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Treaty with the Sioux. June 1, 1816

143

Winnebagoes. June 3, 1816....

144

Weas and Kickapoos. June 4, 1816

145

Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawatimics. Aug. 24, 1816 .

146

Cherokecs. Sept. 14, 1816........

148

Chickasaws. Sept. 20, 1816 .

150

Choctaws. Oct. 24, 1816....

152

Menomonies. March 30, 1817 .

153

Ottocs. June 24, 1817

15-1

Poncarars. Junc 25, 1817

155

Cherokces. July 8, 1817.....

156

Wyandots, Senecas, Delawares, Shawnecs, Pottawatimies, Ottawas, and Chip-

powas. Sept. 29, 1817

Creeks. Jan. 22, 1818.

171

Grand Pawnces. June 18, 1818....

172

Pitavirate Noisy Pawnees. June 19, 1818

173

Pawnee Republic. June 20, 1818..

174

Pawnee Marhars. June 22, 1818

175

Quapaws. Aug. 24, 1818.....

176

Wyandots, Senecas, Shawnees, and Ottawas. Sept. 17, 1818....

178

Wyandots. Sept. 20, 1818.......

180

Peorias, Kaskaskias, Mitchigamias, Cahokias, and Tamarois. Sept. 25, 1818. 181

Great and Little Osages. Sept. 25, 1818....

183

Pottawatimies. Oct. 2, 1818.

185

Weas. Oct. 2, 1818 .

186

Delawares. Oct. 3, 1818

188

Miamies. Oct. 6, 1818.

189

Chickasaws. Oct. 19, 1818

192

Cherokces. Feb. 27, 1819 ...

195

Kickapoos. July 30, 1919...

200

Kickapoos. Aug. 30, 1819

202

Chippewas. Sept. 24, 1819...

203

Chippewas. June 16, 1820.....

206

Ottawas and Chippevas. July 6, 1820..

207

Kickapoos. July 19, 1820

208

Weas. Aug. 11, 1820...

209

Convention with the Kickapoos. Sept. 5, 1820

210

Treaty with the Choctaws. Oct. 18, 1820

210

Creeks. Jan. 8, 18:21

215

Articles of agreement with the Creeks. Jan. 8, 1821....

217

Treaty with the Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawatimies. Aug. 29, 1821 ...

218

Great and Little Osages. Aug. 31, 1822

222

Sacs and Foxes. Sept. 3, 1822

223

224

Indians in Florida. Sept. 18, 1823.

228

Cherokces. Oct. 2-1, 1804..

229

Sacs and Foxes. Aug. 4, 1824

231

Iowas. Aug. 4, 1824.

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Treaty with the Quapaws. Nov. 15, 1824 .

232

Convention with the Choctaws. Jan. 20, 1825

234

Creeks. Feb. 12, 1825.....

237

Treaty with the Great and Little Osages. June 2, 1825

240

Kansas. June 3, 1825...

244

Poncars. June 9, 1825....

247

Tectons, Yanctons, and Yanctonies bands of the Sioux. June 22, 1825. 250

Siounes and Ogallalas. July 5, 1825

252

Chayennes. July 6, 1825 ...

255

Minnetarces. July 30, 1825 ..

261

Hunkpapas band of the Sioux. July 16, 1825..

257

Ricaras. July 18, 1825....

259

Mandans. July 30, 1825

264

Crows. Aug. 1, 1825

266

Great and Little Osages. Aug. 10, 1825..

268

Kansas. Aug. 16, 1825

270

Sioux and Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Menomonies, Iowas, Sioux, Winnebagoes,

and a portion of the Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawatimies. Aug. 19,
1825

272

Ottoes and Missourias. Sept. 26, 1825..

277

Pawnees. Sept. 30, 1825....

279

Mahas. Oct. 6, 1825..

282

Convention with the Shawnccs. Nov. 7, 1825...

284

Treaty with the Creeks. Jan. 24, 1826

286

Supplementary article to the treaty with the Creeks of Jan. 24, 1826. March 31, 1826 ... 289

Treaty with the Chippewas. Aug. 5, 1826 .

290

Pottawatimies. Oct. 16, 1826..

295

Miamics. Oct. 23, 1826 ...

300

Chippewas, Menomonies, and Winnebagoes. Aug. 11, 1827 .

303

Pottawatimies. Sept. 19, 1827.....

305

Articles of agreement with the Creeks. Nov. 15, 1827

307

Treaty with the Ecl-River Miamies. Feb. 11, 1828.

309

Convention with the Cherokees. May 6, 1828...

