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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 7, 1877.
and in a note to Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, canto iii., Byron accordingly says, “ This is written
in the eye of Mont Blanc (June 3, 1816), which CONTENTS.- N° 184.
even at this distance dazzles mine." NOTES:-Byron and Shelley in the Environs of Geneva during the Summer of 1816, 1-Whitsunday: Whitsuntide, 2-Shak
The Shelleys and Miss Clairmont had clearly speariana, 4- Pedigrees and Pedigree Makers : The St. Johns reached the hotel by the 17th of May. This is and Tollemaches, 5–Brahma, the Father-Life at Harro- the date of Mrs. Shelley's first letter thence, given gate in 1731, 6.
in the Sir Weeks' Tour. It is the letter of a perQUERIES :-Lord Beaconsfield's Crest and Motto-Bennet son who has arrived a day or two, not of a person Dyer, 7 – Rev. R. Hollinworth, of Manchester ---Curious arrived on that same day, inasmuch as she writes, Passage in the "Paston Letters "- Joan of Arc-Where did King Oswald die ? 8-Bp. Cogan-Wethyrley Family-Paley's
“We have hired a boat, and every evening at "Clergyman's Companion"
–." Lindabrides" - Parchment about six o'clock we sail on the lake.” And Exhibition-Scriptural Prohibition of Potatoes, 9-Thomas again, further on, “ We do not enter into society Churchyard-Authors Wanted, &c., 10.
here, yet our time passes swiftly and delightfully.”
I should fix their arrival at Sécheron late on the REPLIES:- William, First Duke of Queensberry, 10- Dr.
Dodd's Marriage, 12–The Halsham Family-Bibliography oi 15th of May, on these grounds :— The same letter Utopias, 13– Incidit in Scyllam,” &c.-Axtell Family– commences, “We arrived at Paris on the 8th of **Things in General," &c. - The Crisis," 14–Scotch Here this month, and we were detained two days for la Maine Family – Briggs Family-Curious Use of words the purpose of obtaining the various signatures "Baron of the Court of Exchequer" - Farewell Family, 15- necessary to our passports.” That is to say, the lase" - The Long Eleventh of June" - J. Witherspoon and Shelleys left Paris on May 10. We are then told Descendants -- "A Commonplace Book," &c., 16– Ev'n in that Dijon was reached on the third evening after our ashes, " &c. --Strasbourg Cathedral-J. Rivett - Philothea their departure from Paris (May 13); Chamand Pamela - Bonyyle Family--"Temorn"-"To-year" Lady Hamilton - Centenarianism - “Next the heart pagpolles was reached at midnight on the fourth Musical Revenge: "Hudibras," 18-Fen: Fend - Philip evening (May 14). They leave Les Rousses at Stubbs-Descendants of the Regicides-Authors Wanted, 19.
6 P.M. next day (May 15), and no doubt reached Notes on Books, &c.
Geneva before midnight on that same evening.
Byron and Dr. Polidori arrived there on May 25,
and acquaintance was made with the Shelleys and Aotes.
Miss Clairmont within two days./
Their subsequent movements are thus told by BYRON AND SHELLEY IN THE ENVIRONS OF Moore :GENEVA DURING THE SUMMER OF 1816.
