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have been given for raising 80,000 men not much longer support an army too in the electorate of Brandenburg. How numerous for his revenues. Those who far such orders can be carried into exe. reason thus, must have a very night cution, may in some measure be judged knowledge of the country of Prussia. E. of from the following letter, published very body at Berlin is well satisfied what in the Utretcht gazette of Nov. 22. and the ordinary funds are which are apwarranted by it to come from very good pointed for the subsistence of 160,000 hands.

men, which the King maintains in time SIR, Berlin, Nov. 12. 1757.

of peace, and has constantly paid duTH

HE court of Berlin would under- ring the eleven years of peace, from

take a task equally infignificant 1745 to 1756, without any foreign afand immense, in endeavouring to re- listance. It is a proof of the fufficiency fute all the fallities which envy is ever of the ordinary funds, that the King, charging to her account; and she may besides the expences of a magnificent excuse herself, in considering, that time court, has been able to expend some never fails to become the avenger of millions yearly in sumptuous and useful truth, and the confounder of artifice. buildings, as likewise for settling the There is, however, one falfity, which colonies formed in his dominions. has been so often repeated that it may

His subjects are unacquainted with a. make some impression on those who stand ny new impoft fince the beginning of in need of better information, if they be his reign. In the present war, ruinous not advised to beware of the impofture. as it is, no man has paid a penny of ex

It has been frequently asserted in traordinary taxes, and the country-inhaseveral gazettes, that the court of Lon- bitants have been paid the markét-price don has lately made confiderable remit. for every thing. Moderate fums have tances to that of Berlin. Now, this pre. been borrowed of the nobility ; who tended fact is absolutely a chimera. The may be said to be thereby gainers, as King of Prussia has hitherto neither ask. they are on that account discharged of ed nor received any subsidy from Eng.

the (anon feodal. land, no more than he ever did from

The states of the kingdom, in order France; which latter, if she had ever to give the King an earnest of their advanced any, would not have failed to loyalty, have voluntarily offered to have made it a matter of reproach in the maintain a militia; so that foreigners present circumstances of things. And Thould seem very wrongly informed as as for England, all the world knows, to his Majesty's abilities for recruiting his that that crown can grant no subsidy forces. Perhaps they may some of them without the affent of parliament, and have been imposed upon by the miser

fi consequently without divulging it to all able calculations of the Dutch ObservaEurope.

tor, as he styles himself, who allows Equally chimerical is the malicious the King but two millions of subjects,

1 imputation which the partisans of the when it is certain he has five at the leaft. King's enemies are inceffantly giving

Marshal Lehwald's army is complete out, that his Prussian Majesty was obo to a man. The cities of Magdeburg, liged to begin the war, because he could Stettin, and Cuftrin, alone, contain It has been objected, That among the grants cised for these four months, full of spi

20,000 foldiers, all

fellows exer

young for 1757, there is the following: “ For assisting his Majesty in forming and maintaining an army rits, and fic to be incorporated in the for the defence of his electoral dominions, and regiments. In the villages recruits may those of his allies, and to enable his Majesty to be found in fufficient numbers among fulfil his engagements with the King of Prussia, the peasants servants ; for the masters 200,000 l." [445.). But it is manifeft, that no part of this 200,000 l. could be a fubfidy, but forced to inroll, as in other countries. are not dragged from their labour, and

ca that it was to enable his Majesty to fulfil his engagements with Prussia by supporting the army

From what has been said, it will be wi mentioned in the begii ning of the grans, G. M. easy to judge, that the King's army,



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purged of foreign deserters, and recruit- the preparations then made on the Rhine ed by natives, all born soldiers, muft and the Moselle, together with the vabe thereby the more perfect and power- rious motions of the French, were more ful. At the same time it is manifeft

, than sufficient to prove the reality of that that his Majesty's martial genius, join- potentate's designs. ed to the loyalty of his subjects, not to While matters stood thus, (i. e. to. be shaken by any bans of the empire, wards the autumn of the year 1755), the together with the constitution of his King of G. Britain had no electoral mi. government, are resources which the nister at the court of Vienna : however, mifinformed vulgar may perhaps be un- his Majesty amicably expressed his senacquainted with; having been kept in timents to that court by the mouth of ignorance through ancient prejudices. Mr Keith the British minister; represent

