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ever heard in this country, the only raise the price of necessaries to an
justice ever thought of, is-Let him extraordinary height, and the peo-
pay ten, twenty, thirty, purses-Give ple, dying a second time for want,
him five hundred strokes of the bas- are obliged to part with their last
tinadom-Cut off his head. One act rag to keep themselves from start-
of imjustice renders it necessary to ing.
commit a still greater. If one of I have seen this same Abdallah
these petty tyrants plunders a pea- practise a still more ingenious vexa-
sant, he is absolutely obliged to tion. I have observed that he sent
plunder his neighbour also; for, to his cavalry to pillage the Arabian
escape the hypocritical integrity of farmers beyond the Jordan. These
the Pacha, he must procure by a poor people, who had paid the miri,
second crime, sufficient to purchase and who knew that they were not
impunity for the first.

at war, were surprised in the midst It may perhaps be imagined that of their tents and of their flocks. the Pacha, when he visits his go- They were robbed of two thousand vernment, corrects these evils and two hundred sheep and goats, nineavenges the wrongs of the people. ty-four calves, a thousand asses, and So far from this, however, the Pacha six mares of the purest blood; the ishimself the greatest scourge of the camels alone escaped, having fol. inhabitants of Jerusalem. His com- lowed a shiek who called them at ing is dreaded like that of a hostile a distance. These faithful children chief. The shops are shut up; the of the desert carried their milk to people conceal themselves in cel their masters in the mountains, as lars; they feign to be at the point if they had known that these masof death on their mats, or withdraw ters were bereft of every other speto the mountains.

cies of nourishment. The truth of these facts I am An European could scarcely able to attest, since I happened to guess what the Pacha did with his be at Jerusalem at the time of the booty. He put more than twice as Pacha's visit. Abdallah is sordidly high a price upon an animal as it avaricious, like almost all the Mus- was worth, rating each goat and selmans: in the capacity of com- sheep at twenty piastres, and each mander of the caravan of Mecca, calf at eighty. The beasts, thus and under the pretext of raising appraised, were sent to the butchers money for the better protection of and different persons in Jerusalem, the pilgrims, he thinks he has a and to the chiefs of the neighbourright to multiply his extortions; ing villages, who were obliged to and he is always devising new ways take them and pay for them at the of fleecing the people. One of the Pacha's price, upon pain of death. methods which he most frequently I must confess that, had I not been employs is, to fix a very low maxi- an-eye-witness of this double iniquimum for all kinds of provisions. The ty, I should have thought it abso. people are delighted, but the dea- lutely incredible. As to the asses lers shut

up their shops. A scarci.' and horses, they became the proty commences; the Pacha enters perty of the soldiers; for, accordinto a secret negociation with the ing to a singular convention beshop-keepers, and, for a certain tween these robbers, all the beasts number of

purses, grants them per- with a cloven hoof taken in such mission to sell at any price they expeditions belong to the Pacha, please. These men are of course and all the other animals fall to the desirous to recover the sums which share of the troops. they have given the Pacha : they


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. Having exhausted Jerusalem, the graviate of Anspach; he noverthepacha departs; but, in order to save less received a guod education, bethe pay of the city guards, and to gan life as a soldier, became a quarstrengthen the escort of the caravan fer-master in a regiment of cavalry, of Mecca, he takes the soldiers a- and during the war, belonged to long with him. The governor is the stuff of the army, a post in left behind with about a dozen men, which he drew the attention of who are insufficient for the police field-marshal Lasey, who made him of the city, much more for that of a captain. The sentiments of esthe adjacent country. The year teem for his benefactor, which were before my visit, he was obliged to fixed in the heart of Mack, displeasconceal himself in his house, to ese ed his successor Laudon, who ono cape the pursuit of a band of robday said something very warm about bers who entered Jerusalem, and the creatures of Lascy, keeping his were on the point of plundering the eyes fixed on Mack. 'Mack returncity:

ed, " I must inform you, sir, that No sooner is the pacha gone, I here serve neither M. de Lascy than another evil, the consequence nor you, but his Imperial Majesty, of his oppression, begins to be felt. to whoin my life is consecratud." Insurrections take place in the plun. Two days atter, Mack distinguished dered villages; they attack each himself by the following action : other, mutually intent on wreaking M. de Laudon hesitated whether hereditary revenge. All commun he should attack Lissa, ten miles cation is interrupted; agriculture from which town his camp was perishes; and the peasant sallies postcd, believing it to be detended forth at night to pillage his enemy's by 30,000 men. Mack, who wishvine, and to cut down his olive-tree. ed to make him determine on the The pacha returns the following assault, left him at nine o'clock in year; he demands the same tribute the evening, crossed the Danube from a country, whose population with one hussar, made his way into is diminished. In order to raise it, a suburb of Lissa, took a Turkish he is obliged to redouble luis op- officer prisoner, and the next mornpressions and to exterminate whole ing, at seven o'clock, presented him tribes. The desert gradually ex- to the general, who learnt froin hini tends ; nothing is to be seep bụt that the garrison consisted of only here and there habitations in ruins, 6000 men. The marshal then adand near them cemeteries which dressed him in flattering terms, are continually increasing: each made him his aid-de-camp, and resucceeding year witnesses the des- quested that he would never leave truction of a house, the extinction him. Laudop before his death preof a family, and soon nothing is left sented his young favourite to the but this cemetery to mark the spot emperor, saying to him, “I leave where once stood a village. you a Laudon who will serve you

