may be detained, profeflion, we assented to their reasons even in light of the coast of France, for for not proceeding to attempt taking a week or ten days, without being able
Rochefort by escalade. -He defired a to get into the road, or off the isle of
second council; which was assembled Aix; during which time an alarm will
early on the 28th. Immediately the necessarily be given in those parts. This conjuncture and situation, if it should disposition was made for the landing, unhappen, appears to me so very delicate, rick, and all the captains of the fquaand equally to the other general officers dron. Part of the troops were actually on the expedition, who may, by accident to the first in command, come to from Mr Broderick, viz. “ Sir, I have
in the boats, when I received a letter be under the same difficulty, (the success prepared all the boats, with proper ofof our undertaking depending, as I ap- ficers, to land the troops, agreeable to prehend, on the suddenness of its exe.
order ; but am to acquaint you, cution), that I should be glad, if it is that the generais are come to a resolution thought proper, to have a direction how not to land to-night, and to wait till I am to act in that case.”
day-light, when they can have a full Mr Pitt answers him, Aug. 13." With view of the ground where they are to regard to the supposed cafe, as stated in land. I am, &c.". your letter,
-I am commanded by the Though, before I came here, this King. to fignify to you his Majesty's place was represented as very difficult of pleasure, That you, or such other officer access, and so narrow that thips could on whom the command may devolve, not lie in safety from the forts, nay, the do, in conformity to the latitude given pilots made many baulks before we cama
in; yer I find it a safe, spacious road, in at the desire of Sir John Mordaunt, prowhich all the navy of England, mer- ceeded to take under consideration, whechant-hips included, may ride without ther it is adviseable to land the troops, the least annoyance; and that a squa- to attack the forts leading to and upon dron may, at any time, by lying here, the mouth of the river Charente ; and prevent any armament from Rochefort, after mature deliberation are unanimouse and ruin all the French trade to Rhé, ly of opinion, that it is adviseable to land Oleron, or the continent within these in the troops for that purpose, with all pofslands.
fible dispatch.--Signed as the preceding. Extracts of the council of war beld Sept. 25. Extract of a letter from Sir John Mordaunt The council having taken the
to Mr Secretary Pitt, dated, Ramilies, said report(that of Adm. Broderick,&c.]
Rade de Basque, Sept. 30. into consideration, and examined the pi I am quite unhappy that the lots, it appears, that there are but two great national object, the taking of landing-places; and that the troops Rochefort, was not at this period praccould not be reimbarked from either of ticable: and what adds to my unhappi. them in bad weather, the swell of the ness is, that the King so strongly ordersea making so great a surf on the shore ed it. But when his Majesty reads the that no boats would be able to approach particular events and circumstances, it to take the troops off, (the ableft pi. I flatter myself he will not be dissatisfied lot having informed the council, that with our proceedings. he had been at anchor seven weeks in Whilst the fortifications of the fort on this road, and not a boat been able to the ille d'Aix were blowing up, we pass or repass). And it likewise appears thought it right to make some attempt ; to the council, that in case the troops and agreed on landing, and attacking should be overpowered by superior num. the forts leading to and upon the river bers of the enemy, they could have no Charente. Orders were accordingly giprotection from the cannon of the fleet, ven on the 28th, for our landing the the shoal water preventing their coming fame night with the whole army. At within gunshot.
one in the morning, Rear-Adm. BroAll which being taken into considera- derick, with most of the captains, and tion, together with the long detention of all the fea-officers of every kind, with the troops in the isle of Wight, and our all the boats that could be got, were meeting with contrary winds, fogs, and ready to affift; and most of the troops calms, upon our passage; the several ine for the first imbarkation were on board. formations received of troops assembled Unfortunately, such a high wind (prung in the neighbourhood, and the great im- up from the shore, that all the fea-offiprobability of finding the place (Roche- cers gave their opinion that the landing fort) unprovided, or of surprising it, or should not be attempted; that the boats consequently succeeding in an enterprise must be towed so very slowly, the transfounded on the plan of an assault or e- port-boats, by reports to me, could not scalade merely, and the uncertainty of a some of them make any way at all; that secure retreat for the troops if landed ; the it would be day-light before the first imcouncil are unanimously of opinion, that barkation could poflibly be landed; and such an attempt is neither adviseable nor all agreed it would be fix hours before practicable.-Signed by the Admirals that body of troops could be supported Hauke, Knowles, Broderick, and Capt. by the landing of a second imbarkation : George Bridges Rodney; and by the Gene- add to this, that the ships could not come rals Mordaunt, Conway, Cornwallis, and near enough to help to cover the landCol. George Howard.
ing, and the garrison of Rochelle was
within two leagues. Copy of the council of war held Sept. 28.
Under these circumstances, and the The council of war being assembled, strong representation of the sea-officers,
the general officers unanimously agreed We conceive another cause of the fai. to fend the troops back again to their lure of the expedition to have been, transports.
that, instead of attempting to land, when
the report was received, on the 24th of A list of the gentlemen who were examined by the
September, from Rear-Adm. Broderick board of inquiry.
and the captains who had been sent out Lt-Gen. Sir John Mordaunt, commander in chief
to sound and reconnoitre, a council of of the land-forces.
war was fummoned and held on the Vice-Adm. Charles Knowles. Maj.-Gen. Henry Seymour Conway.
