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CHAP. were actuated by such love or desire of making

others happy here and hereafter !

“ Let me, therefore, ask you seriously, before that God who knows your heart and ways, Do you love your neighbour sincerely? Is it the bent of your lives, not only to honour your God, but likewise to make your fellow-creatures happy? Have you showed a tender regard to their eternal welfare? You see thousands before your eyes sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. Have you endeavoured, at least by your example, to convince them of the purity and excellence of your religion? Have you discouraged vice and wickedness, or have you promoted it, and so laid a stumbling-block before your ignorant and careless fellow-creatures ?. Have you assisted the poor and needy in their distressful circumstances, or have you been regardless of their misery?

“ Let us examine our hearts seriously, and whatsoever we find in our behaviour to have been against the will of God, let us immediately repent of it, and beg forgiveness in the name of Jesus Christ. Cultivate these three principles, faith, hope, and love ; and you will glorify God, enjoy true happiness, and edify your fellow-creatures; which God grant!”

Such are the pulpit remains of this apostolical and persuasive preacher. They are, like every


17 84.

thing connected with his character, marked by the CHAP. most perfect simplicity ; but, at the same time, by an energy of thought, and frequently by a vigour of expression, which prove at once the sincerity and the efficacy of his religion. One grand subject pervades his sermons, as it formed the

prevailing theme of his correspondence and his ministerial labours—the gospel of Christ, as the only and all-sufficient remedy for the guilt and misery of fallen man; the love of God, in sending his Son to save us; the love of Christ, in dying for us; pardon and peace through faith in the atoning blood of the cross, that faith “ working by love” to God and man, purifying the heart, and overcoming the world; producing, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, true happinesseven here, and animating the Christian with a lively and joyful hope of perfect and eternal blessedness hereafter. Such was the cheering, intelligible, and scriptural view which Swartz invariably presented of Christian doctrine. The incidental references to his ministerial instructions, which occur in his letters and journals, show how diligently he laboured in filling up this outline with the details of principle and precept, and how wisely he adapted his exhortations to the peculiar character and condition of his hearers.

There is one circumstance relative to his discourses, which is particularly deserving of



CHAP. attention. This is the sound judgment and prac.

tical tendency by which they are distinguished. Nothing visionary, doubtful, or enthusiastic, is to be traced in any part of them. The purest evangelical truths, and the most spiritual and exalted principles, are combined with the most forcible appeals to the conscience and the heart; and while the mercies of redemption are inculcated, as the exclusive ground of acceptance with God, the tenor of a holy life is insisted upon as the only satisfactory evidence of a state of salvation.

These were the leading features of his teaching : and, confirmed and illustrated as they were by his own eminent and consistent example, we cannot be surprised that they should be followed by the most striking and beneficial results, not only on the professed Christians, but on the various classes of idolaters and unbelievers, who surrounded him and listened to his instructions.

The very few of his surviving friends who remember Swartz in the pulpit, represent his appearance and manner as remarkably resembling the preceding specimens of his style —-simple and unaffected, but energetic and impressive ; using, like the apostle to the Gentiles, “great plainness of speech,” but speaking also like him, “in demonstration of the spirit and of and “by manifestation of the truth commending




himself to every man's conscience in the sight of CHAP. God ;" while equally with the great apostle,

speaking the truth in love,” out of the fulness of a heart penetrated by the mercies of the gospel, and habitually glowing with Christian kindness, he succeeded in conciliating the confidence and affection of his hearers, and vindicated his claim to the character of true wisdom by winning many souls to the faith and hope of the gospel.


Introduction and progress of Protestant Christianity in Tinne

velly— Journey to Ramanadapuram and Palamcotta—Letter to a friend of Mr. Chambers - Provincial Schools—Testimony to the usefulness and disinterestedness of SwartzCommunication to the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge—Letters to Mrs. Duffin and Mrs. Chambers; a second to Mr. Chambers' friend-Retrospect of the year 1786— Wretched state of the Rajah and kingdom of Tanjore -Committee of inspection for the affairs of that country, appointed by Sir Archibald Campbell, of which Swartz is requested to become a member-Their proceedings-Beneficial influence of Swartz with the people of Tanjore--The Madras Government expresses its high sense of the value of his services-Female Orphan School, established by Lady Campbell—Swartz requests the Society to receive his young friend Mr. J. Kohlhoff as one of their missionaries.


CHAP. It is uncertain at what period the district of Tinne

velly in the south of the Peninsula was first visited by the Protestant missionaries. The Roman Catholics had long been numerous, and it is not improbable that some of the early converts at Tranquebar may have carried thither the knowledge of

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