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the creditors of his intention, and the time and place of sitting, examine witnesses, and determine the question, although no previous resolution of the creditors shall have taken place.

104. If any manager or trustee, misapply or withhold improperly any money, or securities for money, or effects of the Insolvent estate, which have come to his hands, and fail to replace the same according to the order of the commissioner, the commissioner may in his discretion seize the effects of such trustee or manager, and sell the same to satisfy the default, and also imprison the person of the defaulter until satisfaction be made, or he be discharged as an insolvent debtor.

105. If any chairman, manager, trustee, or auditor, shall act corruptly, negligently, or unskilfully in his office, a general meeting of creditors may impeach him, and a subsequent one remove him, and appoint another in his place.

106. Upon the sequestration of the debtor's goods, and until the first meeting of his creditors, he shall be committed to the House of Detention; and if he then fail to give a true statement of his affairs, or prevaricate, or appear to have acted fraudulently, or afford reason to suspect that he may abscond, he is to be recommitted until such time as he gains “a certificate," or is "convicted."

107. After a sequestration, or surrender of a debtor's property, and pending the investigation of his affairs, aliment money may be allowed to him, in the discretion of the commissioner.

108. The commissioner may direct the attendance (as witnesses,) of the debtor's wife, family, and servants, as well as of other persons, and make such order of payment for their trouble and expenses, as he may think fit.

109. If any person voluntarily discover any part of a debtor's property, which has been concealed, after forty-two days from the order for surrender, or after the debtor has given in his schedule of effects, he shall be entitled to 57. per cent. on the value of the property so discovered.

110. If a debtor receive a certificate from the commissioner, that he is simply an "insolvent debtor," he shall be exempt from all claims for the debts he then owes, until such time, if ever, as he acquires so much new property, as besides his tools, apparel, furniture, and a moderate and necessary portion of stock in trade, is sufficient to pay one fourth part of the amount of debts then remaining unpaid, and from time to time, as often as his surplus property shall amount to one fourth of the old debts remaining unpaid after the first dividend, he shall divide the same, until the debts are extinguished, provided that if the debtor fail to use his best assistance, in recovering debts owing to his estate, or to dispose of property belonging

to his estate, and duly to account for the same; or if he conceal any property which he ought to have accounted for, or surrendered; or if he live extravagantly, or gamble, or give, or assign his gains away to the prejudice of his creditors, while his debts remain undischarged; or acquiring such new property, he fail to divide it as often as it amounts to one fourth of the amount of debts he left unpaid as aforesaid, or within six months afterwards, his certificate shall be void, and the protection afforded thereby cease.

111. From the time that a debtor is declared insolvent all property he may acquire becomes liable to sequestration, under the order of the commissioner, (subject to the limitation provided in favor of such as obtain certificates of simple insolvency,) until such time as his debts are discharged; and upon the representation of a creditor to the commissioner, that the debtor has acquired any new property, or of a discovery of old property, which he concealed under a former examination, the commissioner may resume the powers of sequestration, before used, and retake the debtor and his effects, and reassemble his creditors, and institute a new enquiry into the state of his affairs, and distribution of his effects.


A description and classification of Offences and Crimes, with their respective Penalties annexed.

A careful consideration of the nature of the offences which disturb society, leads to a conclusion, that the whole results either from dishonest attempts on the property of others, from ungoverned passions, or from resistance to, and abuse of the administration of justice. The whole are therefore arranged under one or other of these three grand divisions.

The first division, DISHONESTY, is resolved into two sections: first, Cheating, which is procuring a willing surrender of another's goods by artful means.-Secondly, Stealing, which is taking another's goods against his will. The second division, UNGOVERNED PASSIONS, is also resolved into two sections: first, Lust; and secondly Malice. The third division, Offences AGAINST AND IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE, is also subdivided into two sections: first, Offences in legal proceedings; secondly, Offences affecting the Government.

In each class the lighter offences are placed first, the rest follow according to their weight, as nearly as circumstances will permit.