“After passing a fortnight under the same roof with The first meeting of these illustrious poets was Lord Byron at Sécheron, Mr. and Mrs. Shelley removed at the Hôtel de Sécheron. This was more cor- to a small house on the Mont Blanc side of the Lake, rectly the Hôtel d'Angleterre at Sécheron, a small within about ten minutes' walk of the villa w bich their suburb of Geneva, situated about an English mile noble friend had taken, upon the high banks, called and a quarter on the road to Lausanne, that is, north-east of Geneva, and on the north shore of
§ Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, canto iii., p. 73. Lon
don, 1816. the lake. It was kept at that time by one Dejean, || The Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, &c., and in both the Letters and Journals* and in the and a Memoir, by William Michael Rossetti. London, Sir Weeks' Tourt it is merely called Hôtel de Moxon, 1870, 2 vols. 8vo. (See Memoir, vol. i. lxxxvii.) Sécheron.I It must be remembered, in order to copy the dates of the arrival and of the acquaintance understand the topography of many allusions in dori's diary. Subsequently, in narrating that curious but the two above works, that the city of Geneva often-repeated incident of Shelley's hallucination of the occupies the extreme south-west angle of Lake breast-eyed woman, Mr. Rossetti informs us that the verLeman, and that both the north and south shores sion of this story, which he then proceeds to quote, “ig of the lake diverge respectively fronı left and right and the occurrence is dated Jane 18. This diary of Poli
thus authentically jotted down in the physician's diary," of that city. On the north shore stood the Hôtel dori's was never published. Polidori has also told the inde Sécheron, which would thus face Mont Blanc, cident in his prefatory letter to the Vampyre (London,
1819, 8vo., published anonymously), and this account is * Letters and Journals of Lord Byron, with Notices of quoted by Moore (vol. ii. p. 208); but, though the two his Life, by Thomas Moore, in two volumes. London, versions tally, their wording is different. In a letter at J. Murray, 1830, 4to.
the page last cited Byron, who had received the Vampyre, History of a Sir Weeks' Tour, &c. London, Hook- comments very amusingly on the various perversions of its ham, Jun., &c., 1817, 12mo.
preface. He then continues, “Wbat do you mean about "Secheron's (sic) Hotel,” at p. 71 of the Shelley | Polidori's Diary? Why, I 'defy him to say anything Hemorials, &c., London, 1859, 2nd edition, 8vo., is, of about me, but ne is welcome," —which sentence thus course, incorrect. Medwin says, “At Dejean's, Sécheron." ends brokenly, but its general sense is easy to gather, This is right as far as it goes. See The Life oj Percy and the passage shows that the physician had at that Bysshe Shelley, by Thomas Medwin, in two volumes, time (1819) thougbts of publishing his journal. This vol. i. p. 236. London, Newby, 1847, 8vo.
was never done.
Belle Rive, that rose immediately behind them. During pendent evidence that this date cannot be very the fortnight that Lord Byron outstayed them at Sécheron, wide of the mark, because Polidori sprained his ... he every evening crossed the Lake, with Polidori, to ankle in jumping from the terrace at Diodati a day visit them." The next paragraph relates a quarrel between this discussion. On that day Byron and Shelley
or two before June 23-a most important date in Byron and his physician ; after which Polidori started on their nine days' circumnavigation of the meditated suicide, but was ultimately reconciled lake ; and Byron was clearly in possession of the to his patron. Moore then continues, “Soon after Villa' Diodati before he started, because he writes this the noble poet removed to Diodati.” Let us compare these accounts with yet another furnished his trip, that Polidori remained behind invalided
to Murray, while weather-bound at Ouchy, during by Moore somewhat earlier in the same biography:
J. LEICESTER WARREN. “Arriving at Geneva (Byron) took up his abode at the well-known hotel, Sécheron. After a stay of a few
(To be continued.) weeks at this place, he removed to a villa in the neigh. bourhood, called Diodati, very beautifully situated on the high banks of the Lake, where he established his
WHITSUNDAY: WHITSUNTIDE. residence for the remainder of the summer." +
A great deal has been written, both in “N. &Q." On comparing these extracts, the question at and elsewhere, on the derivation of our English once arises whether Belle Rive was not merely name for the feast of Pentecost, and it might a second name of the Villa Diodati (just as Cha- be considered that the subject had been pretty puis was another appellation of the Campagne well threshed out. This is, however, by no means Mont Alègre). I Both are described as situated upon the case. It cannot be said that any definite conthe high banks of the lake ; both were in or near clusion was reached by the former discussions, Coligny. Observe, also, that in the second pas- and there is still virgin soil left to turn up in sage quoted, Moore represents Byron as moving search of the genuine root. I may possibly not directly from the Hôtel de Sécheron to the Villa succeed where so many have failed, but the Diodati. We need only suppose that, in printing attempt, at least, is worth making. or copying, the words “or Diodati” were acci- In order to avoid repetition, and to put such of dentally omitted in the first extract after “called your readers as may be bitten by the etymological Belle Rive,” to clear away and reconcile all dis-maggot au courant with the present aspect of the crepancies. Medwin follows in the same sense, question, I may refer to “N. & Q.,” 5th S. i. 401, omitting any allusion to Belle Rive.
