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the rear.

fail that the rear could make; though of the Cheterfield, spoke only to the he acknowledged that by this means the position of the feets, and the time of rear would have got down very soon beginning to engage. after the van. As to the difference of Capt. Paul Ourry, late voluntier on diftance between the two vans and the board the Lancaster, deposed, That the two rears, he gave it as his opinion, situation of the fieet was such, that no that the distance between the headmost two ships were at the same distance from ship of our van and the headmost hip the enemy; the headmost being distant of the enemy's van was about one mile, a mile, and the sternmost three miles, and the distance between the sternmost when the signal for battle was made. fhip of the enemy's rear and the stern- Capt. Baird, late of the Portland, demost ship of our rear was about three posed, That the van bore down, and miles, when the fignal for action was engaged at the distance of a quarter of made; the two lines inclining towards a mile; that Adm. Weft made a signal each other, and being farthest distant at for closer engagement, which the French

He acknowledged, that if declined by standing on. Said, there the rear had made fail looner, they was wind sufficient to have carried the might have prevented the rear of the e- Admiral down close to the enemy, benemy from giving their fire to our van; tween the time when the signal for bat. and in his opinion there was not fail e- tle was made, and the time when the nough 'made at first. He neither saw van borę away. Said expressly, that nor heard of any signal made by the our fleet was not in a condition to purAdmiral for more fail.

sue when the French bore away, or to Capt. Thomas Bailie, late second attack them next day; the French halieutenant of the Deptford, never thought ving gained the advantage upon the the Admiral's division within a proper whole, as only one of them appeared

damaged, and that only in her topfailCapt. Marlow, late of the Dolphin, yard. At Gibraltar his ship was reportsaw no signal for closer engagement. ed unserviceable. Believed, if the rear The Admirał began to engage about had been as close as the van, they althree quarters of an hour after the signal fo would have been disabled; but not for action, i. e. about a quarter after equally, because the van were attacked three, and before four the French went by both divisions, which could not have away.

happened if the rear had engaged the Thomas Bishop, late first lieutenant rear. He remarked also, that there was of the Defiance, believed, if the Admi- not the least reason to infer, that the ral and his divifion had set all the fail French had suffered more than they ap. they could, they might have come close peared to have done, from their going to the enemy's rear, while they con- off and not returning, because their whole. tinued to lie to, which he said was a- design was to cover St Philip's, and not bout an hour. He confirmed the pre. to risk their Squadron. The Portland, Deceding evidence, as to the situation of fiance, and Captain, were two days rethe fleets, and the impossibility of the pairing; and the Intrepide was repairrear getting as near to the rear as the van ing all the way to Gibraltar : but, ex. got to the van in the same time, even cept the Intrepide, the whole squadron if they had made all the fail they could. was again fit for action on the 25th. It was his opinion, that the French van Capt. Young, late of the Intrepide, was driven away by the superior fire faid, He did not perceive that the loss of our van, and not called off by their of his foretopinaft occafioned any imadmiral: and he believed the fleet not in pediment to the rear divilion from goa condition to make fail after the French ing down and engaging, nor that it enthe next morning, which he believed con. dangered any thip being on board him, tinued off Mahon.

as he was so far to leeward that they Thomas Barker, late first lieutenant might have wore clear of him, and gone VOL. XIX,


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down to the centre and rear of the ene- of officers belonging to a place a&ually my, as they did three quarters of an hour besieged, and known to be in want of afterwards: That if the rear division had men, meeting together, and determibore down as the van did, they might ning not to carry the succours ordered to have come up as near the enemy; and it, out of tenderness for another place if they had bore in a line of battle abreast, which was not besieged, and to which there would have been no danger of their they did not belong? being on board each other, as every ship Whether if these officers had really appeared to him to have room to wear. intended to go to Mahon themselves, He deposed also, that there was no pof- they would not have been for taking as Ability of bringing on a general engage. many succours as they could with them? ment, without che Admiral and rear di. Whether a council of war consisting of vision going down right before tbe wind land-officers only, had any right to vote, upon the enemy, and carrying more or even countenance an opinion, that sail than the van carried, their distance the French feet of twelve ships of the being greater. Said, his ship was in line, was at least equal in force, if not

