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country, and the Austrians and Saxons most all Europe, carried away, subjects were at lait compelled to receive from from their lawful sovereigns, whildren him such a peace as he would grant. from their parents, fathers from their He imposed no severe conditions except children, ecclefiaftics from their parithe payment of the contributions, made fhioners; and yet he will not allow the no new claim of dominions, and, with neighbouring powers, who naturally the Elector Palatine, acknowledged the may apprehend at least a poffibility of Duke of TuscanyforEmperor.[vii. 605-] fome hoftile design, to be jealous or
The lives of princes, like the histories diftruftful. He will not permit them to of nations, have their periods. We shall concert with other courts, equally at a here suspend our narrative of the King loss what to think of him, proper meaof Pruilia, who was now at the height of fures for their own security, or to comhuman greatness, giving laws to his e. plete their troops on the usual footing, nemies, and courted by all the powers of and furnith their new fortifications with Europe. What will be the event of the the necessary artillery, and other things present war, it is yet too early to pre- requisite. If they do, he will affume a dict. His enemies are powerful, but right boldly to ask them, sword in hand, we have seen those enemies once con- about the reason and design of such mi. quered, and there is no great reason to litary preparations; threatening, if a imagine that the confederacy against him speedy answer, and such as he would will last long.
have it, is not returned, and the prepa
rations discontinued, immediately to Extracts of a paper published by the court march his always-ready and tremendogs of Vienna, intitled, Remarks upon the army against them. Proflian declarations, circular rescripts, To have justified its conduct, the court and memorials. (xviii. 594.]
of Berlin ought to have taken care, 1.
To beware of manifest contradi&tions ; [About the beginning of March last was published at London, a pamphlet of seven sheets 4o, in- 2. To set in a clear light the certainty titled, Four pieces, containing a full reply of the of the pretended impending danger of Empress-Queen to all the motives of the King of being attacked ; 3. To produce a legal Prusia for making war. That of which we proof, that the pretended discovery behere give extracts is the third. The other three
But pieces are, A circular refcript by the Empresa trayed truly offensive measures. Queen to her ministers at foreign courts, dated fince this is not done, the pillaged docu. Sept: 2. 1756.-The Empress-Queen's answer ments must needs lose their odious effect. to the Prussian motives, or declaration of war; I. As to contradictions :--The King which we had before inserted entire [xviii. 590.3. of Prussia, in his declaration when he A brief account
, setting in a true light some entered Saxony, engaged his word, of the many infringements of the peace commit
That that electorate fhould be treated as ted by Pruflia.)
a sacred depofitum. But the memorial He dispute between the parties at of his minifter at Ratisbon, M. de Plo.
question, Which of them began first to upon the Saxon subjects for delivering make extraordinary warlike prepara- provisions and forage, were agreeable rions? -The King of Pruffia acknow, to the laws of war. Thus the facted ledges that he first commenced hoftilities, depositom is looked upon as a spoil, so that there is no dispute on this head. made use of, and ruined by an enemy.
His Pruffian Majesty thinks him. [xviii. 453.It was given out, That self authorised to keep continually, both the King of Prusia had long ago had in in times of peace and war, a formida. his hands copies of those originals which ble standing army, always ready for were taken out of the cabinet at Dreraction, which he augments considere den. But the papers being since print. ably from time to time. For this pur- ed, these pretences appear to be abso. pole there are, sometimes artfully, lutely false. In M. Klinggraff's firft and often by open force, throughout al. memorial, Aug. 18. 3757, notice is ta.