better than I have done: I niean

major Mack.” Thus, having obBiographical Sketch of General tained some degree of celebrity, he Mack.

served in 1793 under M, de Co(From-“ Biographie Moderno

bourg as quarter-master-general,

and in this capacity directed the trian general, was born of the passage of the Roer, the delive* poor and mean family in the mar. rance of Laestricht, and the batFebruari 1812.

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tles of Nerwinde. He had also a Naples and the French republic great share in the negociations he went to take the command of then carried on with Dumouriez, the Neapolitan forces, and thus in from which the Austrian leaders some sort became master of the derived so little benefit. He was destiny of the state; but his talents afterwards wounded in the attack were very unequal to so important on the camp at Famars, and unable a part, and though he at first obto follow up his plans, was recalled tained some advantages over scatto Vienna, and superseded by prince tered and small parties, he was afHohenlohe, whom he afterwards terwards completely defeated, and again joined in the Low Countries, his army totally routed by, general when he was appointed major-ge- Championnet. Mack was then guilneral and quarter-master-general of ty of capital errors; for, quite bethe Flemish army. In the preceed- side himself, he wished to enter ining February, 1794, the emperor to a negociation with the hostile had dispatched him to London, generals, and suspicions being thus that he might adjust with the Bri- exeited, 'a cry of treachery was tish cabinet the plans of the cam-spread. part of his troops, and apaign which was just going to open. bove all, the people of Naples rose Mack had prepared a general at- against him, and he found there tack to crush Pichegru, and was-was no other way to escape their moving all his forces in a space of fury, than to throw himself, with above twenty leagues ; but so vast his staff, into the arms of the French, an operation was not in every part who, in spite of his remonstrances, well concerted: the English and treated him as a prisoner of war. Hanoverians were defeated on the On this occasion, it must be allow

18th of May, at Hondscoote, and ed, he behaved in a pusillanimous the Austrian army, after a fruitless manner; for, though it has long been contest, withdrew to Tournay. "On said, that the valour in the field the 22d Pichegru, in his turn, at- (which cannot be denied him,) tacked the allied forces, to compel does not always supply the fortitude them to cross the Scheldt again; and presence of mind which are but the battle, after continuing requisite to incite, or repress a miulfrom six in the morning till ten in 'titude, yet he to whom the safety the evening, at last remained doubt- : of a nation is entrusted, should ful. The emperor shortly after re- know how to succeed, or die in the solved on returning to Vienna, and attempt. Innumerable epigrams and leaving the command of the army songs against him were published to the prince of Cobourg, who had ' at the time of of his flight and caplittle confidence in Mack, but who tivity, and the conduct of M. de highly esteemed general Fischer, Damas, a foreigner also, served to one of his enemies.. Mack, finding shew what he might have done, that after the emperor's departure had he, like that gallant Frenchhe should have no influence, asked man, known how to gain the conand obtained permission to return fidence of his troops, and inspire to Vienna. He then passed several them with a like military enthuyears in Bohemia; but when the siasm. The court of Vienna hav. peace of Campo Formio was signed, ing refused an exchange, he was he was appointed lieutenant-gener- sent to France, and kept there some al, and commissioned to organize time on his parole, but at last secthe army of Italy anew. A war retly escaped with a courtezan, in having in 1798 broke out between April, 1800 ; and the French go


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vernment, as if wishing to set in a the end of February, 1806, judg-
stronger light the shame of this in- 'ment had not yet been passed on
fraction of laws, ever sacred to a him.
military man, immediately restored
all the

officers of his staff to liberty,
and desired them to convey back Biographical Sketch of the
to their general his servants, his

Count d'Artois.
effects, and his horses. In 1804 he
was nominated commander in chief

