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the Pope, and received as a son-in-law, by the Emperor Francis II.
Under the Government of RIENZI, justice was impartially administered at ROME; and, as birth and privilege afforded no protection to offenders, robbery ceased, agriculture florished, and trade revived.
In FRANCE and ITALY, during the dominion of BUONAPARTE, a strict administration of justice was enforced; and, as all feudal exemptions and odious monopolies had been abolished by the revolution, agriculture florished, crimes decreased, and the condition of the people was improved.
Hence RIENZI was celebrated by Petrarca, as the deliverer of his country, and regarded as the reviver of her good estate. Hence also BUONAPARTE was by some proclaimed the champion of freedom, and revered as a defender of the people's rights.
But RIENZI, more eloquent than judicious, more enterprising than resolute, was devoid of cool commanding reason; and, as prudence could never have erected, it did not fortify his throne.
The mind of BUONAPARTE was more vigorous and active, than comprehensive and enlarged; and, with talents "to fight his way to the summit of human greatness," he wanted the rarer gift, to preserve his equilibrium, when the giddy eminence was attained.
The sonorous epithets of NICOLA, the severe and merciful Deliverer of Rome, Defender of Italy, Friend of Mankind, of Peace and Justice, which RIENZI arrogated, were altogether inconsistent with the ancient style of the office which he bore.
Nor were the titles of NAPOLEON THE GREAT, Emperor of France, King of Italy, Preserver of the Confederation of the Rhine, or the inflated language of BUONAPARTE's eulogists, less incompatible with his early conduct, as the champion of a republic, where all titles were formally proscribed.
RIENZI, deviating from the rules of frugality and abstemiousness, provoked the plebeians by his luxury, and magnificence in dress; whilst without acquiring the majesty, he degenerated into the vices of a king.
BUONAPARTE, disdaining the rigid maxims of republican economy, attempted to dazzle by splendid establishments
and magnificent exhibitions; emulating the extravagance of hereditary rulers, without inheriting their exemption from censure and distrust.
RIENZI, ambitious of the honors of chivalry, became as odious to the people, whom he deserted, as he already was to the Nobles, whom he adopted on receiving the order of the Holy Spirit.
BUONAPARTE, aspiring after royal distinctions, forfeited the confidence of the republicans whom he abandoned, without gaining the friendship of those Sovereigns, whose alliance he anxiously sought.
RIENZI, at a splendid banquet, silencing the Vicar's feeble protest, dined alone at a table reserved for the Supreme Pontiff, where he displayed seven crowns, representing the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit.
BUONAPARTE sat covered with a velvet hat and feather, in a congress of bare-headed Sovereigns, when entertaining at Paris the assembled Princes of the Confederation of the Rhine.
The fame and fortunes of RIENZI were diffused in every quarter of the world; and the deliverance of Rome inspiring him with the idea of uniting Italy into one federative republic, he was encouraged by the countenance of foreign Ministers, and the concurrence of the smaller States.
The celebrity of BUONAPARTE resounded through every portion of the globe; and the complete discomfiture of the allied armies, inducing him to melt down various independent States into one tremendous military Empire, the leading powers of continental Europe successively acquiesced in his
RIENZI Summoned the Pope and Cardinals to return to Rome, from Avignon; two pretending Emperors, Charles of Bohemia, and Louis of Bavaria, with the Electors of Germany, to say on what pretence they usurped the rights of the Roman people; and, brandishing his sword to the three quarters of the world, declared-this is mine.
BUONAPARTE deprived the Pope of his temporal authority, and two rival kings of Spain of their dominions; compelled the House of Austria to relinquish the sovereignty of the German Empire; and, after carrying his arms into various parts of Europe, arrogantly presumed to dictate to the whole."
RIENZI, deserving the fate, adopted the suspicions and maxims of a tyrant; and, after rashly offering a mortal injury to his opponents, in their condemnation, vainly presumed, on pardoning them, to be forgiven.
BUONAPARTE, indifferent to the rights, insulted the feelings of the conquered nations; and, after degrading their hereditary Sovereigns by his triumphs, idly hoped, on restoring their dominions, to render them subservient to his designs.
RIENZI denied the fallen Colonna the honors of a burial, exciting compassion among the people for the object of his inhuman display of power.
BUONAPARTE sacrificed the Duke d'Enghien to his jealousy and resentment, reviving the sympathies of mankind for a family, whose abasement had prepared the way for his assumption of the throne.
RIENZI, by such means, in the pride of victory forfeited what yet remained, of the reputation acquired by his early conduct in the management of civil affairs.
BUONAPARTE, dazzled by success, in the display of greatness, forfeited, from the want of civil prudence, the fruits of his splendid military success.