25th, in which it was unanimously reRear-Adm. Thomas Broderick.
fólved not to land, as the attempt upon Maj.-Gen. Edward Cornwallis.
Rochefort was neither advisable nor Col. James Wolfe, quartermaster-general upon pra&icable. But it does not appear to the expedition.
us, that there were then, or at any time Col. George Howard. Col. Thomas Brudenell.
afterwards, either a body of troops or Lt-Col. Robert Clerk, chief engineer upon the batteries on the shore, suficient to have expedition.
prevented the attempting a descent, in Capt. Thomas Osbert Mordaunt.
pursuance of the instructions figned by Capt. Patrick Tonyn.
your Majesty: neither does it appear to Capt. William Hamilton.
us, that there were any fufficient reasons For the particulars of their examinations, we
to induce the council of war to believe, must at present content ourselves with the accounts already inserted from the news-papers [603.). that Rochefort was so far changed in reSir John Mordaunt's speech in this Report, is ver. spect of its strength, or posture of de. batim as we have inserted it. [604.]
fence, since the expedition was first re
folved on in England, as to prevent all Report of the general officers to his Majesty. attempts of an attack upon the place, in May it please your Majesty,
order to burn and destroy the docks, maWE
E the under-written general officers gazines, arsenals, and shipping, in obe
- do, in obedience to your Ma- dience to your Majesty's commands. jesty's command, most humbly report to And we think ourselves obliged to reyour Majesty the principal causes of the mark upon the council of war of the 28th failure of the said expedition, as they ap- of September, that no reason could have pear to us, viz.
existed sufficient to prevent the attempt It appears, that one cause of the ex. of landing the troops previous to that pedition having failed, is the not attack- day, as the council then unanimously ing Fort Fouras by sea, at the same time resolved to land with all possible dispatch. that it would have been attacked by land,
We beg leave also to make one other agreeable to the first design, which cer- observation, That after its being unani. tainly must have been of the greatest u. mously resolved to land, in the council of tility towards carrying your Majesty's in- war of the 28th, the resolution was taken ftruétions into execution. It was at first of returning to England, without any reresolved by Sir Edward Hawke, (Thierri gular or general meeting of the said counthe pilot of the Magnanime having un- cil: but as that whole operation was of dertaken the fase conduct of a ship to fo inconsiderable a nature, we do not ofFort Fouras for that purpose), but after- fer this to your Majesty as a cause of the wards laid aside, upon the representation failure of the expedition, since we cannot of Vice-Adm. Knowles, that the Bar- but look upon the expedition as having fleur, the ship designed for that service, failed, from the time the great object of was on ground, at the distance of between it was laid aside in the council of war of four and five miles from the shore. But the 25th. as neither Sir Edward Hawke, nor the All which is most humbly submitted to pilot, could attend, to give any infor.
your Majesty's wisdom. mation upon that head, we cannot pre
MARLBOROUGH. fumé to offer any certain opinion there- Privy-Garden,
Nov.21.1757 · "pon.
of it contained a much larger proportion To the author of the Scots Magazine. of fulphur than others.
SIR, Edinburgh, Dec, 24. 1757, As to your principal question, Wheof I you have read the policemico N your Magazine for January 1756 ther the vapour or steam of the Luscar
coal is noxious, innocent, of even conaccount of a very singular coal found at ducive to health, as is asserted of a coal Castle-Comber in Ireland [xviii. 37.). of altogether the like quality found at I have now the pleasure to inform you Castle Comber in Ireland ? [xviii. 37.); that there is a coal in the grounds of the fact I find is this. Luscar in Fife, of altogether similar qua
The steam of the Luscar coal is very lity. It lies very convenient for expor- sensibly perceived by a person coming tation, being but two miles from Torry. from the fresh air into a close room where burn, and three from Lymekills, both this coal has been kept burning for some harbours in the frith of Forth.