bad condition, so as to spoil all superior, to that under the command of her ground-tier of powder ; that the Adm. Byng of thirteen British ships of was also indifferently manned; but that the line, then riding at anchor before none of these defects were a detriment to them? him in his engagement. He deposed al- Whether we do not find the same so, that the French fleet went off to all land-officers, after the fleet had received appearance without damage, except the that defeat near Minorca, which they Joss of one topfail-yard; and that our had bespoke at Gibraltar, with equal Heet was not in a condition to attack goodness advising the Admiral, at a leathem at any time before the council of council [88.], to go back to Gibraltar, war, and after the action.

without their once offering themselves [To be continued.]

with the other officers and recruits to be

landed at St Philip's ? Some queries on the minutes of a council of war beld at Gibraltar on the 4th of May vices through this whole expedition, is

“ The harmony between the two ser. laft. [87]

(says the author of these queries) very From a pamphlet just published.

remarkable. Does the Admiral chule Hether it be possible for officers to lay, in, in time, an excuse for not

who are ordered to their garri- fighting ? The land-officers help him to fon, (which was the case of half the one in the first council, by weighing the members of that council), to vote, that strength of the two fleets in much nicer it is not for his Majefiy's service that they scales than the Admiral himself could should go thither? All the reasons they do with any decency, and determining affigned why the fending of a battalion by their own weights in the enemy's fa. from Gibraltar was not for his Majeity's vour. Do the land officers with to exservice, conclude a fortiori against their cuse themselves from being set ashore at own going.

St Philip's? The Admiral has a set of Whether it be not the constant prac. questions drawn up with a manifest view tice of oílicers in every service, whose to their answers; which being signed by garrisons happen in their absence to be a council, effectually serve both their surprised with a liege, or who are ordered to the relief of it, to run every kind of risk to get into the place of their duty ? Written under Gen. Blakeney's picture, in June 1756. Whether the number of regiments F ;

Aithful to confience, to my country just, at Gibraltar and Poremahon, was not known to the privy council at Si James's, Old age and Gallie malice 1 defy.

Eager to conquer, or refign'd to die, as well as to this at Gibraltar?

Honour's the aged hero's only vicw; Whether this le not the firf infance My land muy ircnible, tut my hcart is true.



F ,

that may

H I S T O R r.

it a common cause with the powers in

volved in the same imbarrassment, to Rom CONSTANTINOPLE they write, take the propereft measures, not only pha Pacha, the grand vizir, who had con. tacked the fatisfaction which is due to tinued in that office about nine months, them, but also for prescribing to the too was deposed, and banished to Rhodes. extensive power of the King of Pruflia

We have been told, that the Po. such bounds as may hereafter be a secuLANDERS have desired the afliftance of rity against the insults of that enterprithe King of Prussia to prevent the Rus, fing and turbulent neighbour, who, in fians passing through their country, and defiance of the most folemn and most that a body of Turks was actually in facred treaties, is intent upon nothing motion. Whatever be in that, it is cer. but enlarging his dominions. Lain that the Russian troops halted when The Empress, my most gracious they came to the Polish frontiers. On sovereign, confidering the importance occasion of their being put in motion, of fo iad an event, and the ill conseCount Bestucheff, High Chancellor of


arise from it, and haRusia, wrote the following circular let- vingat heart the welfare and the interests ter to the primate, the senators, and the of her allies, and especially of his Maministers of Poland.

jesty the King of Poland, is deeply afSIR,

fected, Sir, with the misfortunes of this Your

Our Excellency is, no doubt, alrea. prince, who, on his part, has not gia

dy informed of all the particulars of ven the least occasion thereto; and not the King of Prufiia's hostile and sudden being able to behold with indifference invasion of Saxony; of the unheard of the equally dire and rash enterprises of violences and horrible excesses he has the King of Prullia, she has taken the committed there, as well upon the poor generous resolution to succour speedily inhabitants, as against the very person and efficaciously the King your master, of the King of Poland, your master, by sending a considerable body of her and the royal family; of the extreme troops to his assistance. peceflity to which his Majesty has found This corps has actually begun its himself reduced, to retire into Poland, march, under the command of his Exfacrificing his hereditary dominions and cellency Field-Marshal Apraxin ; and all his army; and of the King of Pruf- an indispensable necessity will force it to fia's irruption into Bohemia.