RIENZI's extravagant conduct led the Roman Nobles to look forward to the subversion of his power, their old animosities subsiding from feelings of common disgrace.
BUONAPARTE'S inordinate ambition led the Princes of Europe to project the destruction of his boundless sway; their mutual jealousies being suspended from the conviction of a common cause.
A free and vigorous opposition was formed against RIENZI, within the walls of Rome; and thirty-nine members of the council voting against his measures, showed that however the populace might adhere to him, many of the most respectable citizens disclaimed his cause.
A formidable conspiracy was raised against BUONAPARTE, even in the heart of France; and the unprecedented opposition of the legislature, soon evinced that his overbearing influence was at an end.
RIENZI, branded with the guilt of rebellion, sacrilege, and heresy, was discharged from his office by the Papal Legate; and the surviving Barons uniting with the Church against him,
he was obliged, on the introduction of a military force into the city, to abdicate the Government and palace.
BUONAPARTE, accused of tyranny and ambition, was deposed by a decree of the Senate; and, Paris being surrendered to the Allies, the leading authorities deserted him, when, on the earnest representation of his Marshals, he consented to resign his power.
The misconduct of the Roman Nobles on succeeding to the Government, made the faults of RIENZI be forgotten, amidst the sighs and wishes of the people, for the prosperity of the good estate.
The gross impolicy of the Bourbon Princes, on their unexpected restoration, soon obliterated the crimes of BUONAPARTE; whilst the people were alarmed at the revival of long exploded bigotry and misrule.
After an absence of seven years, RIENZI was sent into Italy, by the Court of Avignon, to reform the anarchy of Rome; and, being favorably received by the people, soon revived the vigor of the laws.
After an interval of ten months, BUONAPARTE returned from exile to reclaim the sovereignty of France; and, being hailed by an unequivocal and almost unexampled expression of public sentiment, was restored, with due restrictions, to the throne.
But the sunshine of RIENZI was soon closed: suspected by the people, as the Minister of a foreign Court, he was abandoned and opposed by the Papal Legate, and suffered at once from the misconduct of others and his own.
The good fortune of BUONAPARTE was speedily reversed; his former tyranny had destroyed all confidence among the friends of liberty, whilst his authority was disowned by the allied powers; his own criminal ambition, and that of his opponents, contributing equally to work his fall.
The treasures of RIENZI, and the city's patience, were soon exhausted by a civil war; and Rome being invested by a furious multitude, he was deserted by his servants, vainly striving to persuade them, that he and the republic must together stand or fall.
The destruction of his army in a severe engagement exhausting BUONAPARTE's resources, deprived him of the public voice; and as the allies pressed forward to the frontier of France, he was dethroned by the legislature, vainly striving to separate his interests from the public cause.
After an administration of four months, the career of RIENZI was prematurely closed; and, unable to escape, he was massacred in a tumult fomented by the Roman Barons.
After a dominion of one hundred days, BUONAPARTE, pursued by his enemies, surrendered to the British fleet, and, at the instigation of the allies, was sent a prisoner to a distant Isle.
In a long period of anarchy and servitude, the name of RIENZI was celebrated as the deliverer of his country, and the last of Roman patriots; whilst the continued degradation of the people threw new lustre on his fame.
Amidst the arbitrary claims, and retrograde policy of the Bourbons, the memory of BUONAPARTE will be long revered in France, as the patron of general improvement, and the proud asserter of his country's high control.
And the faults of both these singular men will sink in public estimation, when contrasted with the duplicity and meanness, the tyranny, bigotry, and false pretences, of those who effected their destruction, or who rose triumphant on their fall.
But whilst the brilliancy of his military talents and achievements, in a more extended sphere of action, have raised BUONAPARTE immeasurably higher in the general estimation, a better principle of action seems, in the dawn of his exertions, to have actuated RIENZI's mind. An ardent love of his country, and a keen indignation at her worthless rulers, giving force to his persuasive eloquence, recommended RIENZI first to public favor, and entitled him justly to the confidence of his countrymen, as the restorer of the good
But a cruel attack on the revolted sections, when all active resistance to an unjust restriction on the right of suffrage had ceased; and the infamous surrender of Venice to Austria, in defiance of justice and of honor, tarnished Buonaparte's early glories, and showed a disregard of the rights of men and of nations, inconsistent with the cause which he at first pretended to espouse.
Whilst, therefore, the rise of RIENZI was connected with the revival of public freedom; the elevation of BUONAPARTE was both preceded and attended by measures altogether subversive of the cause.
If however, RIENZI had followed up his first success with moderation and forbearance, he might have been justly ranked among the greatest benefactors of mankind. Or if BuoNAPARTE, in the hour of victory, had abandoned every pur