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ter, grows like a vine, and is often found twined around or clinging to the trees of the great island forests. Again, there is the important difference in the two gums, that rubber requires a chemical preparation with some of the earths, or to be mixed with certain proportions of metallic oxides, to make it harder after heating and molding, before it will retain the shape desired, becoming then vulcanized rubber.

SCREw PINE (PANDANUs).

This tree, much valued in the Pacific, is native to most of the islands, where it grows in the greatest abundance. It is among the first of the plants to appear on newly formed or forming islands, and with its spreading roots, often raised above the ground and supporting the main trunk on their stems, it acts as a dam and barrier to encroaching waves, and performs an important part in collecting and retaining the drift and debris, that assists so materially in the first plant growth of islands. Its leaves, growing generally from the ends of the main branches, spreading from the trunk, grow similar to those of the pineapple, whence its name; but unlike the latter, it is a tree growing from twelve to forty feet high. The many ways that the bark, timber and the strong fiber of its leaves can be used, makes it highly prized by the natives.

RESINOUS GUM TREES.

The great forests of Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, New Guinea, etc., teem with an almost endless variety of trees that furnish the liquid resins so valuable as a base for our varnishes, while the ground itself supplies many forms of the oxidized fossil kinds, such as copal, amber and others. From the Fiji Islands, where the natives use a liquid resin as a coating or glaze for their pottery, to the more advanced usages of the Japanese, in their beautiful lacquer ware, also the results of resinous products, a vast field in this line alone is spread out, offering ample room for the employment of the capital, enterprise and skill of thousands of our unemployed people.

GENERAL REMARKS.

In glancing with me in this general way at some of the valuable island products, the intelligent reader will no doubt agree with me in the assertion that it is but a glance. That a volume could be written on valuable products alone, and still another on their manifold uses, and again another on the mechanical appliances necessary for their more perfect manipulation in manufactories.

CHAPTER xv.

OCEANIC ETHINOGERAFETY.

See him from nature rising slow to Art!
To copy instinct then was reason's part:
Thus then to man the voice of nature spake—
Go, from the creatures thy instructions take;
Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield,
Learn from the beasts the physics of the field,
Thy arts of building from the bee receive;
Learn of the mole to plough, the worm to weave,
Learn from the little Nautilus to sail,
Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.

Pope (Essay on Man).
OCEANIC RACES.

E shall use the term Oceanica in the sense in which it is applied by many writers on Ethnography, as describing all the land comprised between the coasts of Asia and America, including the East Indian Archipelago, the many smaller clusters of the Pacific, and the continent of New Holland. The whole subject of the distinctions in race among the wild inhabitants who have settled on these countless islands—the “nomads of the sea,” as Professor Muller calls them—is even more intricate and involved than the differences among the nomads of the land. The languages of many of the tribes have never even been compared, and some of them are scarcely

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