If the King's subjects feel the miseries ed to her the danger to which his Gerof war, it is from the manner of their man dominions and the whole empire enemies making war ; some of them ta- were exposed, and demanded the fucking measures unheard of, and contrary cours ftipulated by the treaties of allito all regular rules; others, according ance and guaranty that sublisted betwixt to the barbarcus custom of the east, put- the two courts. ting all to the sword, and setting fire to They could not mistake at Vienna the every place; and others, again, for- greatness and reality of the danger, nor cing the inhabitants to purchase their disown that it would be unjust, and of safety, and plundering them at the same high concernment to the whole Germanic time.

body, to involve in the war the states of The French boast, with a very ill this body that had no interest in the difgrace, that they have laid the marqui- ferences above mentioned, and to molest fate of Brandenburg under contribution, or trouble several other considerable proIt is true, they over-ran the Old Marché, vinces of Germany by the march of arwhilst the King, imbarrassed with the mies. But these representations were number of his enemies, had carried his fruitless. Far from seeing the performarms elsewhere ; but they abandoned it ance of the promises of a real succour, upon the approach of a battalion of and the guaranty of his Britannic MajePrussian' militia: and as soon as that bat. sty's electoral dominions, one could not talion was got into the garrison of Mag- even obtain from the empire dehortatory deburg, they returned again; but quit rescripts to the adjacent circles, in order ted it afresh immediately after the battle to prevent their favouring the designs of of Rosbach. However, they never set France, and lending her any assistance. foot on the Middle Marché, nor in the In the mean while the danger daily inNew, nor the Uckran Marché. creased, France sent to Berlin an envoy

You will render truth a piece of ju. extraordinary, charged, no doubt, to instice, Sir, by publishing the contents of duce, if possible, the King of Prussia to this letter; as to which you have no rea. disturb on his part the electorate of Hafon to "fear contradiction, the facts be- nover. At the same time she went on ing

here notorious to every one. with her preparations, and continued her The following memorial was not long ceived, that the approaching

winter was

menaces; and it was but too plainly perago delivered to the diet of the empire the only cause that prevented her carryat Ratisbon, by the electoral minister of

ing them into execution. This is a true | Hanover.

account of the situation of affairs at that THE 'HE differences arisen between the time.

crowns of England and France had In the month of February 1756, the scarce been followed by some hoftilities, King of G. Britain, after a short negowhen the latter loudly threatened to be tiation, concluded a treaty with the Tevenged for the same on the electoral King of Prussia; the drift of which was, dominions of his Britannic Majefty; and only, to maintain the general tranquillity VOL. XIX.


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of Europe ; to secure in particular the His Majesty's patriotic sentiments ought repose of Germany, notwithstanding the to have been well enough known. They differences sublisting between the courts could not but know, that those sentiments of London and Versailles; to use che ut- never suffered him to indulge any partial most endeavours on both sides towards views, either in political or religious af. hindering their respective allies from un- fairs; that on all occasions he has had dertaking any thing against the domi- an eye to the maintenance of the Gernions of either of the contracting powers; manic system and conftitutions, and that in short, to join their forces in order to he has given reiterated and incontestable preserve the tranquillity of the empire, proofs thereof. They could not thereand to oppose the passage of foreign fore, without injustice, suspect his Majetroops, in case any power, under any Aty of having deligns, or being inclined pretext whatsoever, mould march an ar. to take steps that might create troubles my into Germany, to disturb its repose. in the heart of the empire, of which he

This treaty, such as it is here repre- is himself one of the principal members, sented, moreover provided for the safety and whose interests have ever been so of all the dominions which her Imperial dear to him, that some years ago he and Royal Majesty poffefies in the empire, spared neither his treasures nor his and those which belong thereto; nay, troops, nor even his sacred person, to the Austrian Netherlands had even been deliver it from the invasion of its ene. expressly named therein, had not his mies. His Britannic Majesty neverthePrussian Majesty grounded the exception less did not hesitate to inform the head of those provinces upon an unanswerable and the members of the empire of the argument, viz. That in all the treaties full contents of the treaty he had recentwhich he himself had concluded with the ly concluded, adding to this informaEmpress-Queen, he never guarantied the tion such declarations as were fit to re*Netherlands; so that in treating with a move every the least idea of suspicion third power he could not further extend and distruít. his engagements in favour of the Em

