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Varieties, Literary and Miscella- Thoughts on the Improvement of the
neous.

Police of Edinburgh.
BEGGAR'S OPERA.

WHERE is unfortunately no dis-
IT dhe Beggar's Opera was write present an eine which related to the
ten in Edinburgh. "Mr Gay then
lived in a small house in the Can preservation of public order in this
ongate which still exists ; it is sin great city. Within the last two
tuated almost opposite the Gate of has taken place. That peaceable

months, a most disastrous change Queensberry House, and is at pre- and virtuous department, which sent (1812) occupied by a shoe- honourably characterized the most maker of the name of W'm. Niel- numerous part of the Scottish poolson, and may be easily recogni pulation, has been entirely broken zed by two small projecting roofs up; and a system of robbery and covered with tiles.

atrocity has been organized, which

places the life of every citizen eJEALOUSY OF ARTISTS.

very moment in danger. Any meaThe greatest artists, like the great sure which might correct this de. est authors, have not been exempt generacy, and restore national from the meanest jealousy.

manners to their original purity

, Michael Angelo procured the would certainly be deserving of the banishment of Leonardo da Vinci most serious consideration. But froin Florence. He endeavoured this is an object which cannot be first to make Raphael pass for a accomplished at once, and the plagiary, and then to raise up a means of attaining which, depend rival to him in Bastian del Piombo. upon numerous and complicated

When Dominichino had finished circumstances. The inmediate and his celebrated picture of St Jerome, urgent consideration is, how the Lanfrank hastily got an engraving person and property of the citizens made at Bologna, of the same subject may be secured from those attacks, painted by Ludovico Carracci. "He to which they are incessantly liable

. then caụsed this print to be circu- This has turned men's attention to lated at Rome, and employed per- the present very defective state of sons to point out certain resemblan- the system of Edinburgh police. ces to that of Dominichino, which Its imperfections indeed have, since might make the latter pass for a its first institution, been very geneplagiary.

rally acknowledged; but recent. eThe fine pictures, which La vents render it impossible longer to Sueur had painted for the cloister overlook them. ome of the causes of the Chartreux, were spoiled by of this insufficiency seem to be pretartists - jealous of his reputation. ty generally observed. The superinThey cut off with a knife the finest tendant, instead of being a judge, heads, the most expressive fea- and (an anomaly in our constitution) tures. It evidently appears that this a judge without appeal, ought to be instrument was employed with art, an executive officer charged with and by hands accustomed to draw maintaining the peace of the city: ing. Just and correct expressions are and detecting offenders. He ought rendered ridiculous, by the skilful to have the choice of his inferior movement of the knife.

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for their properly discharging their highly so) would place himself in duty. Efficient and active men a situation where his continuance would then probably be chosen ; would be dependant on the caprice nor would a place in the police be of a single individual. considered as a mode of providing pointment and removal would, we

for decayed servants, or persons un- imagine, be most properly placed · fit for any other occupation. But in the hands of the Magistrates,

I am particularly anxious to recal who have naturally the immediate the attention of the public to what superintendance over the peace of was formerly stated through the the city. Doubtless, he ought to medium of your miscellany. No be legally removeable at pleasure ; way, it is probable, can be found in but still with the understanding, as

which the city will be thoroughly is usual in such cases, that provid· guarded, unless by a stationary po- ed he does his duty, and proves

lice. Men ought to be placed in himself fit for his office, he shall resentry, at moderate distances, and tain it during life.

M. : communicating with each other by.

appointed signals. By this arrangement, whenever a disturbance aris- Monthly Memoranda in Natural es, at any one point, the alarm is

History. immediately given, and a strength sufficient to crush it may be speedily collected. I am happy tbech February. The first days of this serve that this plan has been mild and genial. The yellow flowbrought forward in the resolution ers of the Winter Aconite immediof the society of Advocates, and I ately peeped above ground; and am led to hope, that the influence they were quickly followed by the of so respectable a body, may lead Snowdrop. "The Missel-thrush was to its adoption. There are only one heard to sing. or two details in which I cannot help 8. In a garden at Canondiffering somewhat from the senti- mills, near Edinburgh, a common ments of that learned body. They Jargonelle, (cuisse madame), on a propose that a system of patrole wall with a S. E. aspect, began to should still be continued along with expand its blossoms. the stationary police. I cannot help 12. The Black Cock, (Tetrao thinking, that the one supersedes tetrix) has, during the past winter, the necessity of the other. In at- been occasionally seen in this neightempting thus to support two esta- bourhood. One was shot some blishments, we must either render weeks ago at Meadowbank; anoboth inefficient, or incur an expence ther at Barnbougle; and a third was altogether enormous. The number observed a few days ago on Corstsorof men, it must be recollected, that phine Hill. I understand that a would be required to guard the rare species of Sandpiper (Tringa city in the manner I have been pro- nigricans, Lin. Tr.) has recently posing, would be very considerable. been shot on the beach at PortoStill less can I approve the propo. bello. sal that the superintendant should BOTANIC GARDEN. This garden be appointed by, and removeable at still remains in the same forlorn the pleasure of the sheriff of the state, which we have noticed and county. No respectable man (and deplored at different times during be who holds this office, should be the last three years.