traverse part of the territory of Poland, The King of Poland's deplorable fate, as your Excellency muft undoubtedly for which this prince did not give the have known already: least handle, certainly deserves compas- All impartial judges will surely ab. fion, suitable to the immortal glory he hor the King of Pruflia's cruel procehas purchased by his noble constancy in dure towards the territories of Saxony, so melancholy a ficuation; which at the and towards the person of the King of same time ought to excite all powers, Poland himself; and will do justice to and especially his allies, to concern her Imperial Majesty's generous sentithemselves in earnest in an event of this ments, as also to the resolution she has nature,

taken; which tends only to defend her The dismal consequences that may allies, and restore peace in Europe, by result from this the King of Prussia's un- settling it again in a just equilibrium.

precedented and rash step, as well to the I promise myself nothing less from the common repose of Europe, as to every real and attachment which your Excelpower in particular, and especially to lency has always manifested for the the neighbouring countries, are fo'ob. King your maiter, for the maintenance vious, that the interest and safety of of peace in Poland, and for the support each sovereign absolutely require them of the good common cause. I flatter to be upon their guard, and, by making myself, at the same time, that your Ex

cellency cellency and your countrymen will not particular, so it is still greater towards fail, by facilitating, in the best manner the body in general ; and that the surest they can, the march of the said body of means to acquire her Imperial Majesty's her Imperial Majesty's troops through approbation, consists solely in gaining the territory of Poland, to render there. the good graces of the King your maby a real service to the King your ma. fter, by giving him, and the republic iter in his present melancholy fituation, too, incontestable proofs of zeal and (a situation that excites compassion from attachment. I am, &c. every one who loves honour, justice, St Petersburg, Now. 12. 1756. and his country), and to take the most We have information from Petersfalutary measures for defeating the King BURG, that a fire lately broke out at Mo. of Prusia's valt and pernicious projects scow, which consumed several hundred in Poland. Nothing can better effect houses, among which was the magnifithis, than the restoring in this kingdom cent palace of Count Rosoumouski, the tranquillity and harmony which it Hettman of the Ukraine. has so long wanted, and unanimously On the 10th of January the diet at laying to heart the critical circumstances RATISBON came to a resolution with of the times. My most gracious fove. respect to the decrees of the Emperor reign has already given so many convin- concerning the King of Prussia's invacing proofs of the fincere affection the ding Saxony and Bohemia.

All the bears to the republic of Poland, and of Catholic princes except one declared, her sensible concern for the good of the that they would conform to the Imperial republic in general, as well as for that decrees; and were joined by the folof each of your countrymen in particu. lowing Protestant princes, viz. the lar, that I doubt not in the least but Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, the your Excellency is fully persuaded of it. Margrave of Brandenburg Anspach, I likewise flatter myself, that you will the Duke of Deux. Ponts, and the Duke take a pleafure in engaging your coun. of Mecklemburg. His Britannic Matrymen, animated with the same point jesty, as Elector of Hanover, and the of honour and the love they have for reit of the Protestant princes, joined by their king, to make the misfortune of the Duke of Wirtemberg, a Catholic, this prince prevail over domestic debates .voted for the good offices of the empire and private animofities, to restore things in that great affair. The Swedish mito their pristine ftate, and thereby to nister for the duchy of Pomerania did not appease the troubles and disorders of vote, for want of instructions. The their country; measures which, in con- colleges determined to set on foot their tributing to relieve the King your ma- contingents, augmented to treble the Mer in his prefent deplorable situation, usual number, in support of their resowill infallibly turn to the advantage of lution. We are told that the troops of your country and of the common cause. the circles, upon the footing of a treble