ken of an offenfive alliance between the over to his interest all other Protestant two Empreffes against the King of Pruf- states of the empire, in order to oppress fia, and entered upon in the beginning a Catholic power and co-estate of the of the then current year (xviii. 449.). fame empire, but with a secret view of But now, for proof of this, nothing can deftroying both parties without distincbe produced but the 4th article of a tion, and setting the power of the house treaty concluded ten years ago, and of Brandenburg beyond any limits. which contains 'no offensive measures at III. As to the documents: -In all. Had the King of Pruffia had the private affairs, no judge would admit of aforementioned copies long ago, he cer- things violently taken from the party tainly would have published them foon- accused, as good evidence: in political er, as he had reason to expect that the affairs there are no precedents of such Originals might have been removed out violence wbich are held to be justifiable of his reach. -Ten instances of contra. by the law of nations. But it may be diflions are condescended on in whole. alked, Do the originals of the pieces so
II. As to the danger of his being at. published, actually exist? And if they tacked, all that the King of Prussia can do, are their contents truly the same as alledge, amounts to no more than this, they are related ? They are communi
That the courts of Petersburg, Dresden, cated only by way of extracts; hence and Vienna, did not rely entirely on there is just caufe to suspect, that such the peace, with regard to their most passages as did not suit the publisher, dangerous and turbulent neighbour, but were purposely left out, or disguised, acquainted one another with their ap. Suppose the documents to be genuine, prehensions, and provisionally took pro- the court of Berlin will not gain its cause. per measures for their future fecurity. It is contrary to justice, to attack a His Pruffian Majefty could not but fore- neighbouring itate for no other reason see the consequences of his violent and than its being stronger than the rest, selfish behaviour towards all his neigh- and consequently more capable of difbours. He boasts of having prevented turbing the peace. But if a war is kinan Austrian attack by his first invading dled ap by a dangerous neighbour, it is the Austrian dominions: from which an prudent and just to reduce him by joint argument diametrically opposite to that force, and to provide for futurity. The in the Prussian declaration may be drawn, Imperial court of Ruffia has no less inviz. That the party preventing another terest in the support of the house of Auby a war, must have been the first in' ftria, than this house has in the undismaking preparations for war; for in the turbed tranquillity of the Russian mo. Pruffian declaration it is asserted, That narchy, and both courts in the defence if his Pruffian Majefty had had any dan. of the republic of Poland, against the gerous design against the Empress. aggrandizing views of Prullia : and no Queen, he could easily have executed better method could be taken to proit two months before the armies in Bo. vide for the common welfare and fuhemia and Moravia could have been al- ture safety, than the union of the two sembled. [xviii. 492.]
courts effected by the treaty of PetersThe noble spirit so much boasted of burg in 1746, obliging each other to by the King of Pruffia, for the defence unite their strength for setting proper of the liberties of Germany, can have bounds to the overgrown power of Prufno place among his motives for making fia, if his Pruffian Majesty, not satisfied war; and least of all his religious zeal with the great acquisitions he had made, for prote&ting the Protestant interest in should again proceed to hostilities athe empire. Both these pretexts are gainst either of the contracting parties, however laid down as the cause of ta- or the republic of Poland, their ally. king poffefsion of a neighbouring pro. Such is the purport of the 4th secret are vince, the property of a Protestant co. ticle of this defensive treaty, which the member of the empire; and for gaining Pruffian memorial pretends to be offen
5 H 2
five. Plainer words could not be used. in 1656. All these notwithstanding, The parties became bound religiously to the fame Elector of Brandenburg soon i observe the peace concluded ar Dresden after, viz. in 1658, entered into a dewith the King of Prussia, and irrevoca. fensive'alliance with the house of Austria, bly to continue the renunciation of Sile. against the crown of Sweden, in which fia and Glatz, without having any re- the Eleclor made this a condition, "That gress to the rights fo renounced, until the ceflions made to the crown of Swethe King of Prussia himself, by firft at den by the treaty of 1653, for settling tacking Aufiria, Russia, or the republic the limits, should be restored to the ear, of Poland, should make such a case to lectoral house of Brandenburg, whenexiit. Thus it was in the power of his ever a rupture should happen with SweProfian Majefty, by only omitting ho. den.” And the Elector was greatly : ftilities, to have rendered this article of surprised when he was informed, that u no effect. fome ill-minded courts construed this
9 The author of the Prussian memorial convention as offensive. This is the would allow of fuch a right only in case present case of Austria, in regard to its of an immediate attack upon Austria, defensive treaty with Russia. See Puf. but not in case of a war between the fendorf of the affairs of Brandenburg, King of Pruffia and any of the Austrian 1.7. $52. allies; alledging, that in the latter case, A partition of conquests was also fti. the most the Empreis-Queen could be pulated by the treaty of friendship and authorised to do, would be, to send the commerce concluded April 19. 1621,1,1 fuccours ftipulated to the party atta ked, between Christian IV. King of Den! without treeing herself on that account mark and James I. King of G. Britain, x from the particular engagements be. and the diplomatic collections are full vi tween her and the King of Prussia But of conventions of this kind.