With an emi

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nent Professor of Botany, and a su- he is now privately exhibiting here: perintendant or head gardener every Mr Wilson, we understand, in way qualified for his office, it seems tends to have engraved under his to be a national disgrace, to suffer eye, two prints from his principal the finest plants in the collection to landscapes, which contain views of pine for want of room, or to rot Tivoli and of Rome. They are to ewing to a deficiency of shelter,-- be subscribed for at a guinea each. by withholding a small grant of the We consider him as entitled to eve. public money, sufficient to renew or ry species of encourag to raise the roofs of the hot-houses. the lovers of the arts. The noble Dragon-blood tree (Dra- We expect to be able, in our cæna draco), formerly mentioned, next, to present our readers with has for these two last years been seme observations on the principal occasionally pushing its strong pieces contained in this interesting leaves through the panes of glass ; exhibition. and if the roof be not speedily rais- Doctor Hutton, in reply to an ed, the plant, by far the grandest observation of Dr Davy, has lateof the kind within his Majesty's ly published the following acBritish dominions, must be inevit- count of the curious experiments ably lost! A large and splendid made in 1774, at Schehallien, specimen of the Date Palm, (Phee-“ About the year 1774, says lie, nix dactylifera); has, at this mo- " there was much conversation ment, its elegantly pinnated fronds among some of the most scientific also bent back by the glass of the members of the Royal Society, roof. We shall only remark, that about the universal attraction of all it is impossible to believe that the matter, and in devising some gen, true state of this Royal Garden can eral and familiar proofs of it." It be known to the Prince Regent or

was then concluded that it would his advisers.

be a very decisive. and, indeed, Canonmills,

N. palpable proof, if it could be ex. Feb. 27, 1812.

perimentally shown that any hill

attracted a plummet, drawing it Memoirs of the Progress of Mami, cular direction towards itself.--Af

sensibly aside from the

perpendifactures, Chemistry, Science, and

ter several reports of the Royal the Fine Arts.

Society, Mr Smeaton announced H AVING always taken an in- that he had discovered the moun:

terest in the progress of the tain Schehallien, one of the Gram: Fine Arts in Scotland, we hail pian hills in the north of Scotland, with pleasure the appearance of possessing the desired properties in. a master, who must undoubtedly a very eminent degree ; being fank in the first class of her land- à very lofty and varrow ridge, scape painters. Mr Wilson,

a very steep, extending a great native of this city, has resided for length east and : west, and very some years in Italy, where he essi- narrow from north to south. This duously availed himself of the. am hill was in consequence deemed ple means of improvement afforded sufficiently, convenient for making by that country, and the classic the experiment; and a person, environs of Rome. He has execu. who had been an assistant to Df ted several very finished representa, Maskelyne, at the Royal Observa. tions of the scenery in the neightory, was 'engaged by the society, bourhood, which, along with others, and sent down to Scotland to take

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the necessary measures about the culations was published in the Phi. hill, to ascertain its shape and losophical Transactions for the year magnitude by horizontal measure. 1778, and in volume xiv. of my Aments, and by vertical sections in a bridgment of these transactions ;

