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and of the infidelity of the Hanoverians, year, at Bromervorde and at Clofter-Se. is still willing to give fresh proofs of his ven, a convention was respectively a. moderation, and of his defire to spare greed upon between his Royal Highness the effufion of human blood. It is with the Duke of Cumberland, and the Marthis view that I have the honour to de- fhal Duke de Richlieu; the copy whereof clare to your Serene Highness, in the is in the poffeffion of either party. [483.] name of his Most Christian Majesty, The court of France was no sooner inthat I perfift in my resolution of fulfilling formed of this, than it plainly manifeftexactly all the points of the convention, ed, that the neither could nor would acprovided the Hanoverian army, on its knowledge the validity of the said conpart, does the same. But I cannot con- vention, but on this fingle condition, ceal from your Serene Highness, that namely, That the Hanoverian troops if, contrary to all expectation, it should should formally engage not to serve any take an equivocal flep; and fill more, more during the present war againt if it should commit any act of hostility ; France and her allies. And, not conI Mall then push matters to the last ex tent even with this pretension, fhe pofitremity, looking on myself as authori. tively insisted on disarming the auxiliary fed so to do by the laws of war: I fall troops, upon returning into their own set fire to all the palaces, royal houses country. and gardens; I fall fack all the towns His R. H. the Duke of Cumberland, and villages, without fparing the small- who had on his part fulfilled all the conest cabin; in sort, this country shall ditions of the convention, and caused feel all the horrors of war. I advise part of the troops, defined on their reyour Serene Highness to reflect on all turn for the country of Lawenburg, to this, and not to lay me under the necessity begin their march, could not consider this of taking steps fo contrary to the natural new demand otherwise than as a manja humanity of the French nation, and al. felt contravention; the Marshal Duke de so to my personal character.

Richlieu having engaged, not only to

RICHELIEU, let the auxiliary troops depart freely, P. S. Monf. le Comte de Leynar, am. but the convention also setting forth in bassador of the King of Denmark, who express terms, that they should not be was mediator for the convention, has regarded as prisoners of war, under been so kind as to take upon him to say which quality alone, the condition of every thing in his power to your Serene laying down their arms could fubfidi. Highness, in order to prevent the fatal Upon this his R. H. fent orders to the consequences with which this country is said troops to halt. threatened.

Endeavours were used to reconcile the It is said that the substance of Prince difference by all imaginable means.. Ferdinand's laconic return was,s That Expedients were proposed, which left he would come at the head of his

no shadow of pretext to the opposite par

army, and give an answer in person.

ty. But all in vain. The French would Notice is taken of M. Richlieu's threats never be brought to give up fo mortifyin the following declaration, (which we have learned to foften their language a

ing a demand; and it is but lately they have in an article dated, Stade, Dec. 4.), little. In the mean time the troops, pent published by the government of Hano

up in a narrow diftrict affigned them, ver, bearing the title of, A previous manifesto of the motives which oblige bis Mac and cut off from their business and emo

were exposed to the rigour of the season, jelly the King of Great Britain, in quality laments of every kind. of Elector of Brunfuick-Lunenburg, to op

The French, at this time, prefume to pose with arms the army of France in its

treat the convention as a bare military new march against his forces.

scheme. And indeed (in consequence IT T is notorious, that on the 8th and of the above declaration of the court of 10th of September, of this present France, in express opposition to its va


lidity, and on account of the negotiation enter, have been fummoned, under pain for the disarming, which the French ge. of military execution, to appear before neral would never answer categorically, the French coin spiffary, with design of without waiting for the resolution of the compelling then to deliver the domainal court of Versailles) the nature of that act receipts, of which chey are the adminiis totally changed ; and from a treaty ftrators. They have appropriated to between general and general, is now be chemielves part of those magazines, come a court-affair,

which by expreis agreement were to reHard as were the conditions of the main with the electoral troops ; and they convention for the troops of his Britan- ftill go on with seizing the houses, revenic Majesty, Elector of Hanover, the nues, and corn, belonging to his Ma. King would have acquiesced in them, if jelty in the city of Bremen, in spite of the French had not glaringly discovered the reciprocal engagement, whereby their delign of totally ruining his army they are held to regard that city as a and his dominions. It is themselves, place absolurely free and neutral. And, who, by the most evident contraventions lastly, they have proceeded to menaces and outrageous conduct, have set the unheard of among a civilized people, of King free from every thing which the burning, facking, and destroying all be. convention could render obligating to fore them without remorse. him.