time, and especially when the vapour is The discovery of this coal promises to diffused through the whole room, as in be of general advantage to the public. burning it in a very smoky chimney, ? It is a cheaper fewel for the poor than where there is not a sufficient draught of
any at present in use; it is preferable to air to carry it up. the common coal in all cases where a Now, I must first observe, that the greater degree of heat is wanted ; and grosseft fteams, and even the most difit proves an effectual cure of smoky chim- agreeable and strongest vapours or scents, neys; your inserting the following letter are far from being always the most prewill therefore much oblige, &c. judicial to health, or most burtful to ani. Jos. STRACHAN. mal life; on the contrary, vapours the
most imperceptible to our senses, are of. A letter to the proprietor of the Lufcar coal. ten the most unfriendly to animals. Thus
SIR, Edinburgh, Nov. 21.1757. the most fetid and strongest steams of IN compliance with your defires fome oil of hartshorn, volatile spirit of sal
chymical experiments were made up- ammoniac, &c. though almost suffocating, on the Luscar coal, to ascertain the quan- are yet friendly to the conftitution; wheretity of sulphur contained in it, and the as the steam of new-plaistered walls, of comparative proportion of its fulphur to burning charcoal, and of many other that of the common coal. - But no sul. poisons which emit effiuvia almolt imperphur could be obtained from it by the ceptible, are noxious in a high degree. common chymical processes; and I did As the hurtful or innocent quality of not think it necessary to pursue the expe. any efluvia or steams whatsoever, can riments further, as they would be but of only be known by their effects, I made little weight in determining your princi. the following experiment. pal question, relating to the nature of the When a pretty large fire of the Luscar vapour or fteam which issues from the coal was sufficiently kindled, I drew out Luscar coal when burning; as it is cer- the grate into the middle of the room ; tain that the inflammable principle in all and having secured the doors and winfoffil coals is partly of a sulphureous na. dows, so that the whole fteam was pent ture, it being their bituminous oil. I will up in the room, I shut up in it a dog for only venture to say, that I have seen coals half an hour. The consequence was, brought from the neighbourhood of E. that, upon opening the door, the dog im. dinburgh, which to me seemed to con- mediately ran out, lecmi giy onaffelied tain a greater quantity of sulphur, and with the vapour of the coals. The like that of a purer mineral nature, than the experiment was repeated upon a cat, with Luscar coal. I have also observed a the like fuccess; only the cat, upon runvery perceptible difference in the fam. ning into the fresh air, appeared at first ples you fent me of the Luscar coal; ha- somewhat giddy, but immediately reco. ving discovered, by the tarnishing of fil vered. While these animals were thus ver, and other means, that some parcels confined, the vapour from the coals had VOL. XIX.
diffused itself over the whole house, so as A gentleman for many years fubject
ha in some rooms to be almost insupportable to a return of habitual headachs, informs to some persons of the family.--But in me, that by the use of the Luscar coal, the room where the fire stood, the steam in all the apartments of his house, for a was so dense, and fuffocating, that it was twelvemonth past, the attacks of his head. with difficulty I could bear it for the short ach have become much less frequent; time I ran to open a window to give it and, he is sensible, are now chiefly in. issue.
duced, by visiting in other families, where From this experiment one may venture the common coals are burnt, especially to conclude, that there is nothing in the when there is the least smoke of them in fteam of these coals very hurtful to the the room. He has often had a fit of the lungs, or immediately deftructive of ani. headach, occafioned by the smoke of the mal life.--- A steam of equal strength from wood used in kindling of the Luscar coal; charcoal, would, in my opinion, have which, by withdrawing into another killed both animals, or at least have de. chamber, until that smoke was dissipated, prived them of sense and motion for a and his fire sufficiently kindled, foon left while.-- And the vapour or smoke of him. common coal pent up in like manner, That the conftant use of the Luscar would have given nearly as fuffocating a coal does not produce any bad effect in fensation, though not so disagreeable and very close apartments, may appear from faintifh a one to me, as that of the Lusa two trials made of them by ladies of my car coal.
acquaintance. I would not however be here under
A young lady burnt them constantly itood to say, that the close-confined va. in her chamber, when confined to it by pour or smoke of any fewel can with a quotidian ague for six weeks. She was entire safety be drawn into the lungs. Air not sensible of their giving any peculiar heated to a certain degree, proves dead. scent to the room : Itrangers however ly to animals; and perhaps the more de- were. Yet neither she nor her physicians composed the inflammable principle of discovered any bad effects from the conthe fewel is, as in the embers of the com- ftant burning of this coal, or its fume in mon coal, the more noxious are its ef- the room. fects. But this much is ceriain, that Another lady, extremely delicate, and when the fresh air has access to prevent fo valetudinary as seldom to come abroad, these, in such cases sensations are ren being for the most part confined to her dered agreeable or disagreeable chief- room, had the misfortune of having in Jy by habit and custom.
it a very smoky chimney. She was ad. Thus, for example, one who has been vised, as a remedy for the smoke, to use always accustomed to a fire of peats in the Luscar coal. This she did all the the country, is apt to be sensibly affected last winter. The crevices of the winby the burning of coals in town; whereas dows in her chamber were then pafted those who are used to a coal fire, are sen over with paper. She always accustomed fible of the smell of peats, even in the o- herself to have large fires, and to keep pen air, in countries where peats are the her room very warm, close, and even common fewel; and I have known such stifling; as being apt, she thinks, to be persons, upon a near approach to a fire affected by the least degree of cold. Yet, of kindled peats, seized with a sickness notwithstanding her being a flicted with and headach. In like manner, the va a disorder in the breast, and a variety of pour issuing from a fire of Loscar coal, complaints, which confined her for the will, by custom, become less cognisable most part of the whole winter to this re. by the senses, as hath been experienced. markably close and warm room, where
Notwithstanding this, a diversity of the Luscar coal, and no other, was confewel does undoubtedly produce various tinually burni, she was not sensible of the effects on different people; of which the least prejudice this fire did to her health following is a remarkable instance, or constitution, or of any influence it ever