He says :
for an able summary by the editor, and also to a “ After a fortnight's residence at Dejean's, Shelley and letter signed C*** (Mr. Cockayne), 4th S. xi. 437. his female friends removed to the Campagne Mont. These articles, with the references which they allegre, on the opposite side of the lake ; and shortly contain, are sufficient to bring out the various after Lord Byron took that the campagne) of Diodati.” theories, which may in a few words be summarized
In deciding for or against the separate existence as follows :of a Villa Belle Rive the dates are all-important. 1. Whitsunday is equivalent to Dominica Alba, Counting a fortnight from the Shelleys' arrival and was so called from the white garments worn at the Hôtel de Sécheron, they would move by neophytes on that day. on May 28 or 29; and, indeed, on June 1, Mrs. 2. "This day is called Wytsonday because the Shelley writes that they had changed their resi- Holy Ghost brought wytte and wysdome into dence, and she, moreover, dates her letter from Cristis disciples.” This is quoted by Hearne from “Campagne C******,” which initial, and six a book printed by Wynkyn de Worde, and is supsequent asterisks, must stand for Campagne Cha-ported by a passage from Richard Rólle of Hampyis, || that is Mont Alègre. If, as we are told, pole (A.D. 1358). Byron outstayed his friends a fortnight at the
3. Another correspondent quotes Brady's Clavis Hôtel, he would have occupied the Villa Diodati Calendaria, in which it is said that the original on the 11th or 12th of June ; and we have inde name of the season of the year was Wittentide, or * Letters, vol. ii. p. 27.
the time of choosing the wits or wise men to the + Ibid., vol. ii. p. 6.
Wittenagemote. This seems to have been a common topographical 4. Verstegan, in his Restitution of Decayed Inname. Compare our “Mount Pleasant."
telligence, suggests A.-S. wieša, Fl. wijen, to con$ See vol. i. p. 238 of The Life of Percy Bysshe secrate, applied as a period of peculiar sanctity. Shelley, by Thomas Medwin. The words in parenthesis are mine. Medwin is a loose and incorrect writer, but in
5. Reading, in his Sermons on the Lessons for this instance he seems to know the ground, and he tells Sundays throughout the Year (vol. ii. 291), says : us that he was at Diodati “ two years after," i.e. in 1818, “It was a custom amongst our ancestors upon this day I suppose.
(Whitsunday) to give all the milk of their ewes and kine . The name is filled in at full in the reprint of the to their poor neighbours, for the love of God, and in Six Weeks' Tour as a portion of the Essays and Letters from Abroad, Moxon, 1840, 8vo. See vol. ii. p. 56. I | Letters and Journals, vol. ii. p. 7. The date of the suppose “Chapius" (sic) is a 'misprint.
letter is June 27.
order to qualify themselves to receive the blessings of Jupiter. Wachter, however, has set the question the Holy Spirit. And from the food which the poor at rest by showing that the earliest form was made of that milk, called while-meut, this day is supposed fimfchustim, from fimfzugosto, quinquagesimus. by some to have taken the name of Whit-Sunday.”
This does not, however, apply to Anglo-Saxon, 6. In “N. & Q.;" 2nd S. i. 521, Mr. Mac- which adopted the Greek word pure and simple. KENZIE WALCOTT derives Whitzun from the
It is again a fact that, in the early ages of German Pfingsten (Low Ger. Pingsten). This has Christianity amongst the Teutons, Pentecost was met with support in other quarters.
called by a name equivalent to our own. Wachter, 7. MR. COCKAYNE (“ N. & Q.," 4th S. xi. 437) sub voc.
