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activity altitude appeared ascended ashes basalt black ledge boiling bottom caldera cinder cinder cones cliff cloud Coan column cone cooled crack crater crust depth Diamond Head discharge distance dome earthquakes edge elevation eruption feet deep feet in diameter fiery fifty feet filled fire fissures floor formed Haleakala Halemaumau Hawaii Hawaiian heat height hill Hilo Honolulu Hualalai hundred and fifty island jets July Kahuku Keanakakoi Kilauea lapilli later lava flows lava lake lava stream liquid lava lower pit mass Mauna Kea Mauna Loa miles Mokuaweoweo molten lava mountain natives nearly night Oahu observed ocean pahoehoe Pele Pele's hair Plate Professor pumice Punaluu reached rising rock scoria seen side six hundred feet slope smoke south lake southwest stream of lava summit surface thirty feet three hundred feet tion tuff twenty feet vapors visited Volcano House walls waves
Seite 144 - For, behold, the Lord cometh forth out of his place, and will come down, and tread upon the high places of the earth. And the mountains shall be molten under him, and the valleys shall be cleft, as wax before the fire, and as the waters that are poured down a steep place.
Seite 172 - Immediately before us yawned an immense gulf, in the form of a crescent, about two miles in length, from north-east to southwest, nearly a mile in width, and apparently 800 feet deep. The bottom was covered with lava, and the south-west and northern parts of it were one vast flood of burning matter, in a state of terrific ebullition, rolling to and fro its " fiery surge
Seite 171 - The steep which we had descended was formed of volcanic matter, apparently a light red and grey kind of lava, vesicular, and lying in horizontal strata, varying in thickness from one to forty feet. In a small number of places the different strata of lava were also rent in perpendicular or oblique directions, from the top to the bottom, either by earthquakes, or other violent convulsions of the ground connected with the action of the adjacent volcano.
Seite 190 - The whole course of the stream from Kilauea to the sea is about forty miles. Its mouth is about twenty-five miles from Hilo station. The ground over which it flowed descends at the rate of one hundred feet to the mile. The crust is now cooled, and may be traversed with care, though scalding steam, pungent gases, and smoke are still emitted in many
Seite 189 - The atmosphere in all directions was filled with ashes, spray, gases, etc.; while the burning lava, as it fell into the water, was shivered into millions of minute particles, and, being thrown back into the air, fell in showers of sand on all the surrounding country. The coast was extended into the sea for a quarter of a mile, and a pretty sand-beach and a new cape were formed. Three hills of scoria and...
Seite 88 - I seemed to be standing in the presence and before the throne of the eternal God ; and while all other voices were hushed, His alone spake. I was ten thousand feet above the sea, in a vast solitude untrodden by the foot of man or beast ; amidst a silence unbroken by any living voice, and surrounded by scenes of terrific desolation. Here I stood almost blinded by the insufferable brightness ; almost deafened with the startling clangor ; almost petrified with the awful scene. The heat was so intense...
Seite 239 - Ibe lava fountains upon the surface of the lake continued in action, precisely as though nothing unusual was taking place. Although the action upon the face of the subsiding area was so terrific, that upon the portion between the falling face and the outer line of fracture was so gradual that an active man could have stood on almost any portion of it without injury. Enormous cracks, twenty to thirty feet deep, and from five to ten feet wide, opened in all directions upon its surface, and the subsidence...
Seite 189 - ... before it, rolled down with resistless energy to the sea, where, leaping a precipice of forty or fifty feet, it poured itself in one vast cataract of fire into the deep below, with loud detonations, fearful hissings, and a thousand unearthly and indescribable sounds.
Seite 87 - ... than the eye could reach. The sable atmosphere of Hilo assumed a lurid appearance, and the sun's rays fell upon us with a yellow, sickly light. Clouds of smoke careered over the ocean, carrying with them ashes, cinders, charred leaves, etc., which fell in showers upon the decks of ships approaching our coast. The light was seen more than a hundred miles at sea, and at times the purple tinge was so widely diffused as to appear like the whole firmament on fire. Ashes and capillary vitrifactions...
Seite 103 - Now we passed a cascade, then a whirlpool, then a smooth and majestic river, then a series of rapids, tossing their waves like a stormy sea ; now rolling into lurid caverns, the roofs of which were hung with red-hot stalactites, and then under arches which it had thrown over itself in sportive triumph.