I doubt not but your Excellency will, augmentation, will form an army of aon your part, do all that lies in your bova 100,000 men. The Prince of power to attain fo falutary an end, by Anhalt-Bernbeing, in quality of the encouraging your countrymen by your eldest branch of the house of Anhalt, good example. Your Excellency will afterward recalled the consent which his inhance your merit in the eye of her Im- minilter gave to that deed. On the perial Majesty, in not having let flip fo 24th of January, the Brandenburg mia favourable an opportunity to prove your nister delivered to all the ministers of zeal and attachment to the King your the diet a memorial, by which he somaster in his present lamentable condi- lemnly protested against the resolution tion, in which all the powers of Europe of the colleges of the empire. The are interested. Your Excellency inay conclusion of that piece, which is very rest persuaded, that as her Imperial Ma- long, runs thus. « His Prussian Majejesty's good-will extends to every one in fty exprefies, in the most grateful man


ner, his acknowledgment to such of his probably owing to the persons they come co-estates as at the last meeting decla. from inclining to different fides. Howred they neither would nor could be ever matters may turn out, since Lord concerned in all that has been resolved Tyrawley went to be Governor of Gib. on to his prejudice by the several col- raltar, he has been busy strengthening leges of the empire. He promises to the fortifications of that place. All foemploy in their defence, and in support reign families settled there having been of their liberty and privileges, all the ordered to lay up provisions for two power that God has put into his hands. years or depart, several of them have As for the rest, he is very glad to know gone to Cadiz. what states have thought fit to declare According to letters from laris, the for his adverse party, because he may deputies of the parliament of that city take his measures in consequence with went to Versailles on the 18th of Jahis high allies.”

nuary, to know on what day his Majesty It appears by the registries, that since would receive new representations which the Prussians have been in possession of had been drawn up. The King fixed Saxony, that electorate has furnished on the next day; in consequence of them with 40,000 men. His Prussian which the first president and two other Majesty is said to have upwards of presidents then waited upon him. The 200,000 men on foot; but it is given King told them, he would consider their out that there will be 400,000 to act a. representations; in which they had pargainst him. According to a letter from ticularly demanded the reunion of their Drefden, dated Feb. 8. all the roads in whole body; at the same time beseechUpper Lusatia were full of troops, who ing his Majesty to withdraw his declahad even then begun to be in motion. rations made in the bed of justice, or suf

They write from VIENNA, that the pend the execution of them. On the 23d Empress-Queen has published a resolu. the members of the grand chamber were tion, to ennoble every officer, of what fent for to Versailles, where the Chan nation foever, who has served thirty cellor read them an answer to every aryears in her armies.

ticle. In it his Majesty, instead of withFrom Naples we have advice, that drawing his declarations, infifted upon the labourers have begun again to dig their being executed in their full intent among the ruins of Herculaneum, only and meaning. With regard to the retwo persons having been killed by the union of all the members, they were late accident (42.), which it seems was told, that his Majesty had already sufowing to the workmen having neglect. ficiently explained himself on that subed to keep within the bounds prescribed ject; that those of the inquests and rethem by the engineers. They have since quests who, by particular letters, desired found two chefts, containing Greek ma- to come in again, had received proofs nuscripts in very good condition. of his Majesty's goodness; and that the

Late accounts from SPAIN bear, that rest might do the same. After this the they were making great armaments King faid, “ You have just heard my throughout that kingdom for both the will, and I expect, from your attachland and sea service; and that they were ment and duty to me, that you immedaily picking quarrels with the British. diately do justice to my people, and toThe Antigallican privateer having ta- morrow you order the counsellors to do ken the Duke de Penthievre, a rich their duty.” This was accordingly done; French East-Indiaman (52.), and car- and, as they tell us, so great a number ried her into Cadiz, we were once told, of counsellors conformed to the King's that the Spaniards had reclaimed her, pleasure, as was thought sufficient to reas having been taken under the cannon establish the parliament. On the 27th, of Corunna ; but other advices appear at five o'clock in the morning, some to contradict this. Our accounts in ge- officers of the city-watch repaired to the neral from that country are very various, houses of fixteen members of that body,


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