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Some years ago, it was the author's privilege to become interested, in a small way, in trade with the South Sea. Although not of great personal profit or benefit at the time, so many and varied were the commercial interests presented, that a journal was kept, of the ups and downs of trade and adventures among the Pacific Islands. These notes by the wayside, are merged in the following pages.

From the movements taking place among the great maritime powers of the world, England, Germany, France and America, in regard to the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with all of which the intelligent reader is familiar, the author is strengthened in the hope that a work relating to a region of such vast prospective benefits to the United States, and the world at large, may be read with some degree of interest as well as profit.

The immense field encompassed within the bound

aries of Oceanica, together with many island groups

lying beyond its limits, would make it almost impossible to visit and survey in the lifetime of any one person. From this fact, I am sure the writer will be dealt lightly with, for the necessary frequent reference made to the valuable writings, notes and personal experiences of others. In the endeavor to brush away the cobwebs of time. or brighten up or throw light on the dark shadows cast over many portions of Oceanica by the veil of romance and tradition, I may perhaps be engaged in a herculean task. The truth, however, I am sure will prove “stranger than fiction,” and a good deal more profitable. In this respect some pains have been taken to make the following work in regard to history, discovery, ethnology, biography, chronology, geography, area, population and products, standard and reliable,

CHAPTER , XVI.

THE BIRTH, GROWTH AND DEATH OF ISLANDS.
PAGE.

Volcanic and Earthquake Lore.—Volcanic Fire-belt of the Western Hemisphere.—Its Flow through South America.-Through Central America and Mexico, and the Pacific Coast.—Through the Islands.-Theory of Volcanoes and Earthquakes......................................... 243

CHAPTER XVII
COMMERCE, AND INTEROCEANIC CANALS.

The Panama Canal.—Memorandum Statement of Panama Canal.-Nicaragua Canal.—The Eads Tehuantepec Ship Railway.—Commercial Results Anticipated.—Political Considerations of the Canal Question............... 255

CHAPTER XVIII. CURRENTS, WINDS, RAINS AND STORMS OF THE PACIFIC.

Velocity and Force of Wind.—Monsoons.—Effect of Monsoons—Typhoons—Their Explanation.—Rainfall of the Pacific Islands.-List of (with Latitude and Longitude) the Principal Harbors in the Island World......... 27o

CHAPTER XIX.
HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL.

The Merchants of the Olden Time.—The Phoenicians.—
Their Commerce.—Their Inventions and Manufactures.
As Navigators.-The Compass.-Properties of the
Magnetic Needle.—By Whom Invented.—Homer's
Knowledge of Ship Building.—Early Navigators of
the .#. — (Anson.—Balboa.-Beechey.—Banks.-
Bougainville.—Behring.—Byron.—Carteret.—Cook.--
Cavendish. — Dampier.— Dana. – Darwin.— Drake.—
Cortez-Fernandez—Fitzroy.—Franklin.—Humboldt.
Kotzebue.-Krusenstern.— Magellan.—Perry.—Pizar-
ro.—La Perouse.—Polo.—Quiros.-Rogers.-Saave-
dra.-Schouten, W. C.—Schouten, G.-Tasman.—
Vancouver.—Wilkes.)............................................ 290

CHAPTER XX.
ISLAND MISCELLANY, AND DEPTHS OF THE SEA.
Norfolk Island.—The Chatam Group.–Ponape or Ascension

Island.—Strong Island.—Ocean Island.—The Depths
of the Ocean.—Bottom of the Sea............................ 328

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