311

Articles of agrcenient with the Winnebagoes, Pottawatimies, Chippewas, and Ottawas. Aug.

25, 1828...

315

Treaty with the Pottawatimics. Sept. 20, 1828 .

317

Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawatimies. July 29, 1829.

320

Winnebagoes. Aug. 1, 1829

323

Articles of agreement with the Delawares. Aug. 3, 1829.

326

Supplementary article to the treaty with the Delawares of Oct. 3, 1818. Sept. 24, 1829 ....

327

Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, the Medawah-Kanton, Wahpacoota, Wahpeton, and Sissetong

bands of Sioux, Omahas, Iowas, Ottoes, and Missourias. July 15, 1830 328

Choctaws. Sept. 27, 1830 ..

333

Articles of agreement with the Menomonies. Feb. 8, 1831 ...

342

Convention with the Senecas. Feb. 28, 1831.......

348

Senecas and Inces. July 20, 1831

351

Shawnces. Aug. 8, 1831

355

Ottawas. Aug. 30, 1831...

359

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Convention with the Wyandots. Jan. 19, 1832 .

364

Treaty with the Creeks. March 24, 1832

366

Seminoles. May 9, 1832...

368

Winnebagoes. Sept. 15, 1832....

370

Sacs and Foxes. Sept. 21, 1832

374

Appalachicolas. Oct. 11, 1832 .

377

Pottawatimies. Oct. 20, 1832 .

378

Chickasaws. Oct. 20, 1832. ...,

381

Articles supplementary to, and explanatory of, the treaty with the Chickasaws of Oct. 20, 1832.

Oct. 22, 1832

388

Treaty with the kickapoos. Oct. 24, 1832 ..

391

Supplemental article to the treaty with the Kickapoos of Oct. 24, 1832. Nov. 26, 1832

393

Treaty with the Potta watimies. Oct. 26, 1832 ....

394

Shawnees and Delawares. Oct. 26, 1832..

397

Pottawatimics. Oct. 27, 1832 ..

399

Kaskaskias and Peorias. Oct. 27, 1832...

403

Menomonies. Oct. 27, 1832....

405

Piankeshaws and Weas. Oct. 29, 1832

410

Articles of agreement with the Senecas and Shawnees. Dec. 29, 1832

411

Cherokees. Feb. 14, 1833

414

Crecks. Feb. 14, 1833

417

Treaty with the Ottawas. Feb.18, 1833

420

Seininoles. March 28, 1833

423

Articles of agreement with the Quapaws. May 13, 1833....

424

427

Treaty with the Appalachicolas. June 18, 1833...

Convention with the Ottoes and Missourias. Sept. 21, 1833.

429

Treaty with the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawatimies. Sept. 26, 1833

431

Convention with the Pawnces. Oct. 9, 1833 ...,

448

Supplementary articles to the treaty with the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawatimies of Sept.

26, 1833. Sept. 27, 1833

442

Convention with the Chickasaws. May 24, 1834

450

Treaty with the Miamics. Oct. 23, 1834....

458

Potta watimies. Dec. 4, 1834..

467

Pottawatimies. Dec. 10, 1834..

467

Pottawatinies, Dec. 16, 1834

468

Pottawatimies. Dec. 17, 1834

469

Caddocs. July 1, 1835...

470

Camanches and Witchetaws. Aug. 24, 1835.

474

Cherokces. Dec. 29, 1835...

478

Supplementary articles to the treaty with the Cherokees of Dec. 29, 1835. March 1, 1836..... 488

Treaty with the Pottawatimics. March 26, 1836....

490

Ottawas and Chippewas. March 28, 1836 .

491

Pottawatimies. March 29, 1836..

498

Pottawatimics. April 11, 1836..

499

500

Potta watimics. April 22, 1836...

Pottawatimies. April 22, 1836..

Wyandots. April 23, 1836 ...

Page

Treaty with the Swan-Creek and Black River bands of Chippewas. May 9, 1836.

503

Pottawatimies. Aug. 5, 1836 ....

505

Articles of agreement with the Menomonies. Sept. 3, 1836....

506

Convention with the Sioux of Wa-ha-shaw's tribe. Sept. 10, 1836

510

Treaty with the Iowas, and Sacs and Foxes. Sept. 17, 1836

511

Pottawatimies. Sept. 20, 1836 .

513

Pottawatimies. Sept. 22, 1836

514

Pottawatimies. Sept. 23, 1836

515

Convention with the Sacs and Foxes. Sept. 27, 1836

516

Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes. Sept. 28, 1836

517

Sacs and Foxes. Sept 28, 1836..