(From the same.)
of all the forces stationed in the
in Dalmatiain Italy,

(Count d'Ar

tois) discipline for the Austrian troops, XVI., born at Versailles the 9th of which the archduke Charles adopt. October 1757, married the 16th of ed. In the month of September November 1773, to Maria Theresa he obtained the command of the of Savoy, by whom he had two sons. Bavarian army, but on the approach This prince was, in his youth, deof the French troops he withdrew voted to every kind of pleasure, rebeyond the Danube, and shut him- nowned for his amiable qualities, his self up in the city of Ulm, with a gallantries, and his profusion, and numerous force. Then the empe- was considered a patron of letters; ror Napoleon crossed the river, and he was, in particular, very kind to after making a shew of a design to the Abbe Delille, who has celebratpenetrate into Bavaria, he on a ed him in various passages of his sudden returned to Ulm, cut off poems. At the beginning of the the left wing of the Austrian army, revolution, he deciared against seized Memmingen, which gene- its principles, and was one of the ral Spangen surrendered without most zealous defenders of the royal resistance, and came with a supe- prerogatives. At the time of the rior fotce to give battle to General assembly of notables, he declared in Mack, who continued shut up in favour of M. de Calonne; and when Ulm, while the archduke Ferdi- the parliament was banished for nand, after having vainly endea- having refused to register the edict voured to bring him to act coura- concerning stamps and the land-tax, geously, was retreating into Bohe- he, and Monsieur, his brother, were mia, through Franconia, with a charged with having it registered. considerable body of cavalry. Mack When he had reached the barrier of then, closely pressed by the French La Conference, the public disconarmy, after two or three attacks on tent manifested itself in a manner the advanced guard, accepted the so alarming for his person, that his most ignominious, capitulation re- guards made a movement as if to corded in military annals. His put themselves on the defensive. troops, to the number of 40,000 When he quitted the court of aids, men, were made prisoners, and he his train was again assailed by new and his staff alone had permission clamours. A line of troops, disto retire on their parole to Austria; posed on the Pont Neuf, closed the but no sooner was he arrived, than passage to the multitude, and facihe was seized and confined in the litated the continuation of his way. fortress of. Therisenstadt, from The Count d'Artois was among the which he was removed only to ap- number of the princes of the blood pear before a court-martial. Åt who presented a memorial to the

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king on the dangers to which the distinguished reception from the monarchy was exposed by the re- Emperor. At Pilnitz, he had an volution which was then fernient- interview with the King of Prussia ing, and announcing itself in the and the Emperor Leopold, and there pretensions of the tiers-etat. At the foundation of the first coalition the time of the convocation of the against France was laid. The Count states-general, he, by order of the d'Artois Kastened to communicate king, refused the place of deputy of to Louis XVI., and even to declare the senésehalate of Tartas: the or- loudly the resolution of these two der of the noblesse caused their monarchs; at which the court of regret at his refusal to be testified Vienna expressed its dissatisfaction, to him. : Witen the news of the and, from that time, it adopted a events of the 14th of July reached system of indecision with regard to Versailles, he appeared with the the emigrants: it protected them king in the assembly; but the alter- secretly, and feared to engage itself ation of his looks, and the disorder too openly, for which reason it reof his countenance, by revealing the fused the Count d'Artois permission sentiments which agitated him, af- to establish a recruiting depot in the forded new subject for the accusá- low countries. During this time, a tions of which he was the object. decree of accusation against all the At last, the Duke de Liancourt hav- emigrant princes was demanded of ing informed him that the Parisians the national assembly, and a legishad set a price on his head, he with lative act was passed, importing, drew himself during the night from that all those who did not return by the fury of his enemies, and first the 1st of January 1792, should be gave the signal for emigration by declared enemies of the nation. Afgoing to Turin, with his family, to ter the acceptation of the constituthe king of Sardinia, his father-in- tion of 1791, Louis XVI. invited law. The Parisians laid aside the the Count d'Artois to return to green cockace which they had as- him, but in vain. This prince, who sumed in the first days of the insur- had then just reached Coblenty, rection, as soon as they perceived where he had joined his brother, that this colour was that of the Monsieur, was preparing for war; Count d'Artois' livery. The nation, he answered the letter of Louis XVI. al assembly received unfavourably by giving reasons for his refusal, and the list of his debts, which Anson published a very violent proclamapresented, classed among the public tion against the assembly. On the expences; the next year, M. Necker ist of January 1792, a decree of demied having given him money. aceusation was passed against him In 1790, the Count d'Artois had ån by the first legislature, to whom a interview at Mantua with the Em- " denunciation was made of the conperor Leopold; in 1791 he went to tinuation of the payment of his apWorms, with Marshal Broglio and pointment às colonel of the Swiss, the Prince de Conde, which occa- and of the delivery of discharges sioned the einigration of a great signed by him to the soldiers of that : number of officers. He remained nation. On the 19th of May followfor some time near Bonn, went to ing, another decree suppressed his Brussels, where he was welcomed. constitutional appointinent of a milby the Archduchess Maria Christi, lion, 25 brother to the king, and na, and afterwards set out for Vi- declared his creditors at liberty to cnna, where he met with the most - Seize tảë revenues of-his apanagie,


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