*« Weisse Sonntag,” says :rejects altogether the Christian derivation of the
“ Dominica alba, ab albis vestibus sic dicta, quibus word, and refers it to a heathen custom of wel candidati baptismi comparebant. Erant autem anticoming the summer and seeking for a bright sun. quitus tria baptismi tempora, Festum Nativitatis Christi 8. Two other suggestions may be passed over (quo die, baptizatus est Chlodoveus), Paschatis et Pen
tecostes." very lightly: one that Whitsunday is huict Sunday, the eighth after Easter ; the other that, as Whit- Ihre gives the Old Norse name for Pentecost, sunday was introduced after the Conquest, some Hwita dagar; Ten Kate (Nederduitsche Sprake, word was brought over by Norman ecclesiastics, 1723) gives Witte Zondag, Dominica Pentecostes. which was rendered intelligible to Saxon ears by These changes must have had their origin in being corrupted into the forms White Sunday or some altered circumstances or customs, which it Wit Sunday.
may be well to inquire into. We turn now to a In glancing over these various theories, the different quarter. principal thing that strikes one is the marvellously The publication, in 1874, of the Icelandic-Eng. small basis, and in most the utter absence, of any lish Dictionary of Cleasby and Vigfusson opened facis to sustain the conclusions arrived at. Imagi- a new era in the study of Teutonic philology, nation and conjecture raise up a house of cards, especially in its Norse and Anglo-Saxon relations. which a breath suffices to destroy.
It is not a mere dictionary, but a laborious and In the following remarks I propose to confine valuable collection of illustrations of a rich and myself to facts which may be tested by any one copious language closely allied to our own, which who will take the trouble to investigate them, and has undergone little change during the last eight simply to point out the direction towards which hundred years, and which possesses an unequalled these facts will lead us. I have no theory to extent of early mediaeval literature. maintain, and am equally content whatever the Iceland was colonized at the latter end of the result may be.
ninth century, and Christianized about A.D. 1000, In the first place, it is a fact that, down to the principally by missionaries from Saxony, who period of the Conquest, Whitsuntide, Whitsunday, would, of course, bring with them their own ecclesiare not found in our language. The earliest known astical terms. Now neither Pfingsten nor Penteoccurrence is an entry in the Saxon Chronicle, cost has ever been current in Iceland. The first A.D. 1067: “Sona æfter tham com Mathild seo bishop of Iceland was consecrated on Whitsunday, hlæfdie hiðer to lande, and Ealdred arcebischof A.D. 1056, and the day is recorded as Hvithig gehalgode to cwene on Westmynstre on hwitan Drottin's Dagr, White Lord's Day, which aftersunnan dæg.” In the rubrics to the A.-S. Gospels wards settled down as Hvitasunnu-dagr, WhitPentecost is always used.
sunday, and Hvitasunnudags-vika, WhitsundayFrom A.D. 1200, Whitsun, in its archaic forms, week.” A reference to the article will well repay was in common use. In the Ancren Riwle (1200) | perusal for the variety of information it conveys we find hwite-sunne dei; in Layamon's Brut (1205), on the early history of Whitsuntide. I extract a while sunne tide; and so on subsequently, Pen- few notices :tecost falling into disuse. Wicliffe uses witsontide
“The great festivals, Yule, Easter, and Pentecost, but in 1 Cor. xvi. 8, where Cranmer's Bible of 1551 especially the two latter, were the great seasons for has wytsontyde. Our A. V. has in all cases Pen- christening, whence the first Sunday after Easter was tecost.
called Dominica in Albis,'* but in the Northern Amongst our congeners on the Continent the churches, perhaps owing to the cold weather at Easter, reverse change took place. From a very early Pentecoot seems to have been specially appointed for period Pentecost, amongst the Teutonic nations,
At the introduction of Christianity, neophytes, in took the name of High Ger. Pfingsten, Flem. the week after their baptism, used to wear white garPinckster, Danish Pintse, Swed. Pingest. The ments called hvita vaðir, 'white weeds,' as a symbol of derivation of this has been a subject of dispute, some maintaining that these words are merely vol
. 1. p. 641,
. 318-322", also Cave's Primitive
* See Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Churck, corruptions of the Greek TEVTYKOOTÝ ; others that, Christianity, part i. ch. vii. p. 192. St. Augustine in as Easter is named after á heathen divinity, his sermons'alludes to the same custom. Pfingsten may be so called from Pin, the Teutonic + Thomas Saga, -Hungr-vaka (Lives of the Bishops).