520

Convention with the Ottoes, Missourias, Omahaws, and Yancton and Santee bands of Sioux.

Oct. 15, 1836.

524

Wahpaakootah, Susseton, and Upper Medawakanton tribes of Sioux. Nov.

30, 1836..

527

Treaty with the Saganaw tribe of Chippewas. Jan. 14, 1837.

528

Potta watimies. Feb. 11, 1837 ...

532

Kioways, Ka-ta-kas, and Ta-wa-ka-ros. May 26, 1837..

533

Chippewas. July 29, 1837..

536

Sioux. Sept. 29, 1837

538

Sacs and Foxes. Oct. 21, 1837

540

Yancton tribe of Sioux. Oct. 21, 1837 ...

542

Sacs and Foxes. ct. 21, 1837

543

Winnebagoes. Nov. 1, 1837

544

lowas. Nov. 23, 1837

547

Saganaw tribe of Chippewas. Dec. 20, 1837.

547

New York Indians. Jan. 15, 1838

550

Supplemental article to the treaty with the New York Indians of Jan. 15, 1838. Feb. 13, 1838. 561

Treaty with the Chippewas of Saganaw. Jan. 23, 1838.....

565

First Christian and Orchard parties of Oneidas. Feb. 3, 1838

566

Iowas. Oct. 19, 1838 ....

568

Miamies. Nov. 6, 1838 .

569

Creeks. Nov. 23, 1838

574

Great and Little Osages. Jan. 11, 1839..

576

Supplementary articles to certain treaties with the Saganaw tribe of Chippewas. Feb. 7, 1839. 578

Treaty with the Stockbridges and Munsees. Sept. 3, 1839

580

Miamics. Nov. 28, 1840...

582

Senecas. May 20, 1842...

586

Chippewas. Oct. 4, 1842...

591

Sacs and Foxes. Oct. 11, 1842

596

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INDIAN TREATIES.

The editor of this work has considered it obligatory upon him to exhibit, as preliminary matter to the treaties between the United States and the Indian tribes, the general principles which have been recognised by the Supreme Court of the United States in relation to the Indian tribes, the Indian title to the lands occupied by them, and the effect of treaties with them

upon their claims to these lands, or the claims of others under Indian grants.

In the case of Johnson and Graham's Lessee v. William M’Intosh, 8 Wheaton's Reports, 513; 5 Condensed Reports, 515, Mr. Chief Justice Marshall, who delivered the opinion of the Court, said:

The plaintiffs in this cause claim the land, in their declaration mentioned, under two grants, purporting to be made, the first in 1773, and the last in 1775, by the chiefs of certain Indian tribes, constituting the Illinois and the Piankeshaw nations; and the question is, whether this title can be recognised in the courts of the United States ?

The facts, as stated in the case agreed, show the authority of the chiefs who executed this conveyance, so far as it could be gi-en by their own people ; and likewise show, that the particular tribes for whom these chiefs acted were in rightful possession of the land they sold. The inquiry, therefore, is, in a great measure, confined to the power of Indians to give, and of private individuals to receive, a title which can be sustained in the courts of this country.

As the right of society, to prescribe those rules by which property may be acquired and preserved, is not and cannot be drawn into question; as the title to lands, especially, is and must be admitted to depend entirely or the law of the nation in which they lie; it will be necessary, in purS ; this inquiry, to examine, not singly those principles of abstract justice, which the Creator of all things has impressed on the mind of his creature man, and which are admitted to regulate, in a great degree, the rights of civilized nations, whose perfect independence is acknowledged ; but those principles also which our own government has adopted in the particular case, and given us as the rule for our decision.

On the discovery of this immense continent, the great nations of Europe were eager to appropriate to themselves so much of it as they could respectively acquire. Its vast extent offered an ample field to the ambition and enterprise of all; and the character and religion of its inhabitants afforded an apology for considering them as a people over whom the superior genius of Europe might claim an ascendency. The potentates of the old world found no difficulty in convincing themselves that they made ample compensation to the inhabitants of the new, by bestowing on them civilization and Christianity, in exchange for unlimited independence. But, as they were all in pursuit of nearly the same object, it was necessary, in order to avoid conflicting settlements, and consequent war with each other, to establish a principle, which all should acknowledge as the law by which the right of acquisition, which they all asserted, should be regulated as between themselves. This principle was, that discovery gave title to the government by whose subjects, or by whose authority, it was made, against all other European governments, which title might be consummated by possession.

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