All the world knows, that in a short press-Queen.

time after, i. e. May 1. 1756, the EmThe more the King flattered himself press-Queen did notwithstanding conthat the Emperor, as head of the em- clude, not only a neutrality.convention, pire, would applaud this treaty, which but also a treaty of union and friend thip, aimed at nothing but to secure the em• pretendedly defensive, with the very crown pire committed to his care, from a dan. with which his Majesty, as King of G. ger whose consequences might be easily Britain, was in open war, and which foreseen, the more did he hope that the threatened to carry fire and sword into Empress-Queen wouid acknowledge the his electoral dominions. According to service he rendered to the territories appearances, this treaty had been long which that princess pofseffes in Germany: before meditated, and had already been at least his Britannic Majesty might rec. à considerable time on the anvil. kon that the Germanic body would It is likewise well known, that as soon think themselves under some obligations as this treaty was concluded, jealousies to him, for the care he took to hinder began to break out between the Em. Germany from becoming again the press-Queen and the King of Prussia, theatre of war, and to secure its tranquil. and that they at last ended in an open lity as that of his own dominions. war, which occasioned his Pruffian Ma

Nevertheless, this treaty was scarcely jesty to enter the electorate of Saxony published, with that frankness and can- and Bohemia. dour which always accompany upright, It is moreover publicly known, that innocent, and falutary acts, than fome the King was absolutely ignorant of the people began to put finifter constructions King of Prussia's entering Saxony; that upon it, and to give out that it teemed his Britannic Majesty did not hear of it with secret designs respecting religion and till after the event; that he detested the other matters,

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hoftilities that broke out; that he advi. kept there almost like prisoners of war : fed the contrary; that he took no part in Thort, they would have deprived him therein, and declared, in the most fo- of the liberty of marching a single man lemn manner, that he would not be con- from one place to another, without the cerned in the same ; and, in fine, that consent of the crown of France. he would confine himself to the employ- During the negotiation relative to this ing of all his forces, and bending all neutrality, France not only marched the his care, to keep foreign troops at a di- fuccour of 24,000 men stipulated by her stance from his country and the territo- treaty with the Empress-Queen, but alries adjacent, and to secure his German so sent directly into Westphalia an army dominions from the danger they were of 80,000 men. threatened with.

The King's army remained till the In this strain did his Majesty speak by end of April in quarters of cantonment his ministers at Vienna, Ratisbon, and along the Weser; but the French, by every where else: this was the sole end exorbitant demands of provisions and of his deliberations, and of the measures waggons, which far exceeded the faculhe took, without concerning himself with ties of the country, having ruined the what was then doing in Saxony and Bo- county of Bentheim, pitched upon the hemia. It was in consequence of the city of Muniter for a place of arms, fame motives that the King voted for marched from all parts towards that cithe mediation of the empire, and for re- ty, and thereby evinced their design upftoring the tranquillity of Germany, on his Majesty's electoral dominions. when the affair was laid before the diet; He then caused the army of observation, because his Majesty was convinced, that commanded by the Duke of Cumberthis measure was the easiest and the fit. land, to cross the Weser, and to ad. test to bring about the restitution of Sa- vance as far as Rittberg, Bielefeld, and xony and the countries depending on it, Hervoerden. Nevertheless the King cauand perhaps indemnifications too; where- sed the moft folemn declarations to be as the other means that prevailed have given every where, that he was very far produced nothing (as dire experience from intending to act offensively against hath shewn) but a horrible effufion of any of his co-estates of the empire, or blood, with the devastation and ruin of even against the crown of France; and many states and innocent subjects ; nor that he had no other views than to fecan we yet foresee when there will be an cure from invasion, with the help of the end of these dreadful calamities. Almighty, his own dominions, and the