great many directions and situa- and, though in a very condensed 01

tions ; and, lastly, by placing a pro- form, occupied no less than a hun-
per instrument and plumet against dred quarto pages in that work,
the middle of the sides of the hill, containing only the results of ma-
to observe by zenith distances, the ny thousands of intricato calcula-
deviation of the plumb-line towards tions. The conclusion from all
the hill. Before the survey and which was, that the mean density
observations were quite completed, of the whole inass of the earth is
at the request of the society, Dr nearly double that of the moun-
Maskelyne himself went down to tain, being to the former in the pro-
Scotland, to see how the business portion of 9 to 5; whence it appears
was carried on; and brought back that the density of the earth is about
the account of the survey, with the five times that of the witer."
réport that, having tried the plumet. Dr. Reuben Mussey, of Mas-
on the opposite sides of the hill, sachussetts, lately published, Ex-
each side attracted it between 5 periments and Observations on
and 6 seconds from the perpendicu. Cutaneous Absorption. These ex.
lar, and in fact, that the sum of the periments show how the systems
two opposite attractions was just may be supported in cases of emer-
equal to 11 6-16th seconds. Thus, gency, without the reception of
then, the original question was sa- food by the stomach. They ex-
tisfactorily answered in the affirma- plain how extreme thirst may be
tive, viz. that the hill, a mass of allayed by sailors in distress, by
dense rocks, did sensibly attract the the immersion of their bodies and
plummet, and draw it aside froni salt water; as the salt will not per-
the perpendicular direction of the colate through the pores of the
earth's gravitation, and that by a skin to increase thirst, thoutyh the
certain quantity. The next consi- water will be absorbed by the skis,
deration was, whether and how and refresh, if not nourish thein.
these observations and measurements In his first experimont he remaiu.
could be employed, in comparison ed immersed - in a pretty stoong
with the magnitude and effects of watery infusion of the rubir tinc-
the whole earth, to determine torum, two hours and forty five
its mean destiny, in comparison minutes.” The urine he voided
with that of the mountain. – The three hours after he left the batil,
magnitude and novelty of these nice "was slightly tinged with red, and
calculations, the requisite portion treated with a solution of the com-
of science and ingenuity for making mon sulphat of iron, it gave a tinge
them with effect, were such as 53a of a purplish brown.". In the se-
palled every mind, and every one cond experiment, “ I continued"
shrunk from the task; when at the says he, “ three hours in the mad-
request of the president and coun- der bath.

der bath. The portion diselmrget cil of the society, I undertook the five hours after leaving the bath RFA performance ; and, after incessant was a little deeper-coloured than mi labout during the course of a year, common Sherry, or Sicily wine.

produced the result of the whole, Treated with the sulphat of iron, to the entire satisfaction of all the a strong purplish brown precipitate sóciety. The account of three cal was produced." In the several

succeeding

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succeeding experiments, the results the education of youth, is one of were similar, the third excepted; the most flourishing and best-resu: in which however he remained im- lated schools of the country, remersed but one hour and five min. ceives equal, and in some respects utes. In his subsequent experi- greater, support from the King of ments, he tested the urine voided Westphalia, than it used to receive after he had been into the madder from the King of Prussia. The bath by the “ caustic or moderate botanic garden, under the immely-carbonated potash, which turns diate care and direction of Sprenurine slightly tinged with madder gel, is, for variety and rarity, parof a cranberry red." To detect ticularly distinguished among the whatever there might be of fallacy German University gardens. The in the experiments, the caustic po- library alone receives annually from tash was put into urine, in which King Jerome, the sum of 1,800 there could be none of the colouring dollars, for the purchase of new principle of the madder, and no books and other necessary articles. change took place in the colour of M. Louis Petit Radel, a member the urine. We consider these ex- of the Institute, has been long ocperiments as involving points of the cupied with the developement of a deepest consequence to the perfect general theory relative to the priknowledge and skilful treatment of mitive establishments of Italy and the human body.

Greece, and he has accordingly deThe new Astronomical Observa- dicated his attention to the ruins of tory at Göttingen will be complet- 'ancient cities. The city of Tarraed with the utmost expedition ear- gona, the walls of which were built ly in the ensuing year. Harding, by the Scipios, has excited the the celebrated discoverer of Juno, most lively interest, and he has disis, in the mean time, at the king's covered that the stones then used expense, gone to Paris, to confer by the Romans were all marked with the astronomers of France. with Celtiberian characters of an

Halle has experienced, in a very age much anterior. distinguished manner, the patro- A Monsieur Cronstat, a French nage of King Jerome and his mi- chemist, who has lately arrived in nisters, who seem to be zealous London, has astonished our sugarto afford succour to the arts and bakers by the exhibition of a new sciences. The finances of this aca- and shortened process for refining demic institution lately amounted sugar. He effects, in two or three only to 50,700 franks, whereas the days, what has usually been perexpences exceeded 106,300 franks; formed by the ordinary process onthe deficiency has, however, been ly in as many months; and, what supplied; and the annual salaries is equally important, he produces augmented with 8,100 franks. This the finest sugar from the present reUniversity sustained a considerable fura of the sugar-houses. Should loss by Reil's removal to Berlin. the process be made public, we

The literary institutions of Fran- shall introduce it into the Scots conia have been considerably aug. Magazine. We are, however, enmented from the funds of the sup- abled to state, at present, that the pressed school at Closterbergen ; new process does not require the and the Pædagogium, which con- use of bullocks blood, and other tinues to be directed by the Chan- offensive materials hitherto employcellor Niemeyer, and which, fored by the sugar-bakers.

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