The development of the successive steps, which lead to the higher acts of criminality in each class, is an interesting subject of contemplation.


1st Division.-DISHONESTY.
Section 1st.-CHEATING.

Frauds of various kinds.

Withholding another's property.




Section 2nd.-STEALING.


Privately stealing.

Stealing with force, but without putting in fear.
Stealing with force, and putting in fear.

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Subornation of perjury.

Connivance at crimes..
Refusal of aid.

Illegal combination.

Accomplices, accessaries, and receivers.

Abuse of authority in public functionaries.

Crimes and offences against the exterior safety of the

Crimes and offences against the interior safety of the



Connivance at treason.

Crimes and offences by judiciary and administrative authorities against civic rights.



First Division.-DISHONESTY.

First Section.-CHEATING.

113. CHEATING is the procuring, or the attempt to procure the surrender of the property of another by a false pretence or dishonest contrivance, as in the following FRAUDS.

114. Gaining the possession of goods, under the promise, expressed or implied, of immediate payment, and absconding with such goods, or failing either to make such payment when demanded, or to return such goods if demanded. 115. A minor representing himself to be of age, and gaining possession of goods under such false pretence. 116. Receiving money to do a thing, and wilfully failing in the performance.

117. Representing a thing on sale, or for deposit on loan, to be the produce of a different place, or to be of a different material, manufacture, nature, or quality, to what it


Solitary imprisonment, i to

12 weeks.

Solitary im-
1 to 12 weeks.

Solitary impt.

1 to 12 weeks.

Solitary impt. 1 to 12 weeks.


really is, and procuring an excessive price, or loan, in consequence of such representation.

118. Artfully substituting in the delivery of goods, an article of inferior value to the thing bought.

119. Adulterating a commodity for sale, with an article of a different description, and inferior quality and value to what is denoted.

120. Adulterating a commodity, with an article of a different description to what is denoted, and which is also unwholesome.

121. Fabricating or uttering a false certificate of sickness or infirmity, to excuse the certified from the performance of a public duty.

122. Fabricating or uttering a false certificate of character or misfortunes, calculated to draw the benevolence of Government, or of individuals, toward the individual designated, whether the falsehood consist in the name of the certifier, or of the facts certified.

123. Fabricating or uttering a false certificate of a servant's character,

If, as to the character of the servant only: 124. If as to the name or character of the certifier, as well as to the conduct of the servant.

125. Procuring any of the foregoing false certificates to be made by gifts or promises.

126. Falsely pretending to have suffered a loss or misfortune, and procuring indemnity or charitable aid on such pre


127. Procuring contributions, gifts, or gratuities, for a charitable purpose, real or pretended, and diverting such donation from the destination intended by the giver to the use of the receiver.

128. Substituting one child for another, imposing a child upon the world, as the offspring of a woman who is not its mother.

129. Bribing a candidate in a race or exercise not to win.

130. Giving drugs, or causing impediments, to disqualify a candidate in a race or exercise from winning. 131. Playing with false dice or cards.

132. Selling goods by, or having in possession and apparently in use, false weights or measures.

133. Artfully using a name in such manner as to import that another person of a similar name is the person meant, and procuring property on the understanding so conveyed.


Solitary impt.

1 to 12 weeks.

Solitary impt.

1 to 12 weeks.

Solitary impt.

2 to 24 weeks.

Solitary impt. 4 to 24 weeks.

Solitary impt.

4 to 24 weeks.

Fine or impt. 1 to 6 weeks.

Solitary impt.

8 to 24 weeks.

Solitary impt.

8 to 24 weeks.

Solitary impt. 1 to 12 weeks.

Solitary impt.

4 to 12 weeks.

Solitary impt. 1 to 12 weeks.

Solitary impt,

1 to 12 weeks.

Solitary impt.

2 to 24 weeks. Solitary impt. 12 weeks.

Solitary impt

19 weeks.

Solitary impt.

4 to 12 weeks.

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