21:51) this pretended principle is newly adopt How will the author of the Pruffian ini ed. For in 1744 another was put in memorial reconcile the actions and marood practice, under the chimerical pretext xims of his King with those of the anasto of being obliged, as a member of the cient electoral house of Brandenburg, empire, to aslilt the Elector of Bavaria and thereby save his newly adopted against Auftria with the whole force of principle, That according to the law of Prussja. Why?- There was a solemn nature, received among all.civilized na, in condition, fine qua non, of the famous tions, it was not allowed, in a defensive union-treaty of Francfort [vi. 469,80.), treaty, to ftipulate any thing but the that Prufia should have some confider. number of troops to be furnished to the able
part of Bohemia for a recompense. aliy, without participating of the war. The King then absolutely denied that carried on against the other cortracing .... he aited contrary to the peace of Bre- party ? Such treaties are indeed someflau, to recently concluded.
times to be met with: but it was never The electoral house of Brandenburg looked upon as unlawful to affist an ally. has, in former times, given many instan- with the utmost efforts ; Eundem omnibus ces of defensive treaties, by which the viribus adjuvare, arę terms used in al. partition of conquests was stipulated. One most every treaty. is, the treaty with France, concluded at Transacting powers settle an eventual: j.lt Konigsberg, Feb. 4. 1656. A second succour according to circumstances ; and, is, the folemn treaty concluded between the indemnification or recompense for the house of Brandenburg and the crown such fuccour is either a subsidy in mor an of Sweden, at sitetin, in 1653, tor ad- ney, or part of the conquests to be made. 1. justing the differences about their limits, The convention of Petersburg in 1746 and the restitution:ut Pomerania, these was of the last kind; and its principal things being left undetermined by the contents were directly made known treaty of Westphalia. Other treaties (viii. 621.), in order to acquaint every well were concluded between the same parties power, that if either of the contracting
powers should be attacked, it would be security to the party offended, to afift, looked upon as a breach with both. if necessity should require it, their ally The King of Prussia was by no means with all their forces, and declare war aa excepted from those who should meet gainst the aggresor.. The last words un. with a double enemy on acting against doubtedly imply all the effects of a deeither.
clared war on the part of the aiding The Pruflian writers contend, that a powers. prince is authorised to invade his neigh The King of Prussia ought therefore not
bour upon a probability or suspicion of have taken offence at the secret article bo being in danger to be attacked. If so, of the treaty of Petersburg. For the
how can they maintain, that the Em- two contracting powers would never hpress-Queen ought not to have taken have had it in their power to make use
measures, by a treaty with Rusia, a- of it for the recovery of Silesia, as long gainst a turbulent neighbour, who had as his Majesty had so much power over broke the peace three or four times, un. himself as to enjoy the advantages fecuprovoked by the house of Austria and red to him by the peace of Dresden in its allies ?
peace and quiet. In the place where There may be circumstances which mention is made of hostilities against require, according to the laws of socie. Prussia, these remarkable words are ty, that several powers should jointly added, " in case the King of Prussia engage to preserve the general tranquil. fhould, contrary to expectation, and lity. Should this be neglected, and a against our common wishes, first recede disturber be sure of never losing, but from that peace ; such measures keeping what he has, or what was ceded should only then, but not before, take to him for the sake of peace, or of in- place, when their peaceable endeavours creasing his poffeffions to aggrandize were frustrated." It was left ten himself at the expence of his neigh. years to the King of Prusia's arbitration, bours, no state would live in peace and to prevent the existence of the case consafety.