All these violent and unjust proceedThe great end of the conventional ings, are so many incontestable proofs, act, (an end in itself of the very nature

that the French will not admit the conand essence of every provisional armi. vention as obligatory, any farther than stice), was to enter directly on negotia. as it may prove ruinous to his Britannic tions of peace, in order to prevent the Majesty. They deny that they are tied total ruin of the countries which com down to any thing, and assert a power pose the electorate of Brunswick Lunen- of acting at will. To so insupportable burg, and procure an accommodation a degree of insolence have they carried for his Majesty's allies. The court of maters, as to have borne too heavily France yielding a deaf ear to the propo- upon the King's patience; who holds sitions offered, has for that end not on himself, before God, and all the imparly declared, time after time, that the tial world, not only at liberty, but even would not lend a hand towards a defini necessitated, without further regard to tive pacification with his Majesty in qua the convention, so often and to openly lity of Elector, but has shewn too plain- violated by the French, to have recourse ly, by her continual violences, excesses, to arms, as the means which the Al. and insupportable exactions, since the mighty has put into his hands, for delifigning of the convention, that her reso. vering his faithful lubjects and allies lucion is the absolute destruction of the from the oppressions and vexations which King's electoral estates, as well as chose they now groan under. of his allies.

As his Majesty (conformable to his In the midst of a truce, the most open solemn declaration, made and repeated hoftilities have been committed. The to all nations, and to the Germanic bocastle of Schartzfels has been forcibly dy in particular, from the beginning of seized, and the garrison made prisoners the prefent unhappy war) has never

The prisoners made by the thought of arming offenfively against aFrench before the convention, have not ny power whatever, but solely with a been restored, though this was a point view of defending himself and his allies; expressly ftipulated between the delega. he reposes his confidence in God, and ted generals, and was exactly satisfied hopes for his benediction on the justice on our part, by the immediate release of his enterprises. of the French prisoners. The bailiffs On the 30th of November the Hanoof the reserved districts, into which the verians and their allies went into camp. French troops were on no pretence to That same day the fort of Harburg,


of war.

garrisoned by about 1000 French, was wards Giffhern; and the army marches invested. The French had abandoned to-morrow. Major Lukener attacked a the town, carrying with them into the corps of the enemy yesterday at Hercastle many of the inhabitants of every mansburg, which retreated, and he took rank and age, and of both sexes. Prince eleven prisoners. Ferdinand, having left Maj.-Gen. Har In the action which happened on the denberg, with three battalions, two fqua. 4th, the enemy had three officers taken drons, and some artillery, to besiege it, prisoners, a captain, lieutenant, and cormarched forward with the rest of his net. The captain is the Chevalier de By• troops. The motions of his army ha- non, a near relation of M. d'Argenson. ving obliged the French to abandon the They had two officers killed, and many city of Lunenburg, one of his detach- more men killed and wounded than was at ments took poffeffion of it on the 3d of firft imagined. Major Bothmar of BreiDecember. * From the London gazette tenbach's dragoons, after he was prison. extraordinary, of Dec. 30. we have the er, was stopt, had his money and watch following journal of his marches and taken away by an officer and two husfars, dispositions, dated, Head-quarters at Su- who then let him go. derburg, Dec. 19.

This country is open and dry for the On the 6th the army crossed the men; but it is cut by small rivers, and Lopaw river in four columns, and in- the defiles through the villages retard camped the right to Wite water village, much the marches of the army, che sides with Melling in the front of the left; of the rivers being boggy, so that the vilhead-quarters at Epsdorf. The advan- lages are the only pafles, and the country ced corps, under Count Schulemburg's is thereby filled with strong posts: but, command, was to have advanced to Ult- notwithstanding the army has marched zen, if the intelligence of the enemy's many hours in the night, there is a gemarch had been confirmed; but the neral joy and eagerness at marching on. Prince going forward to Epsdorf, ordered Not a complaint, but every common that corps to join the army, and detached soldier satisfied. On the 6th, when a Major Lukener towards Hermanfburg; brigade of Hanoverians did not get into where he took 24 waggons, which the camp till eleven at night, they were French had brought with them from the all singing; and there is such an emulaPays de Liege, mostly loaded.

