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BOOK him to receive in the university of Oxford; where XV.

he took the degree of a master of arts; and was enough versed in books for a man who intended not to be of any profession, having sufficient of his own to maintain him in the plenty he affected, and having then no appearance of ambition to be a greater man than he was. He was of a melancholic and a sullen nature, and spent his time most with goodfellows, who liked his moroseness, and a freedom he used in inveighing against the licence of the time, and the power of the court. They who knew him inwardly, discovered that he had an anti-monarchical spirit, when few men thought the government in any danger. When the troubles begun, he quickly declared himself against the king; and having some command in Bristol, when it was first taken by prince Rupert and the marquis of Hertford, being trusted with the command of a little fort upon the line, he refused to give it up, after the governor had signed the articles of surrender, and kept it some hours after the prince was in the town, and killed some of the soldiers; for which the prince resolved to hang him, if some friends had not interposed for him, upon his want of experience in war; and prevailed with him to quit the place by very great importunity, and with much difficulty. After this, having done eminent service to the parliament, especially at Taunton, at land, f he then betook himself wholly to the sea; and quickly made himself signal there. He was the first man that declined the old track, and made it manifest that the science might be attained in less time than was imagined; and de

* After this—at land,] Not in MS.


spised those rules which had been long in practice, BOOK to keep his ship and his men out of danger; which had been held in former times a point of great abi- 1657. lity and circumspection; as if the principal art requisite in the captain of a ship had been to be sure to come home safe again. He was the first man · who brought the ships to contemn castles on shore, which had been thought ever very formidable, and were discovered by him to make a noise only, and to fright those who could rarely be hurt by them. He was the first that infused that proportion of courage into the seamen, by making them see by experience, what mighty things they could do, if they were resolved; and taught them to fight in fire as well as upon water: and though he hath been very well imitated and followed, he was the first that gave the example of that kind of naval courage 8, and bold and resolute achievements.

After all this lustre and glory, in which the pro- The parliatector seemed to flourish, the season of the year threatened some tempest and foul weather. January Jan.

20. brought the parliament again together. They did not reassemble with the same temper and resignation in which they parted; and it quickly appeared how unsecure new institutions of government are; and when the contrivers of them have provided, as they think, against all mischievous contingencies, they find, that they have unwarily left a gap open to let their destruction in upon them.

Cromwell thought he had sufficiently provided for his own security, and to restrain the insolence of the commons, by having called the other house; which

& that gave the example of that drew the copy of naval that kind of naval courage courage

ment comes together


speaks to


BOOK by the petition and advice was to be done; and havXV.

ing filled it, for the most part, with the officers of 1658. the army, and such others as he had good reason to

be confident of. So on the twentieth of January, the day appointed to meet, (whereas, before, the parliament used to attend him in the painted chamber, when he had any thing to say to them; now) he came to the house of lords; where his new creations were; then he sent the gentleman usher of the black rod to call the commons to him. And they being conducted to the bar of that house, he being

placed in his chair under a cloth of state, begun his Cromwell speech in the old style, “My lords, and you, the

knights, citizens, and burgesses, of the house of “ commons:" and then discoursed some particulars, which he recommended to them; thanked them “for “ their fair correspondence the last session ;” and assured them, “if they would continue to prosecute “ his designs, they should be called the blessed of “ the Lord, and generations to come should bless " them.”

But as soon as the commons came to their house, they caused the third article of the petition and advice to be read; by which it was provided, that no members legally chosen should be excluded from the performance of their duty, but by consent of that house of which they were members. Upon

which, they proceeded to the calling over their bers that house, and readmitted presently all those who had cluded, by been excluded for refusing to sign that recognition clause in the of the protector; and by this means, above a hunpetition and

dred h of the most inveterate enemies the protector


The house of commons readmit all their mem

virtue of a


li above a hundred] near two hundred




had, came and sat in the house; among whom were BOOK

sir Harry Vane, Haslerig, and many other signal ? men; who had much the more credit and interest 1658. : in the house, for having been excluded for their

fidelity to the commonwealth ; many of those who had subscribed it, valuing themselves for having thereby become instruments to introduce them again,

who could never otherwise have come to be read? mitted.

As soon as these men came into the house, they Their begun to question the authority and jurisdiction of tions afterthe other house; “ that it was true, the petition “ and advice had admitted there should be such an " house; but that it should be a house of peers, that

they should be called my lords, there was no pro“vision; nor did it appear what jurisdiction it “ should have: that it would be a very ridiculous " thing, if they should suffer those who were created ' by themselves, and sat only by their vote, to be “ better men than they, and to have a negative “ voice to control their masters. When they had enough vilified them, they questioned the protector's authority to send writs to call them thither : “Who gave him that authority to make peers ? " that it had been the proper business of that house “ to have provided for all this; which it is probable

they would have done at this meeting, if he had “ not presumptuously taken that sovereign power


upon him.”

Cromwell was exceedingly surprised and perplexed with this new spirit; and found that he had been shortsighted in not having provided, at the same time, for the filling his house of commons, when he erected his other of peers : for he had taken

convenes both


BOOK away those out of that house, who were the boldest XV.

speakers, and best able to oppose this torrent, to in1658. stitute this other house, without supplying those

other places by men who could as well undergo the

work of the other. However, he made one effort Cromwell more; and convened both houses before him; and

very magisterially, and in a dialect he had never houses, and speaks to used before, reprehended them for presuming to

question his authority. “ The other house,” he said, “ were lords, and should be lords;" and commanded them “ to enter upon such business, as might be for “the benefit, not the distraction of the common“ wealth ; which he would with God's help prevent.” And when he found this animadversion did not reform them, but that they continued in their presumption, and every day improved their reproaches and contempt of him, he went to his house of lords

upon the fourth i of February; and sending for the parliament commons, after he had used many sharp expressions

of indignation, he told them, “ that it concerned his “ interest, as much as the peace and tranquillity of “ the nation, to dissolve that parliament; and there“ fore he did put an end to their sitting.” So that cloud was, for the present, dissipated, that threatened so great a storm.

The parliament being dissolved, Cromwell found

himself at ease to prosecute his other designs. After Raynolds the taking of Mardike, Raynolds, who was comcoming out mander in chief of that body of the English in the of Flanders. service of France, endeavouring to give his friends

in England a visit, was, together with some other officers who accompanied him, cast away, and drown

He dissolves that

Feb. 4.

i fourth] twentieth

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