ditionally agreed upon; and it would The famous quadruple alliance, con. have been so for ever. cluded, with general approbation, in The Prussian court accuses the court 1718, agrees with our principles. The of Saxony of no more than an inclina. 7th article and the 3d secret article, also tion and design to accede to the meathe ed article of the accession-act of the sures of Austria and Russia, and this States-General, Feb. 20. 1732, are pare only in case of a Prussian rupture ; but ticularly to be taken notice of. This it appears plainly that the fact, i.e. alliance, made solely for the mainte- the actual accession, did not follow. Witnance of the public tranquillity, is a ness all the pretended documents, and convincing proof, that the two mari. the memorial itself, which does not de. time powers engaged themselves, in case ny the truth in this respect [xviii. 598.). of an attack, to a great deal more to. If a mere intention to oppose unnatural wards the house of Austria, than Ruffia violences is a fufficient charge against has done in the 4th secret article of the the electoral house of Saxony, what can treaty of Petersburg. The article last the world judge of designs which tende mentioned of this quadruple alliance is ed, not to prevent violences, but to act comprised in the following formal ex• arbitrarily against other powers, and to pressions : " But in cate the auxiliaries a. oppress all the neighbours, as has been bove mentioned should be found insuffi. too often done by Pruflia? cient in regard to the impendent neces. As for Weingarten the younger, he fity, then the contracting parties shall, has for near two years had a Pruffian without delay, agree to a more ample pension, which was paid him by the supply, and be bound, in order to re Sieur Ecchel, privy counsellor to the pel the force of the enemy, and to pro. King, the King himself has twice had oure satisfaction, reparation, and full discourse with him, and it is probable
he is still fecreted somewhere by his Ma The Earl of Kintore therefore applied jefty, his person and family having been to parliament for an act, by which Gen. often demanded, but without effect. Keith, upon the above-mentioned event,
In fine, it appears very plain, that was to be enabled to succeed to the e no tranquillity for Europe, no fecurity state of Kintore, in the fame manner as for the empire, or its states, of what re. if his brother had been actually dead') ligion soever, is to be hoped for, as ând Gen. Keith came to England, wich long as the King of Prussia can with suc- very strong recommendations from his cefs commit violences after violences, mistress, in order to solicit the pafling of destroy whole provinces, and break the bill. through the most folemn treaties at his This had so good an effect, that when pleasure.
the motion was made in the house of Further corrections of and additions to the
Commons upon à petition, Sir Robert memoirs of M. Keitb. (405. 523.].
Walpole, as Chancellor of the Exchea Taken from a letter in the Literary Ma- if I am not mistaken, recommended it
quer, fignified his Majesty's leave, and, gazine, figned G. O,
from his Majesty to the house. Noto CHE Duke of Liria, eldest son of withstanding this, (which, he said, he
the Marshal Duke of Berwick, did as a servant to his Majesty), both happening to be engaged, in person, in he and Sir William Yonge opposed it the rebellion of 1715, and escaping out ftrenuously, as members of the house; of Scotland with some difficuley, on ac- and with such effect, that the petition count of his remarkable tallness, con- was thrown out upon a divisioni tracted a personal friendship for Lord To say that he came to England as Marischal; and that Duke being after- ambassador-extraordinary from the Emward named ambassador-extraordinary press of Ruffia, is therefore a mistake; from the court of Spain to that of Russia, as it is, that he appeared at court in the Mr Keith was, by his recommendation, Russian dress, and 1poke by an interpre. introduced to the Russian service. ter, when he had an audience of the
I have little to observe as to the ac- King. I remember nothing of his ha. count given of his service in Russia ; ving any interpreter, nor indeed was only that his behaviour at the last revo- there occasion for any; and when he lution there, when he was at the head approached his Majesty, he was always of 30,000 of the best troops of that em- in his regimentals, which were of green, pire, and in the neighbourhood of the with a gilt button, and of the same make court, fixed the crown upon the head of and cut with ours. her Imperial Majesty.
As I cannot, from my own knowThe account given us of his visit to ledge, contradi&t the rest of the account, England, is entirely mistaken. The truth I fhall content myself with saying, that is as follows.
fome part of it is certainly troe, and part The estate of the present Earl of Kin- of it very improbable. I never heard tore is entailed upon the family of Ma. of his pawning his jewels, nor of his rischal. Now, the head of that family going about in the habit of a peasant being attainted, had the Earl of Kin. when he was in Sweden. That he is tore and his brother died during the Earl no great hoarder of money, is certain ; Marischal's lifetime, the estate of Kin. and it is as certain, that when he went toré must by virtue of that attainder, upon public bufiness, his mistress always have devolved upon the crown during made him a very extraordinary allow. the Earl Marischal's life, and then it ance. I never heard of his being exmust have gone to his brother Gen. travagant; and if he was not, I can Keith, who is not attainted, and is scarcely form a reason why he fhould therefore in a capacity of succeeding.in be obliged to pawn his jewels, to mainhis own person both to honours and e. tain his state. Nate.
It is said, that he offered his service