tion amongst them, that a soldier who Major of Brigade Esdorf took posfel. drops behind is afraid to Thew his face fion of a considerable magazine at Me. the next day. dingen, that the enemy abandoned, con On the uth the army marched in fisting of 100,000 rations of hay of 15 three columns, and intamped the right to pounds each, and 60,000 rations of oats, Lawe and Dalle villages, and the left to with a large quantity of wheat, rye, and Lutter river, head-quarters at Weyhaustraw, and likewise some small magazines sen. Intelligence that the enemy was at Bunenbutel, Bibesen, and Ultzen. The posted in force at Ribbelow; and further 7th the army halted, and sent for forage intelligence, at night, that the enemy to Medingen. The 8th the army halted; was reinforced there ; on which, on the we got bread from Lunenburg. The 12th, the army marched at day-break 9th the army marched in four columns, in four columns, with an advanced corps and crossed the Gartau river, incamped of fix battalions under the command of with the right to Hatau river, and left Maj-Gen. Count Kilmansegge, and nine to a rivulet called Swinaw, with the vil. squadrons under the command of Maj.. lage of Suderburg, being the head quar. Gen. Dackenhausen, the whole com. ters, in the rear of the centre. The ioch manded by Li-Gen. Oberg; and Prince the army halted, Lt-Gen. Spoercke, Ferdinand ordered the Brunswick troops with Maj., Geno Bronck, Prince of Isen- to take their posts in the lines, four batburg, and Urff, under his command, with talions in the front, and three in the eight battalions and eight squadrons, to, rear line. Just on marching oif, report VOL. XIX.


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came, that the enemy had retreated from night the fire appeared very great again Ribbelow in the night: in which village in the fauxbourg. Lt-Gen. Spoercke the head.quarters were taken this day, ordered with eight battalions and eight the 12th. The advanced corps incamp- squadrons, and all the pontoons, to march ed in the front of the village, and the immediately, and the army to be ready centre of the army was behind it. The to march to-morrow. Prince detached forward Major Lukener 15th. Lt. Gen. Spoercke's march was with some irregulars, three companies of deferred till this morning, that he is grenadiers with two three-pounders, and marched to our front, and to our right, four squadrons, to Garsen; where he o to the Aller. Last night at eleven two vertook the enemy, cannonaded them, of the trumpets came back. Marshal and took his post for the night, at a pro. Richliea is in Zell, and more troops per distance, as they were much fuperior marched into the town as last night. to him. Lt-Gen. Spoercke, with the The pontoons were that morning left

corps he was detached with the 10th, till further orders, and at night orders marched into camp at nine at night; a were given for the pontoons to be marche quartermaster and some husfars of the ed to Bey, and two bridges to be laid enemy taken prisoners. The 13th, the over there. Lt-Gen. Spoercke was or. army marched at day-break in four co dered to pass over his irregulars, his gre. lumns, the advanced guard as yesterday, nadiers, his workmen, to make directly excepting the detachment with Major à tete du pont, to march over his detachLukener. As soon as the advanced guard ment, and the second line was under arrived at their post, they then advanced arms at five in the morning on the 16th, in line. The enemy retreated towards ready to march as foon as he sent for it. Zell; and as the columns advanced, the At the same time Lt-Gen. Oberg, with whole moved forward in order. On ar. two battalions and eight squadrons, was riving within a league of Zell, it appear to march to the right of Zell at Helen; ed plain the enemy had no intentions of where he was to make all the fhew he giving battle: fo the advanced guard could of pafling, to fire away, and to moving on briskly, with two or three make it appear serious. Maj. Gen. Isen. fhots only from the three-pounders, the burg with three battalions and two squawhole that were on this side of the Aller drons was to do the same at Laethausen, retreated into the town, and fired their on the left of Zell ; and Maj.-Gen. battery that they had formed for the de. Count Kilmansegge was to try to force fence of the bridge, which they conti. into Zell with the two battalions under nued firing almost the remainder of the his command, and to get poffeffion of day. They fet fire to a part of their the town on the firft appearance of the magazines, and in the evening to the enemy's abandoning it; and Prince Ferfauxbourg of the town: on which the dinand's intentions were to have marchPrince sent a trumpet to tell them whated the army over the bridges at the same the consequences would be. The fire time, and to have attacked the enemy of the cannon did but little hurt. A fer. on their left flank. But this well-regu. vant holding Count Kilmansegge's horse lated scheme, by the orders that were while he was getting off, and a poor given, failed by a mistake in the poncountryman behind the Prince's back, toons not arriving at the appointed place. killed ; a gunner loft his leg, and three The troops under Lt.Gen. Spoercke's men of the first battalion of guards command returned to their camp, as no wounded. Intelligence that M. Rich. bridge was ready. Lt-Gen. Oberg's lieu came into Zell yesterday evening corps, and Prince Isenburg's, the last of the 12th. The 14th the army halted; which was just going to begin as the the enemy at work at batteries ; intelli- counter-order came, incamped near their gence that the Marshal went back to pofts. Hanover yesterday afternoon. Two more The enemy has acted with great crueltrumpets fent; none come back. At ty in the suburbs, and burnt the orphan