It is true, that a neutrality was pro- territories of the neighbouring princes, posed to the King ; partly immediately his allies. [244.] from the court of Vienna, and partly The events that followed are too well by the mediation of Denmark. But known, and too recent still, to need a such conditions were tacked to this neu. recital here. trality, as rendered the acceptance of it The principality of East Friesland, aimpossible. They would have had his bout which his Majesty has a fuit deMajesty give the French troops a free pending in the aulic council against the passage through his dominions : they King of Prussia, has been attacked and wanted him to fornish those troops with conquered, and its inhabitants obliged provisions, forage, and waggons, for al- to fwear allegiance to the Empress. most nothing ; and this too at a time Queen. when his Majesty could scarcely guard The countries of Heffe. Cafiel have his subjects against a famine: they in- been invaded by a body of 15 or 20,000 fifted

upon his putting the fortress of men, and wrested from their lawful maHamelen into their hands: they wanted fter, who has been constrained to take him to confine his troops within a nar- refuge in Hamburg. sow circle in his own dominions; they At the same time another body of infifted, forsooth, that they should be French troops made an irruption on the

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Upper Weser; took Munden, Gottin- His Majesty also flatters himself, that gen, Nordheim, Hardegsen, Hedemun- his co-estates of the empire, and the den, Ullar, and Eimbeck; caused alle- powers that have at heart the restoration giance to be sworn every where to the of the Germanic tranquillity, and the King of France; lodged their fick in support of the system of the empire, will the best churches; extorted an immense think of applying the speedieft remedies quantity of provisions and waggons, on to proceedings equally harsh and unde. the lealt delay plundered whole villages, ferved, and putting an end to an opprefmaltreated the magiftrates, and to give fion which menaces Germany and all a sketch of French military execution) Europe with the most dismal consereduced other villages to ashes, wasted quences; and that they will at the same or burnt the fields, and thereby depri- time endeavour to procure the King satisved the wretched inhabitants of the ve. faction adequate to the damages he has ry hope of the rich crop the land


suffered. mised.

According to private letters from In the mean time the main body of Nice in the King of SARDINIA's domie the French army passed the Weser in se. nions, the French are raising magazines, veral places, reassembled again, and and making all the necessary prepara. then drew near the King's army of ob- tions, for afsembling, so soon as the seafervation ; which, on account of the e. fon will permit, an army of 60 or 70,000 nemy's superiority in numbers, was obli- men in Provence ; with a view, as is ged to retire into the countries of Bre. apprehended, to support those extraor. men and Verden.

dinary alterations that have been conThe town of Hamelen fell into the certed in regard to the new system, and enemy's hand; and Hanover, in fine, which, it is assured, are very disagreeshared the same fate : fince which time able to the Italian states. His Sardithe French army arbitrarily exact contri. nian Majesty has sent troops to the fron. butions, provisions, forage, waggons, &c. tiers on the side of Liguria, and the Gewith a high hand; they seize upon all Noese have caused some defile the same the revenues and all the public money; way. in a word, they dispose of the whole Advices from Genoa of Nov. 20. incountry just as they please, excepting timate, that the malecontents of Corfica that part of it which is still covered by were again assembling themselves, and of observation.

that, from all their motions, there was The territories of Wolffenbuttle have reason to suspect they were medicating in like manner been invaded and occu- some important enterprise, pied, and they have left the Duke's fa- On the oth of September, Father Momily nothing but the castle of Blanken- reyra, confessor to their PORTUGUESE burg to reside in.

Majesties, Father Olivegra, preceptor It is clear from this narration, which and confeffor to the Princesses, and Famay be proved by the most authentic ther da Cofta, confessor to the Infant pieces, that the King did not afsemble Don Pedro, all three Jesuits, received his troops, nor those of his allies, with a orders to quit the court, and never more view to act offensively against any power to appear at it. _The Infants Don An. whatever ; but that his Majesty's fole tonio, and Don Emanuel, also dismissed aim was, to secure, as far as it should be the Fathers Campos and Aracejo, their possible, his dominions, and those of his confessors. The places of those remoallies, from violence and every unjust pre- ved were supplied by persons of other tension. And though divine providence orders. Two days after, the society of has not been pleased to second such juft Jefuits fent deputies to the King, to beand equitable views, the King has yet feech him that he would let them know the consolation of being persuaded, that the motives of so sudden and remarkable the steps he has been obliged to take will a disgrace; but they were ill received, be approved by every impartial man and and were told once for all,' that they by pofterity.


the army

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