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6 The ac.

i hospital with the children in it; and fet M. Richlieu has been at great pains

fire to another in which were five people, to get a sufficient army assembled. The who escaped, by fome charitable affift- troops under the Prince de Soubise, who ance, out of a window.

had retired into Weteravia, and others 17th. The army under orders being from the north parts of Westphalia, ready to march. The enemy hard at have been put in motion to join him. work at their batteries for the defence of It is given out by the French, that when the river, and, I believe from their pre. the whole are collected, they will a. parations, and the knowledge they must mount to 75,000 men; but some imahave had of our intentions, as they saw gine they will not appear above 55,000 the troops, the Prince thought proper to in the field. -A letter from Hanover, decline attempting the passage this day. dated Dec. 20, runs thus.

18th. A great deal of snow fell, and counts from Zell appear so far from ha. lies on the ground; the men fuffer, but ving been exaggerated, that the scene, go through with ic chearfully, and no when properly related, will appear inficomplaints; the enemy did our patroles nitely more horrid than it has been repre. the honour to cannonade them from their sented. The French seem to be here at batteries, which had no effect.

their wit's end, being alike incapable of 19th. The army was ready at five in taking winter-quarters, or of keeping the morning to change odr position, but the field. Our hospitals and our villano farther alteration has happened than ges are full of fick and wounded, who bringing Lt.Gen. Spoercke's corps into die like rotten sheep. The day before the line, two battalions and two squa- yesterday they resolved to lay the coundrons of Prince Ifenburg's into the line try under water; Providence has put likewise, one battalion remaining at that out of their power, by a suddea Laethausen, and Lt-Gen. Oberg's re. and a strong frost.' turned to its first camp, as part of the M. Richlieu caused a declaration be advanced guard of the army.'

made to the Helsians, that as they had The following extract of a letter from broken the convention, he looked upon an officer in Prince Ferdinand's army, himself as authorised to lay waste their dated, Altenbagen, Dec. 16. likewise country by fire and sword, for which he appeared in the fame gazette. “ M. would immediately give orders. Upon Richlieu makes war as an incendiary. this the 'Landgrave their sovereign wrote At the approach of our army, he caused the Marshal a very spirited letter. His the suburbs of Zell to be burnt dowo Serene Highness has also communica. without neceffity, after having first plun- ted to the powers with whom he is in dered the houses. He likewise adds friendship, an exposition of his con cruelty to devastation ; witness the ho. duct since the convention, and the rea. spital for orphans at Zell, in which the sons which determine him to persevere greatest part of the children were burnt ; to the end in the principles he has ad. and those who attempted to escape the opted. flames, by leaping out at the windows, According to advices from Hamburg, perished by the fall ; and all this though of Dec. 30. the castle of Harburg ca. we made no motion towards the city ei- pitulated on the 29th. The garrison iş ther yesterday or the day before, and not to serve against the King during the consequently the enemy could not have war, but has been permitted to go ouç the least pretence for such barbarous ex with all the honours of war. The can. cesses. They also burnt down yester. non, ammunition, &c. were to be deday all the farm-houses and buildings livered to his Majesty's commissaries, belonging to the King's Theep-walks, It is added, that Pr. Ferdinand had canafter having first entirely plundered toned the King's army under his comthem, without paying the least regard mand, in the leveral villages near Zell, to Prince Ferdinand's representations to the head quarters to be at Ultzen. M. Richlieg.".

The public papers tell us, that orders

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